Volume II Issue XII

Consociational Power Sharing and Political Equality in Nigeria: What Role for Federal Character Principle?

Yahaya Yakubu – December 2018 Page No.: 01-05

The underlying literary endeavor set out to interrogate the practicality of consociational power-sharing agreement that abounds in Nigeria’s Federal Character Principle. The federal character Principle was instituted in tandem with aspirations of fostering political inclusion across federating units in contemporary Nigeria. Upon reviewing prior literature, the research is of the opinion that; the existing power-sharing agreement in Nigeria is found wanting, particularly so in its inability to attain central predetermined outcome of diffusing persisting regional dominance. Visibly, its inaptitude to foster equitable distribution of socio-economic infrastructure and high profile political offices depicts the inefficacies that underpin power-sharing accord in Nigeria. Evidently, empirical data shows appointment to high profile office remains particularly ethnocentric and nepotistic. In lieu, the study is of the view that; the need for constitutional amendment that accommodates fiscal restructuring as means to domesticating political involvement. This is thought to be so because the current federalist structure in place encourages the over-reaching concentration of power in the center, leaving regions almost at the mercy of the presidency in particular.

Page(s): 01-05                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 December 2018

 Yahaya Yakubu
Department of Political Science & Int’l Relations, Nile University of Nigeria

[1]. Mamdani, M. (1996) Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
[2]. Mehler, A. (2009). Peace and Power Sharing in Africa: A Not So Obvious Relationship. African Affairs, Vol. 108, No. 432, pp. 453-473.
[3]. Lijphart, A. (1969). Consociational Democracy. World Politics. Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 207-275.
[4]. Lipjhart, A. (2004). Constitutional Design for Divided Societies. Journal of Democracy. Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 96-109.
[5]. Lijphart, A. (2002). The Wave of Power-Sharing Democracy. In Andrew Reynolds, eds, The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[6]. Lijphart, A. (1984). Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in Twenty-One Countries. New Haven: Yale University Press.
[7]. Lijphart, A. (1977). Democracy in Plural Societies: a Comparative Exploration. New Haven: Yale University Press.
[8]. Lijphart, A. (1969). Consociational Democracy. World Politics, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 207-275
[9]. Ojo E. (2009). Federalism and the Search for National Integration. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, Vol. 2 (9), 384-395.
[10]. Okolo, P. O. (2014). Influence of the Federal Character Principle on National Integration in Nigeria. American International journal of Contemporary Research, 121-138
[11]. Verba, S. (2001). Political Equality: What is it? Why do we want it? Review Paper for Russell Sage Foundation.
[12]. Yahaya, T. B. (2017). Power Sharing and Implications for Democratic Governance in Nigeria: the Case of the National Assembly, Mediterranean journal of Social Science, Vol. 8, No. 4. Pp. 111-121.
[13]. Mehler, A. (2009). Peace and Power Sharing in Africa: a Not so Obvious Relationship. African Affairs, Vol. 108, No. 432, pp. 453-473.
[14]. Yahaya, Y. (2017). Ethnicity, Federal Character Principle and National Development in Nigeria: A Critical Evaluation. Journal of Nation Building and Policy Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1& 2. Pp. 7-23.
[15]. Cheeseman, N. (2011). The Internal Dynamics of Power Sharing in Africa. Democratization, Vol. 18, No. 12. Pp. 336-365.
[16]. Horowitz, L. D. (2014). Ethnic Power Sharing: three Big Problems, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 25, No. 2. Pp. 5-20.
[17]. Nasstrom, N. (2013). The Normative Power of Political Equality, In Political Equality in Transitional Democracy, eds, E. E. Ernest and Nasstrom, S. New York: Palgrave.
[18]. Berhi, I. (1999). Concepts and Categories, Edited by Henry Hardy. Princeton New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Yahaya Yakubu “Consociational Power Sharing and Political Equality in Nigeria: What Role for Federal Character Principle?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.01-05 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/01-05.pdf

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The Nexus between Social Media Expressions, Political Participation and Nation Building in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic

Yahaya Yakubu – December 2018 Page No.: 06-11

More than over half a century preceding the attainment of independence in Nigeria, the concept of nation building still dominates developmental, political and policy discourse in the polity. The ability of underlying ethnicities and nationalities to shun ethno-nationalism remains a near impossible task. However, the advent of social media and the growth of techno-culture revolutionised social cohesion. The high risk associated with political participant and its expensive nature has been replaced by a more cost effective and all encompassing medium. The study opines while the debate as to the existence of a correlation between social media expression and offline political participation is on-going. Social media has affected political apathy, fostered participation and created a homogenized platform for citizens. Further claiming that social media embodies the rudimental potential to set into motion an alternative process to nation building driven by techno-culture.

Page(s): 06-11                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 December 2018

 Yahaya Yakubu
Department of Political Science & Int’l Relations, Nile University of Nigeria

[1]. Abubakar, A. A. (2011). Political Participation and Discourse on Social Media, During the 2011 Presidential Electioneering, A Paper Presented at the ACCE, Covenant University, Ota, September 2011.
[2]. Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso Books.
[3]. Adeyanju, O and Haruna, B. (2011). Uses of SMS in Campaign: An Assesment of 2011 General Elections and Violence in Northern Nigeria in Des Wilso (ed), The Media, Terrorism and Political Communication in Nigeria, Uyo: ACCE.
[4]. Casteltrione, P. (2012). Design Consideration for Online Deliberation Systems, Journal of Information Technology and Politics, Vol. 9, No. 1, p. 97-115.
[5]. Chikendu, P. N. (2004). Imperialism and Nationalism, Enugu: Academic Publishing Company.
[6]. Graham, A. (2007). The Politics of Governing: A Comparative Introduction, Washington DC: CQ Press.
[7]. Gibson, R and Cantijoch, M. (2013). Conceptualizing and Measuring Participation in the Age of Internet. Is Online Political Engagement Really Different from Offline? The Journal of Politics, Vol. 75, No. 3, p. 701-716.
[8]. Harris, M. (2007). A Theory of Nation building: Assimilation and the Alternatives in South Eastern Europe, Presented at Conference on Civil Conflict and Political Violence, Harvard University, April 28th, 2007.
[9]. Jensen, J. L. (2013). Political Participation Online: The Replacement and the Mobilization Hypothesis Revisited Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 36, No. 4, p. 347-364.
[10]. Martin L, Jon D, Seth G, Ian G and Kieran, K. (2003). New Media: A Critical Introduction, New York: Routledge.
[11]. Mayfield, K. (2008). Is Blogging Innovation Journalism? Accessed April 30th, 2018, www.innovationjournalism.org
[12]. Nation, D. (2010). What is Social Media? Accessed April 30th, 2018, www.nigeriansabroad.com
[13]. Okoro, N and Kenneth, A. W. (2013). Social Media and Political Participation in Nigeria during the 2011 General Elections: Lapses and Lessons, Global Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 3, p. 29-46.
[14]. Ubaku, k. C, Ekeh, C, A and Anyikwa, C. K. (2014). Impact of Nationalism on the Attainment of Nigerian Independence, 1914-1960.
[15]. Udejinta, M. A. (2011). Social Media and Electioneering: A Comparative Analysis of Preseident Good Luck E. Jonathan and Muhammadu Buhari’s Facebook Content, Paper Presented at the ACCE, Covenant University, Ota, September, 2011.

Yahaya Yakubu ” The Nexus between Social Media Expressions, Political Participation and Nation Building in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.06-11 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/06-11.pdf

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Ground Reality of the Theory and Practices of the Concept of Democracy (A Theoretical Perspective)
Shantha Kumara Gamlath – December 2018 – Page No.: 12-26

I. INTRODUCTION
The term of Democracy is a most important as well as much more debatable concept in the Political Science discipline. As a concept it has accepted, as a determination to assess of the existing social back ground regarding to better space for the interaction of the human activities. As a concept, it has long time historical evaluation process under the influences of different Philosophical and socio political forces. Some time it has reflected as constructed idea by some one or period then have dominant at the society for their survival. It has defined several qualities on better social implications in term of politics which has identified as a one of the best measures on the better social environment for the citizens for their social life in the society. But it has some complexity to understand how democracy practices in the society in according to its original conceptual presentation which has delivered by the various theorists. As a concept it was reflected broad and concrete idea in term of liberal democratic vocabulary.

Page(s): 12-26                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 December 2018

 Shantha Kumara Gamlath
University of Sri Jayawaradnepura, Sri Lanka

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Shantha Kumara Gamlath “Ground Reality of the Theory and Practices of the Concept of Democracy (A Theoretical Perspective)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.12-26 December 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/12-26.pdf

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The Legality of Trial of Genocide, Crimes against humanity or War crimes in Bangladesh

Md. Johurul Islam – December 2018 Page No.: 27-32

The term Genocide is established as an international crime by the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide on December 9, 1948.The crimes committed in the Liberation war, 1971 by the perpetrators are no doubly Genocide. As a signatory state, Bangladesh has the obligation to try the offences. Bangladesh is also constitutionally bound to ensure the trial of war criminals. Bangladesh has already started the trial from 22 January, 2009 and already some of collaborators have got punishment facing the trial and the rest are going on process. So many legal questions are raised by the anti-trail supporters whether this trial is legally correct or not. They have tried to bar the trial process showing many legal defeats. Yes, there are so many problems ensuring this trial after forty years. But, as a Bangalee, as a Bangladeshi, everybody should be determined to complete this trial so that no question is raised in future.

Page(s): 27-32                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 December 2018

 Md. Johurul Islam
Lecturer, Department of Law, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Enayetpur, Sirajganj, Bangladesh

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[31]. Mofidul Haque, “Bangladesh 1971: A Forgotten Genocide”, Forum: A monthly publication of theDaily Star, Bangladesh, Volume 7, Issue 03, March 2013.

Md. Johurul Islam “The Legality of Trial of Genocide, Crimes against humanity or War crimes in Bangladesh” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.27-32 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/27-32.pdf

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The Relationship between Management Practices and Volunteer’s Retaining

S.Nurfarahin., W.M.Y. Bukhari, C.Azlini, M.Y. Kamal., R. Normala, Z.M. Lukman – December 2018 Page No.: 33-38

Numerous volunteer agencies, groups, and people are identified in volunteerism however it does not last long. Volunteers have an incredible and heavy responsibility if they serve below the aegis of the organization or institution, all rules and guidelines need to be respected and respect the privacy of certain parties, especially those that want to be protected. The connection between management practices and volunteer retention became not thoroughly examined through previous researchers leading to a lack of solutions that volunteer organizations may want to undertake. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze information and data on the connection and correlation among the management and retention practices of volunteers at the Global Peace Mission (GPM) of Malaysia. The Quantitative method becomes used to perform this study of GPM Malaysia where 110 volunteers have been registered as respondents to this study. The data acquired via this study would be analyzed in detail by using the descriptive method, Pearson Collaboration Relations, and Recreational variety. There’s a high relationship among management and retention for registered volunteers at GPM Malaysia. Via the findings of this study, management practices in volunteerism are a totally important element in retaining an individual in volunteerism. As such, appropriate management will enhance the retention of volunteers in an organization.

Page(s): 33-38                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 December 2018

 S.Nurfarahin.
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 W.M.Y. Bukhari
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 C.Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 M.Y. Kamal.
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 R. Normala.
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

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S.Nurfarahin., W.M.Y. Bukhari, C.Azlini, M.Y. Kamal., R. Normala, Z.M. Lukman “The Relationship between Management Practices and Volunteer’s Retaining” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.33-38 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/33-38.pdf

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Eyen mi nyamkkenyam, nnọ ke ndọ…’: Deconstructing Some Stereotypic Views on Marriage in Efik Culture

Emmanuel Orok Duke and Elizabeth Okon John – December 2018 Page No.: 39-44

Stereotypes within any society have consequences that are sometimes harmful and also affect targeted group of persons or ethnic group in a common way. One of the cultural stereotypes about Efik women is that they hardly believe in ‘…till death do us apart’ promised during monogamous marriage rite, that is, they walk out of marriage when conditions are unbearable. The misinterpretations of some exhortations given to the couples at Efik traditional marriage rite seem to support this claim. For example: ‘Eyen mi nyamkkenyam, nnọ ke ndọ; ebot ebot edi unyam. Mm’ ifonke mendiyak, abang okubomo ikim okuwaha utong’. This exhortation is translated as:‘I have not sold my child but given her to you in marriage; only goat is for sale. If she is no longer good for you bring her back. Let nothing malevolent happen to her.’ This implies that the life of one’s daughter is priced over marriage. One of the aims of this article is to investigate the context of this statement and how it has shaped people’s perception of marriage among the Efiks in Nigeria. In addition, this paper seeks to deconstruct some of the stereotypical views on Efik traditional marriage with regard to the female gender. Theories of Correspondent Inferences and Attribution in Social Psychology are used in understanding how women in Efik culture respond to marriage. Data from quantitative analysis of questionnaires and oral interviews threw more light on how cultural changes influence marriage institution among the Efiks. The findings of the research show that intermarriage, education, peer group influence, Western religious cultures, socio-economic conditions, etc., have necessitated the reconsideration of stereotypical views on marriage in Efik culture.

Page(s): 39-44                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 December 2018

 Emmanuel Orok Duke
Department of Religious and Cultural, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

 Elizabeth Okon John
Department of Religious and Cultural, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

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Emmanuel Orok Duke and Elizabeth Okon John “‘Eyen mi nyamkkenyam, nnọ ke ndọ…’: Deconstructing Some Stereotypic Views on Marriage in Efik Culture” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.39-44 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/39-44.pdf

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Online Shopping Behaviours on Apparel Products among University Students

M.N.Najihah, Z.M. Lukman, M.Y. Kamal, C. Azlini, R. Normala – December 2018 Page No.: 45-48

-Shopping for apparel products online is increasingly popular among Malaysians, especially university students. It is very easy, and consumer can save time since all transactions can be done online without going to the store. This facility is very suitable for students in order to get the products easily and quickly due to time constraints. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the online shopping behaviours on apparel products among students of University Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). This study uses descriptive method, which is the frequency and percentage statistics to fulfill the objectives of the study. The study aimed to identify the factors that encourage UniSZA students to purchase apparel products online and understand the behaviour of UniSZA students when purchasing apparel products using online system. The study was conducted at University Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), which is located in Kuala Nerus district, Terengganu. This study uses quantitative methods. Respondents in this study consist of students aged 18 to 26 years and above. This study involved 473 respondents, consisting of 121 male students and 352 female students. This study uses the research data collection methods. Based on the results obtained, the main factor that motivates students to purchase apparel products online is time-saving.

Page(s): 45-48                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 December 2018

 M.N.Najihah
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia

 C. Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia

[1]. Bhatnagar, A., Misra, S., & Rao, H.R. (2000). On Risk, Convenience, and Internet Shopping Behavior. Communications of The ACM (Association for Computing Machinery), 43(11): 98-105.
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M.N.Najihah, Z.M. Lukman, M.Y. Kamal, C. Azlini, R. Normala “Online Shopping Behaviours on Apparel Products among University Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.45-48 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/45-48.pdf

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Understanding and Assessing the Motivation Factors of University Students’ Involvement in Volunteerism

A.Faranadia, W.M.Y. Bukhari, M.Y. Kamal, R. Normala, Z.M. Lukman, & C. Azlini – December 2018 Page No.: 49-53

Volunteerism is one of the areas that is increasingly gaining attention in improving capabilities among students in Malaysia. Volunteering activity is such a noble work that able to give value to human development and improving social skills. Hence, it is crucial to this research to identify the factors of student involvement in volunteerism. Information were collected at a University Sultan Zainal Abidin among the members of student’s volunteer organization that involved 210 respondents. This study used quantitative method and all the information obtained were conducted through survey. The results showed that factor gaining a reward or honor found to be negatively related to volunteer and other factors were positive related to the volunteer. The Ministry of Higher Education should ensure that volunteering is always raised as a living culture amongst students and nurtured within them. Hence, it can be developed the soul to sympathy and courtesy, harmonize the community with concern and affection in the pursuit of sustainable community development.

Page(s): 49-53                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 December 2018

 A.Faranadia
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 W.M.Y. Bukhari
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 C. Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

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A.Faranadia, W.M.Y. Bukhari, M.Y. Kamal, R. Normala, Z.M. Lukman, & C. Azlini “Understanding and Assessing the Motivation Factors of University Students’ Involvement in Volunteerism” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.49-53 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/49-53.pdf

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The Perception among Secondary School Students towards Bully and Bully-Victim in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

M.N.Naimie, R. Normala, C.Azlini., M.Y. Kamal., Z.M. Lukman – December 2018 Page No.: 54-58

This research is an overview of the perception among secondary school students in Kuala Terengganu on bullying issues, covering the characteristic of bullies and victims. The research was involved in descriptive statistics and exploratory analysis. A total of 405 participants from secondary school students around the Kuala Terengganu area responded to the questionnaire. The research found that more male students were involved in bullying cases than female students. The research found that the characteristic of bullies included having problems in academic, family problems, smoking, and indiscipline, especially among senior students. The researchers also found that bullieswanted to show that they are powerful and domineering while emotionally torturing their victims. The characteristic of bully victims such shy, lonely and from a lower socio-economic background. It is hoped that these results can assist the authorities in improving the existing laws and more effective.

Page(s): 54-58                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 December 2018

 M.N.Naimie
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 C.Azlini.
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal.
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

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M.N.Naimie, R. Normala, C.Azlini., M.Y. Kamal., Z.M. Lukman “The Perception among Secondary School Students towards Bully and Bully-Victim in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.54-58 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/54-58.pdf

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The Factors of Cyber Bullying and the Effects on Cyber Victims

C.K.A. Mawardah, R. Normala, C.Azlini., M.Y. Kamal., Z.M. Lukman – December 2018 Page No.: 59-61

Cases concerning cyber-bullying are now rising in Malaysia. It often happens between students. However, kids and adults can also become victims of this crime. Cyber-bullying is a common problem worldwide and it happens almost in every nation in the world especially western countries. What is cyber-bullying? Cyber-bullying is an act where the doer proposes an information and action intentionally to hurt individual or group mentally. They do not specifically target any gender or age. This research focused on university students in Malaysia that are directly involved with cyberbully whether they are a victim or the doer. The objective of this research is to analyze the daily usage of the internet of students, and what kind of cyber bully that happens and what are the factors that encourage cyber bullies. The researcher used a descriptive style by using a questionnaire to scrutinize this cyberbullying problem. Based on the result, it shows that cyberbullying crime are rising between students, but the victims usually do not care much, and they chose not to take an action. This led to much more cyber-bullying personnel to be created as they thought that no one would ever take any action to them and they do not consider as a form of crime.

Page(s): 59-61                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 December 2018

 C.K.A. Mawardah
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 20300 Terengganu Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 20300 Terengganu Malaysia

 C.Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 20300 Terengganu Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 20300 Terengganu Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 20300 Terengganu Malaysia

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C.K.A. Mawardah, R. Normala, C.Azlini., M.Y. Kamal., Z.M. Lukman “The Factors of Cyber Bullying and the Effects on Cyber Victims” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.59-61 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/59-61.pdf

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Consumption of Caffeine and Sleeping Habit among University Students

M.N. Sakinah, M.Y. Kamal, Z.M Lukman., C.Azlini., R. Normala – December 2018 Page No.: 62-66

This study is intended to find out the relationship between the consumption of caffeine towards the changing in sleeping habit among university students.This study utilizes the quantitative method in a descriptive form where 311 samplings need to answer the questionnaire. The 311 samplings have consisted of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin students. The students involved representatives from three campuses which are Campus Gong Badak, Campus Besut, and City Campus. This study uses 18 items a questionnaire that is comprised of three parts namely the demographics of the respondent, the frequency of the caffeine consumption and sleeping pattern. Later, the collected data will be analyzed by using Exploration Analysis. Then, the researcher will transfer the data into the Excel spreadsheet for the transparency of the data and later will be analyzed.The result of this study shows that the consumption of caffeine drunk in the evening is the highest with 70.42% and causes 59.81% in the sleeping pattern disorder among the respondents. Furthermore, the results also indicate that completing the task with 96.46% is the main reason the students need to sleep late. Hence, the usage of caffeine drunk during nighttime will affect ones’ sleeping pattern.

Page(s): 62-66                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 December 2018

 M.N. Sakinah
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 21300 Terengganu Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 21300 Terengganu Malaysia

 Z.M Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 21300 Terengganu Malaysia

 C.Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 21300 Terengganu Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 21300 Terengganu Malaysia

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M.N. Sakinah, M.Y. Kamal, Z.M Lukman., C.Azlini., R. Normala “Consumption of Caffeine and Sleeping Habit among University Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.62-66 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/62-66.pdf

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Gender Differences in Body Mass Index, Underweight, Overweight and Obesity among University Students

K, Fatehah, M.Y. Kamal, Z.M. Lukman, R. Normala & C. Azlini – December 2018 Page No.: 67-69

Health is a major public issue where body mass index is a particularly important aspect in youth for a developing state like Terengganu, Malaysia. The body mass index or BMI can be used as an indicator for the health status of a population. The aim of the research is to identify the average BMI among university students in Terengganu by gender. Data are collected by 523 of respondents from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Students’ (UniSZA) consisting of 117 males and 406 females from July to August 2018 using questionnaires. The data is analyzed separately in this study among male and female respondents in the university. The results show that 12% of female respondents have been suffering from chronic energy deficiency, underweight range, or under nutrition and considered as a common phenomenon in Terengganu especially for the female population.

Page(s): 67-69                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 December 2018

 K, Fatehah
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 C. Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

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K, Fatehah, M.Y. Kamal, Z.M. Lukman, R. Normala & C. Azlini “Gender Differences in Body Mass Index, Underweight, Overweight and Obesity among University Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.67-69 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/67-69.pdf

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Job Security in Nigeria: The Policies and Laws VIS-À-VIS ILO Standard

ROBINSON MONDAY OLULU, UDEORAH, SYLVESTER ALOR F. – December 2018 Page No.: 70-77

The paper defines job security as the presumption or confidence index of the employees with respect to the protection of their employment within the work place. Job security therefore covers, right to work, right not to be unfairly dismissed, right to receive equal, fair and decent remuneration for work, right to participate in union activities, among others. The UDHR declaration, the ICESCR covenants on labour, the Labour Act, 2004, the Trade Union (Amendment) Act 2005 and relevant sections of the 1999 Constitution are applied in some parts of the paper. This research reveals that S. 45 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, which made labour rights unjusticiable, is not in accord with ILO labour practices. Also the practice of labour causualization has become a norm in the Nigerian labour industry; and that workers are indiscriminately sacked, on the flimsy excuses of right sizing, economic recession, etc. Against ILO stands, the Trade Union (Amendment) Acts 2005 empowers the employer to make deductions from the wages of workers who are members of the trade union. In addition the employers are given the latitude to decide when to make the remittance of the fund deducted. The paper concluded that the labour legal framework of Nigeria is not near half of the protective safeguard of the rights of workers, provided by the International Labour Organization (ILO). There is need therefore to review the Nation’s labour laws to move away farther from the common law principles towards modern provisions and international labour best practices.

Page(s): 70-77                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 December 2018

 ROBINSON MONDAY OLULU
Ph.D, Department of Economics, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 UDEORAH, SYLVESTER ALOR F.
Ph.D, Department of Economics, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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[5]. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (1999), As Amended.
[6]. Emeka, W.D. (2013). MacDonalddization and job security: An exploration of the Nigerian banking industry. Sage Open .
[7]. Fapohunda,T.M. (2012). Employment casualization and deregulation work in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(9).
[8]. International Labour Organization (ILO). Job security index: Information <www.ilo.org/sesame-SESHELP.Note.JSI>.
[9]. Job Security Index Financial: Definition of job security index
[10]. Ogugua, V.C.I. (2015). Non-justiciability of chapter II of the Nigerian Constitution as an impediment to economic rights and development. ISTE Journal, 5(8). www.iste.org/journal.
[11]. Okeke, G.N. and Okeke, C. (2013). The justiciability of the non-justiciable constitutional policy of governance in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 7(6).
[12]. Okene, O.V.C. (2012). Labour law in Nigeria: The law of work, Third Ed. London: Claxton and Derrick Publications.
[13]. Philip, F. (2015). Job security as human right: Prospects and challenges. Journal of Contemporary Legal and Allied Issues: Life Juris Review.
[14]. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 1948.
[15]. Worugi, I.NE. (1999). Introduction to individual employment law in Nigeria (1st Ed.). Nigeria: Adorable Press.

ROBINSON MONDAY OLULU, UDEORAH, SYLVESTER ALOR F. “Job Security in Nigeria: The Policies and Laws VIS-À-VIS ILO Standard ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.70-77 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/70-77.pdf

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Attitude of Fish Farmers towards Communication Media in Receiving Technological Information

Md. Suzan Khan, Md. Hammadur Rahman – December 2018 Page No.: 78-81

This paper seeks to find out the fish farmers attitude towards communication media in receiving technological information. Ten types of communication media (ICT, print and electronic media) and facilities were considered for the study. Data were obtained from a random sample of 120 farmers. The study was conducted in Kalihati upazila of Tangail district of Bangladesh during September to October, 2015. A pre-tested interview schedule was used for collection of data. Appropriate scales were developed and used in order to measure the concerned variables. Majority (65.83%) of the farmers were found to favorable attitude towards communication media. Rests of all (34.17%) were found to unfavorable attitude towards communication media in receiving technological information. Fish farmers’ characteristics such as education, farm size, pond size, Organizational participation, Cosmopoliteness and use of mass media correlated positively with the attitude towards communication media while age, family size and annual family income had no significant relationship with attitude towards communication media. The findings of the present study could be useful for fisheries extension policy makers and fisheries extensionists.

Page(s): 78-81                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 December 2018

 Md. Suzan Khan
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

 Md. Hammadur Rahman
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

[1]. Sharmin, F. (2013). Use of Communication Media by the Fish Farmers in Commercial Fish Culture (master’s thesis).Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
[2]. Islam, M. R. (2009). MatshasampodBaboshthapona o UnnayanKoushal. In: JatioMatshaSaptaho (Editor: M.A. Khaleque). MatshaAdhidaptor, Ministry of Fisheries andLivestock.Govt. of Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh.
[3]. Akhter, S. (2011). Information Sources Used by the Farmers in Small Scale Pond-Fish Culture (unpublished master’s thesis). Department of Agricultural ExtensionEducation, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
[4]. Barman, K. S. (2009). Use of Mobile Phone by the Farmers in Receiving AgriculturalInformation from the Input Dealers (unpublished master’s thesis).Department ofAgricultural Extension Education, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh,Bangladesh.
[5]. Hossain, M. K. (2010). Use of Communication Media by the Farmers in Practicing Rice-Cum-Fish Culture (unpublished master’s thesis).Department of AgriculturalExtension Education, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
[6]. Chowdhury, A.A., Uddin, M.S., Vaumik, S. & Asif, A.A. (2015). Aqua drugs and chemicals used in aquaculture of Zakigonj upazilla, Sylhet. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 1 (2), 336-349.
[7]. DoF. (2016). Fisheries Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, Department of Fisheries,Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Government of Peoples Republic ofBangladesh, Ramna, Dhaka.
[8]. Palaiah, R.K., Bharatesh, S.M., Dechamma, S. & Deveraj, K. (2016). Attitude of farmers about use of ICT tools in farm Communication. Paper presented at 21st International Academic Conference, held in Miami, India, on 09 February 2016.
[9]. Hosen, M.S. & Rahman, M.H. (2013). Attitude of Extreme Poor Rural Women towards NGOs in Sreebordi Upazila of Sherpur District. Bangladesh Journal of Extension Education 25(1&2): 63-69.

Md. Suzan Khan, Md. Hammadur Rahman “Attitude of Fish Farmers towards Communication Media in Receiving Technological Information” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.78-81 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/78-81.pdf

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Nigeria’s Development Tragedy: The Role of the State, Federalism and Politics of Budget Process

Ukachikara, Ucheoma O., Asoka, Godknows – December 2018 Page No.: 82-93

The literature is replete with studies on the development conundrum of Nigeria. In the same way, cacophonies of the poverty level in the country have continued to reverberate with much resonance. Majority of Nigeria’s population still flounders in strangling poverty despite being Africa’s most populous nation; Africa’s biggest producer of crude oil; OPEC’s 5th and world’s 13th largest producer of crude oil; world’s 7th and Africa’s biggest gas reserve, all indicative of great development potentials. Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product has continued to grow almost at the same rate as its poverty and underdevelopment. In the latest United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranking, Nigeria was placed 152nd among 188 countries studied, making her one of the few countries within the very low human development category. Another recent survey was also corroborated by the British Prime Minister that Nigeria has the highest number of poor people in the world. These findings came at such times the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) claimed that Nigeria’s economic growth and inflation reduction have been consistent thereby ruling out the position that Nigeria’s development problems may be as a result of poor economic performance. This paper therefore attempted an interrogation of the nature of the state, form of federalism, and politics of budget process in Nigeria with a view to ascertaining their roles in the underdevelopment of Nigeria. The Marxian Political Economy theory was adopted for the inquiry. Data was secondarily sourced from available documents which included journals, articles and textbooks. The data elicited were analysed by the Content Analysis method. It was found that the character of the post-colonial state, the form of federalism and politics of the budget process in Nigeria are three interconnected and interdependent factors responsible for the development of underdevelopment in Nigeria, since independence, evidenced by the types of formal and informal budget practices in Nigeria which can only thrive in a “unitary” federal system that resulted from the deformed capitalist Nigerian state. It was therefore recommended that the government at the centre be constitutionally made unattractive in order for debates on the implementation of true federalism in Nigeria to be heard on their merits.

Page(s): 82-93                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 December 2018

 Ukachikara, Ucheoma O.
Department of Political & Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Asoka, Godknows
Department of Political & Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Ukachikara, Ucheoma O., Asoka, Godknows “Nigeria’s Development Tragedy: The Role of the State, Federalism and Politics of Budget Process” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.82-93 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/82-93.pdf

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The Impact of Working Capital Management on Financial Performance of Supermarkets in Arusha City – Tanzania

Baraka P Mtani & Dr. Ndalahwa Musa Masanja – December 2018 Page No.: 94-101

Management of working capital is a crucial function of any business undertaking, supermarkets included. By the reason of its significance, this study investigated the impact of working capital management on financial performance of supermarkets in Arusha city. The study employed a co relational research design, where data was collected by using the questionnaire from 10 supermarkets which were in operation during the time of carrying out this study from January to October 2018. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A t-test, ANOVA, correlation and regression techniques were used to examine the relationships between working capital management and financial performance. Specific objectives were: to determine the kind of policies and strategies of managing working capital employed by supermarkets, to investigate the relationship between current assets and financial performance of supermarkets, to determine the relationship between current liabilities and financial performance of supermarkets and to find out how well average collection period, average payables period, and cash conversion cycle predicted financial performance of supermarkets in Arusha city.
The study findings revealed that the dominant policy for managing working capital of supermarkets in Arusha city was the conservative policy. Financial performance responded to changes in current assets at a weak negative impact of 20.4%. On the other hand, there was a positive impact of 44% on the relationship between financial performance and current liabilities. Working capital components like average collection period, average payables period and cash conversion cycle were not the best predictors of the variations in the financial performance of supermarkets in Arusha city since the R2 was around 16%. Hence there was little justification that working capital had an impact on financial performance. It was recommended that supermarkets should consider other policies like aggressive policy not just relying on conservative policy. Future studies should be done to investigate the impact of working capital management on financial performance basing on actual financial data, where by the regression model would include current liabilities and current assets among other independent variables as components of working capital.

Page(s): 94-101                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 December 2018

 Baraka P Mtani
MBA, University of Arusha, Tanzania

 Dr. Ndalahwa Musa Masanja
PhD., University of Arusha, Tanzania

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Baraka P Mtani & Dr. Ndalahwa Musa Masanja “The Impact of Working Capital Management on Financial Performance of Supermarkets in Arusha City – Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.94-101 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/94-101.pdf

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Factor Affecting the Prevalence of Non-ideal Body Mass Index (BMI) among Female University Student

C. A. Nor Azmira, C.Azlini, M.Y. Kamal, R. Normala, Z.M. Lukman – December 2018 Page No.: 102-107

Objective.Non-ideal Body Mass Index (BMI) has increased around the world where they have been described as an epidemic, causing great concern among the health professional and researchers. This study aims to identify factors that affecting the prevalence of non-ideal body mass index (BMI) among female students. A total of 336 female students in Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) have been involved in this research. The researcher was using a descriptive analysis to identify the factors that affecting to non-ideal BMI. Results.There are four major factors to be considered in the study of which are environmental factors, genetic factors, dietary factors, and physical lifestyle.About 68.82 percent of physical lifestyle was the most contributed factor compared to other factors. The majority of respondents had never performed any physical activity which was heavy in a week of 79.46 percent while for engaging in moderate physical activity 74.11 percent of the respondents only performed this activity once in a week.In addition, sitting too long also contributed to non-ideal BMI problems where 59.22 percent of respondents seated for more than seven hours a day. For spending a lot of time on the computer, the 62.50 percent of respondents spent a lot of time onthe computer for e-mail, video games, video, and social media (eg. facebook, twitter, Instagram, wechat etc.) in a relatively long period of 4-6 hours a day. Conclusion.All of these factors contributed affecting the prevalence of non-ideal BMI problem. Therefore, treatment and prevention should be done immediately so that the problem can be reduced from time to time.

Page(s): 102-107                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 December 2018

 C. A. Nor Azmira
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 C.Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

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C. A. Nor Azmira, C.Azlini, M.Y. Kamal, R. Normala, Z.M. Lukman “Factor Affecting the Prevalence of Non-ideal Body Mass Index (BMI) among Female University Student” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.102-107 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/102-107.pdf

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Internet Addiction among Secondary School Students in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia

H. Nadhirah, R. Normala, Z.M. Lukman, C. Azlini, M.Y. Kamal – December 2018 Page No.: 108-114

This present study aims to identify the level of Internet Addiction (IA) on the behavior of secondary school students in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Internet usage is growing over time and as a result of its excessive use could lead to an addiction.A survey is conducted in Kota Bharu, Kelantan engaging respondents in a total of 422 secondary school students in the age range from 13 to 19 years old in answering the questionnaire provided related to this research. The level of Internet addiction is assessed by the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). The researchers chosea quantitative research method and results were analyzed by descriptive analysis. The results indicated, only 2.0% of respondents had experienced the high level of Internet addiction whereas the majority of respondents possess a low level of Internet addiction with a percentage of 64.0%. Responsible authorities must insert labor efforts in ensuring parents, teachers and adolescents are conscious about the alarming perils of IA. This study is expected to assist future research and current efforts to combat IA among secondary school students.

Page(s): 108-114                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 December 2018

 H. Nadhirah
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 C. Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

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H. Nadhirah, R. Normala, Z.M. Lukman, C. Azlini, M.Y. Kamal “Internet Addiction among Secondary School Students in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.108-114 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/108-114.pdf

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Misperception and Attitude of Society against Pornography

R. Fathin, R. Normala, Z.M. Lukman, C. Azlini, M.Y. Kamal – December 2018 Page No.: 115-118

Pornography and other sexually explicit materials are controversial issues and emotional topics to be conducted asa research study in Malaysian society. This research study aims to identify the misperception about pornography and attitude of society(age of 17 to 45 years old) against pornography. The data was collected through questionnaire. However, a persistent problem in conducting the survey was to obtain legitimate answers for sensitive questions. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics was reported as frequency and percentage to determine the perception of Malaysian society and their attitude against pornography. 505 people took part in this research but the number of respondents who answered the questionnaire correctly is approximately 325 people and consists of both men and women. The results show that there is still misperception among the society against pornography. They feel that watching pornography is a good thing. Based on the results, everyone should play their role in spreading the negative effects of watching pornography. In addition, parents should monitor their children whenever they access the internet using any device.

Page(s): 115-118                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 December 2018

 R. Fathin
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 C. Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

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[17]. Træen, B., Spitznogle, K., & Beverfjord, A. (2004). Attitudes and use of pornography in the Norwegian population 2002. Journal of Sex Research, 41(2), 193–200.
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R. Fathin, R. Normala, Z.M. Lukman, C. Azlini, M.Y. Kamal “Misperception and Attitude of Society against Pornography” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.115-118 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/115-118.pdf

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Internet Addiction among Secondary School Students in Pasir Mas, Kelantan, Malaysia

H. Hanisshya, Z.M. Lukman, R. Normala, C. Azlini, M.Y. Kamal – December 2018 Page No.: 119-123

Internet usage which proliferated rapidly has made the millennials, especially students, become more addicted to it. This is a perturbative topic that needed to be tackled. Hence, a study is conducted involving secondary school students in Pasir Mas, Kelantan in order to observe the level of internet dependency among them. A total of 352 students from the age of 13 until 19 years old are selected as respondents. This study uses descriptive analysis by reporting the results of the study in the form of frequency and percentage to determine the level of internet dependency among local students. The research instrument in the form of an Internet Addiction Test questionnaire is modified by a researcher from the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and is used to obtain an internet addiction score. The results showed that 352 students had experienced internet addiction, but at different levels. The moderate level of internet addiction is recorded at 72 percent and only 4 percent of students had experienced high internet addiction. Therefore, the problem of internet addiction cannot be remaining open and hanging because, in the long run, it is possible for students in Pasir Mas to experience a high level of addiction, thereby negatively affecting themselves. Therefore, researchers believe that it is the responsibility of all parties to ensure that the usage of the internet will not reach up to the addictive level. It should be scrutinized intricately to ensure that internet usage is more towards the positive side and not the other way around.

Page(s): 119-123                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 December 2018

 H. Hanisshya
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 C. Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

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H. Hanisshya, Z.M. Lukman, R. Normala, C. Azlini, M.Y. Kamal “Internet Addiction among Secondary School Students in Pasir Mas, Kelantan, Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.119-123 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/119-123.pdf

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The Nigerian State and the Dialectics of Anti-Corruption Crusade in Nigeria (1999-2017)

Emmanuel C. OJUKWU, Nzube A CHUKWUMA – December 2018 Page No.: 124-132

Over the years Corruption has been identified by many as a major cankerworm bedevilling the Nigerian polity. This study interrogates the Nigerian state and its institutional attempts at curbing corruption over the years. Despite the creation of new institutionally specialized apparatus particularly the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC) and Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) during the Obasanjo’s administration, there is little or no indication that corruption and corrupt practices are on the decline in Nigeria. In fact, there is an increased tempo of corrupt activities. Why is this case? To tackle this, the study hypothesizes, first, that the anti-corruption crusade in Nigeria is not new and largely predicted on the wealth-mine character of the state in Nigeria. Secondly, the predatory texture of subsisting anti-corruption crusade in Nigeria has a dysfunctional instrument and analyzed using the case study analytic technique. Among others, the study found that while the ‘brazen attempts’ and use of anti-corruption jingle continue, corrupt practices have not only persisted but has grown enormously in variety and magnitude. We also found out that within the period under study, the principal anti-graft agencies in Nigeria appear eminently ad-hoc as well as suffer a crisis of legitimacy and institutional instability. Taking cognizance of these, the study recommends a total overhaul of the entire anti-corruption architecture in Nigeria. Very importantly, two regular government agencies – the police and tax authorities – need to be purpose re-engineered for the capacity and capability to deal with anti-corruption matters in a more civil, systematic and functional manner.

Page(s): 124-132                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 December 2018

 Emmanuel C. OJUKWU
Department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Nzube A CHUKWUMA
Department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

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Emmanuel C. OJUKWU, Nzube A CHUKWUMA “The Nigerian State and the Dialectics of Anti-Corruption Crusade in Nigeria (1999-2017)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.124-132 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/124-132.pdf

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Psychological Well-Being among University Students in Malaysia

M. N. Shahira , H. Hanisshya, Z.M. Lukman, R. Normala, C. Azlini, M.Y. Kamal – December 2018 Page No.: 133-137

¬Unexceptionally for university students, the occurrences of psychological distress are believed to be higher for them to encounter. There has been an increaseamong theinternationalpublic concerning the mental health and the impact of unidentified and untreated mental illness among university students.Theaim of this study is to identify the level of psychological well-being of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) students.Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were used for data collection together with the socio-demographic questionnaire. Data were collected from 443 UniSZA students. This study used descriptive analysis to obtain accurate results. The findings of this study showed that depression, anxiety, and stress found among UniSZA students were 42.2%, 73.7%, and 34.8% respectively. Findings revealed that students who faced psychological distress level possessed relatively hightendency for depression, stress, and anxiety.Psychological distress poses negative impacts on the physical, mental and academic. What is more worrying is that students who faced this kind of problem do not seek help or treatment because of the public stigma against mental illness.

Page(s): 133-137                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 December 2018

 M. N. Shahira
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 H. Hanisshya
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 C. Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

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M. N. Shahira , H. Hanisshya, Z.M. Lukman, R. Normala, C. Azlini, M.Y. Kamal “Psychological Well-Being among University Students in Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.133-137 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/133-137.pdf

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Fast Food Consumption Behavior among University Students

I.N. Syafiqah, R. Normala, C. Azlini, Z.M. Lukman, M.Y. Kamal – December 2018 Page No.: 138-141

This paper reports on the study that addressed the issue of ultimate fast food consumption behavior among students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). Fast food intake is a common tendency nowadays as its popularity has becoming a thing among Malaysians. Many fast food restaurant chainshave grown rapidly following the high demand from the society in fulfilling the need for today’s community lifestyle. A total of three hundred and twenty respondents are involved in this study. This study uses descriptive analysis to determine fast food consumption behavior of the respondents and the findings showed that the majority of respondents who consumed fast food are 77.5% female students compared to 22.5% male students. The behavior of fast food ingestion is also influenced by a moderate price factor for about 72%. This suggests that 93% of the respondents are very fond of eating fast food. Additionally, there are only 5% of the respondents who bothered to check the nutrition labels before purchasing fast food. The results also illustrate that the majority of respondents, rated as high as 99%, often consume fast food as frequent as 1-5 times a week.

Page(s): 138-141                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 December 2018

 I.N. Syafiqah
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 C. Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia.

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[6]. Blay-PalmerA. (2016). Imagining sustainable food systems. In Imagining sustainable food systems (pp. 15-28). Routledge.
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[20]. Cotti C, Tefft N. (2013). Fast food prices, obesity, and the minimum wage. Economics & Human Biology, 11(2), 134-147.

I.N. Syafiqah, R. Normala, C. Azlini, Z.M. Lukman, M.Y. Kamal “Fast Food Consumption Behavior among University Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.138-141 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/138-141.pdf

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Measuring Satisfaction of the Elderly People with Healthcare in Bangladesh

JM Abdullah – December 2018 Page No.: 142-147

Applying both the qualitative and quantitative analytical approach this study tries to measure satisfaction of the elderly people with health services.Mainly primary data collected through survey, focus group discussions and interview with key informants is used for the research. Weighted average values of satisfaction show that elderly people living in rural and semi-urban areas are satisfied with minor variance and statistical tests find no significant difference between the areas. Gender segregated analysis also depict similar scenario with little variance. In-depth discussions show some contrast. Healthcare system in the country has its limitations to deliver services to the elderly. Despite shortages in service delivery they are satisfied with majority of the indicators which is due to their low sense of entitlement of healthcare.

Page(s): 142-147                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 December 2018

 JM Abdullah
Department of Public Administration, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh.

[1]. Abdullah, J. M., Ahmad, M. M., & Saqib, S. E. (2018). Understanding accessibility to healthcare for elderly people in Bangladesh. Development in Practice, 28(4), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2011.628301
[2]. Andaleeb, S. S., Nazlee, S., & Shahjahan, K. (2007). Patient satisfaction with health services in Bangladesh. Health Policy and Planning, 22(4), 263–273. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czm017
[3]. Aziz, M. (2015, March 15). Seeking help abroad: the rising trend of overseas healthcare. Retrieved 4 April 2018, from http://www.thedailystar.net/seeking-help-abroad-40605
[4]. Director General of Health Services. (2015). Health Bulletin 2015. Dhaka.
[5]. Gill, L., & White, L. (2009). A critical review of patient satisfaction. Leadership in Health Services, 22(1), 8–19. https://doi.org/10.1108/17511870910927994
[6]. Hadley, M. B., & Roques, A. (2007). Nursing in Bangladesh: Rhetoric and reality. Social Science & Medicine, 64(6), 1153–1156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.06.032
[7]. Heidegger, T., Saal, D., & Nuebling, M. (2006). Patient satisfaction with anaesthesia care: What is patient satisfaction, how should it be measured, and what is the evidence for assuring high patient satisfaction? Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology, 20(2), 331–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BPA.2005.10.010
[8]. Hinshaw, A. S., & Atwood, J. R. (1982). A Patient Satisfaction Instrument: precision by replication. Nursing Research, 31(3), 170–175. https://doi.org/dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006199-198205000-00011
[9]. Islam, M. N., & Nath, D. C. (2012). A Future Journey to the Elderly Support in Bangladesh. Journal of Anthropology, 2012, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/752521
[10]. Jahan, R. A. (2006). Promoting health literacy : a case study in the prevention of diarrhoeal disease from Bangladesh. Health Promotion International, 15(4), 285–292. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/15.4.285
[11]. Ross, C. E., & Wu, C. (1995). The Links Between Education and Health. American Sociological Review, 60(5), 719–745.
[12]. Siddiqui, N., & Khandaker, S. A. (2007). Comparison of Services of Public , Private and Foreign Hospitals from the Perspective of Bangladeshi Patients. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 25(2), 221–230.
[13]. The World Bank. (2016). Rural pouplation (% of total population). Retrieved 5 April 2018, from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS?view=chart
[14]. United Nations, D. of E. and S. A. P. D. (2017). World Population Prospect. Retrieved 4 April 2018, from https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/DataQuery/
[15]. Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis (2nd Ed). New York: Harper and Row.

JM Abdullah “Measuring Satisfaction of the Elderly People with Healthcare in Bangladesh” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.142-147 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/142-147.pdf

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Will the Christians Balance; Exploring the Socio-Economic Collaboration within the House of Faith

Rev. Dr. Manya Wandefu Stephen – December 2018 Page No.: 148-152

Collaboration of Churches among themselves is an expression of adherence and response to the truths shared in the Bible. This paper aims to encourage all the parties living and working particularly in the urban Church to consider the outcome of their ministry in an economically divided society. The disparity between the urban rich Church and the poor Church is a representative of the actual life in the Christendom. It is important to have an urban Church that is conscious of the gap between the rich and the poor and the subsequent action influenced by the realization that the gap is a denial of the Theology of the Kingdom of God. The writing of this paper was informed by the widening gap between the rich and the poor Churches within the house hold of faith. convinced that out there, there is less interaction between the rich and the poor churches. The poor church had limited access to resources for economic development. I would therefore suggest that; rich churches need to strategically engage the poor churches to prompt collaborative measures. Poor churches on the other hand, must seek ways in which to work with their rich counterparts for the furtherance of the Kingdom of God.

Page(s): 148-152                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 December 2018

 Rev. Dr. Manya Wandefu Stephen
Alupe University College, Kenya

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[20]. Annan, Kofi. http://www.solcomhouse.com/poverty.htm Accessed on 27th July 2012.
[21]. http:// www.pen.org.za/pics/Christian_Witness_UrbanPoor.htm Accessed on 16th July 2018

Rev. Dr. Manya Wandefu Stephen “Will the Christians Balance; Exploring the Socio-Economic Collaboration within the House of Faith” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.148-152 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/148-152.pdf

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Risky Framing and Gender Effects on Security Decision Choices among a Nigerian Sample

Larry O. Awo, Philip C. Mefoh, Sampson K. Nwonyi, Igbere N. Billy – December 2018 Page No.: 153-158

Efforts to proffer lasting solutions to security challenges have in most cases not yielded the expected results. Through a 2×2 factorial design, the current study examined risky framing and gender effects on security decision choices among 120 (60 male, 60 female) University of Nigeria, Nsukka students. Their ages ranged from 16-29 years (M = 20.35 years, SD = 2.85 years). Framing was varied into positive and negative framing conditions and measured with the tackling insecurity in Nigeria, while gender was categorized into male and female students. The security strategy decision inventory was used to measure security decision choices. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) result revealed a significant main effect of framing on security decision choices, F (1, 112) = 97.80, p <.001, and an interaction of framing and gender significantly affected security decision choices, F (1,112) = 7.58, p < .01. The implications and limitations of these findings were discussed and suggestions were made for future studies.

Page(s): 153-158                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 December 2018

 Larry O. Awo
General Studies Unit, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas, Bonny Island, Nigeria.

 Philip C. Mefoh
Department of Psychology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Sampson K. Nwonyi
Department of Psychology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

 Igbere N. Billy
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas, Bonny Island, Nigeria

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[22]. Mintz, A., Redd, S., B., & Vedlitz, A. (2006). Can we generalize from students experiment to the real world in political science, military affairs, and international relations? Journal of Conflict Resolution, 50, 575-776.
[23]. Olaniyan, O. D. (2015). Effects of Boko Haram insurgency on the Nigerian education system. Journal of Research Development, 24, 1-9.
[24]. Reiter, K. K. (2013). Gender differences in decision making when faced with multiple options. Poster presented at the scholarship and creativity day, Saint John’s University College: Minnesota Press.
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Larry O. Awo, Philip C. Mefoh, Sampson K. Nwonyi, Igbere N. Billy “Risky Framing and Gender Effects on Security Decision Choices among a Nigerian Sample” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.153-158 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/153-158.pdf

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Cell Based Strategy as a Viable Method for Church Growth

Rev. Dr. Manya Wandefu Stephen – December 2018 Page No.: 159-163

I. INTRODUCTION
The term “cell” is used because it is a basic building block and part of the larger whole i.e. the local church. Thus, a cell group is part and parcel of the church congregation; however it is incomplete by itself.Cell groups are frequently intended to grow by way of members bringing along friends who may start attending regularly and become part of the group at some point (Cho, 1997). When the group has grown too large, it splits to form two separate and smaller groups. The reason for the small size is that it is designed to promote relationship and discussion.
The phenomenon of cell groups is based upon the perception that the New Testament church in the book of Acts did not meet in formal structures or buildings like the synagogues of the Jews but in houses or homes of its converts. For example, in his letter to the Corinthians (1Cor:16:19), St. Paul addresses the church in the home of Aquila and Priscilla, and also greets the church as a whole (1Cor:1:2). Acts: 2:46 states that from earliest times, the believers met both in homes and in the temple. Thus, the church benefited from the larger church and from the small groups where many new believers were added daily.

Page(s): 159-163                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 December 2018

 Rev. Dr. Manya Wandefu Stephen
Alupe University College, Kenya

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Rev. Dr. Manya Wandefu Stephen “Cell Based Strategy as a Viable Method for Church Growth” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.159-163 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/159-163.pdf

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African Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA) and Its Implications for Nigeria: A Policy Perspective

Adamu Jibrilla – December 2018 Page No.: 164-172

The establishment of the African Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA) has generated many controversies across the globe as Nigeria- the giant of Africa and the largest economy in the continent declined to join. The reason was that Nigeria needed more time for consultations. This study is an attempt to help the government and policy makers in their search for answers regarding joining the CFTA. It is also essential for other African countries government’s leaders who are still waiting for objective answers. Using secondary data from Central Bank of Nigeria, this study discovers that Nigeria can well fit into the Free Trade Area. In fact, Nigeria has the opportunity to benefit from the Free Trade Area more than any other country in the continent. The benefits can be maximised if Nigeria improves its infrastructures, develop human capital, empower youths and women, develop agricultural sector, encourage value addition, attract quality foreign direct investment, design and implement policies that will allow easy access to finance by investors and above all, tackle the insecurity situation in the country.

Page(s): 164-172                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 December 2018

 Adamu Jibrilla
Department of Economics, Adamawa State University Mubi, Nigeria
Ph.D Student, Department of Economics, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

[1]. African Union Foundation (2018), African Continental Free Trade Area: Available at http://aufoundation.africa/2018/03/20/africas-continental-free-trade-area-cfta/
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[4]. Cenbank.gov.ng. (2015). Central Bank of Nigeria | CBN Annual Report and Statement of Accounts. [online] Available at: https://www.cenbank.gov.ng/Documents/cbnannualreports.asp [Accessed 7 Aug. 2018].
[5]. Cenbank.gov.ng. (2014). Central Bank of Nigeria | CBN Annual Report and Statement of Accounts. [online] Available at: https://www.cenbank.gov.ng/Documents/cbnannualreports.asp [Accessed 8 Aug. 2018].
[6]. Cenbank.gov.ng. (2013). Central Bank of Nigeria | CBN Annual Report and Statement of Accounts. [online] Available at: https://www.cenbank.gov.ng/Documents/cbnannualreports.asp [Accessed 21 Aug. 2018].
[7]. Cenbank.gov.ng. (2012). Central Bank of Nigeria | CBN Annual Report and Statement of Accounts. [online] Available at: https://www.cenbank.gov.ng/Documents/cbnannualreports.asp [Accessed 2 Aug. 2018].
[8]. Cenbank.gov.ng. (2011). Central Bank of Nigeria | CBN Annual Report and Statement of Accounts. [online] Available at: https://www.cenbank.gov.ng/Documents/cbnannualreports.asp [Accessed 12 Aug. 2018].
[9]. Cenbank.gov.ng. (2010). Central Bank of Nigeria | CBN Annual Report and Statement of Accounts. [online] Available at: https://www.cenbank.gov.ng/Documents/cbnannualreports.asp [Accessed 10 Aug. 2018].
[10]. Cenbank.gov.ng. (2009). Central Bank of Nigeria | CBN Annual Report and Statement of Accounts. [online] Available at: https://www.cenbank.gov.ng/Documents/cbnannualreports.asp [Accessed 2 Aug. 2018].
[11]. Cenbank.gov.ng. (2008). Central Bank of Nigeria | CBN Annual Report and Statement of Accounts. [online] Available at: https://www.cenbank.gov.ng/Documents/cbnannualreports.asp [Accessed 3 Aug. 2018].
[12]. Cenbank.gov.ng. (2007). Central Bank of Nigeria | CBN Annual Report and Statement of Accounts. [online] Available at: https://www.cenbank.gov.ng/Documents/cbnannualreports.asp [Accessed 9 Aug. 2018].
[13]. Cenbank.gov.ng. (2006). Central Bank of Nigeria | CBN Annual Report and Statement of Accounts. [online] Available at: https://www.cenbank.gov.ng/Documents/cbnannualreports.asp [Accessed 5 Aug. 2018].
[14]. Data.un.org. (2018). UNdata. [online] Available at: http://data.un.org/ [Accessed 1 Mar. 2016].
[15]. Hosny, A. S. (2013). Theories of economic integration: a survey of the economic and political literature. International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences, 2(5), 133-155.
[16]. Lin, J. Y. (2012). New structural economics: A framework for rethinking development and policy. The World Bank.
[17]. Marinov, E. (2018). Economic Integration Theories and the Developing Countries – Munich Personal RePEc Archive. [online]Mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de. Available at: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/63310/ [Accessed 3 Oct. 2018].
[18]. Ubi, N. E. (2018). Nigeria’s abstention from the CFTA Agreement was no mistake. [online] Financial Nigeria International Limited. Available at: http://www.financialnigeria.com/nigeria-s-abstention-from-the- cfta-agreement-was- no-mistake-blog-347.html [Accessed 2 Sep. 2018].
[19]. Wandrei, K. (2018). Advantages & Disadvantages of Regional Integration | Synonym. [online] Classroom.synonym.com. Available at: https://classroom.synonym.com/advantages-disadvantages-of-regional-integration-12083667.html [Accessed 3 Aug. 2018].

Adamu Jibrilla “African Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA) and Its Implications for Nigeria: A Policy Perspective ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.164-172 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/164-172.pdf

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Assesing Affective Behaviour as a Vehicle for Achieving Attitudinal Change and Manipulative Skills among Students in Nigeria

Garba Alhaji Muhammad, Abubakar Garba – December 2018 Page No.: 173-179

This paper examined effective measurement of affective behavior as a vehicle for promoting core values and skills among students in Nigeria. Teachers as “producers” of other professionals, such as doctors; lawyers; engineers, accountants etc have significant roles to play in achieving economic recovery. In view of the above, the paper examined the Bloom’s Taxonomy of learning embracing, cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. However, it observed heavy reliance on cognitive domain as against affective and psychomotor. Also, an analysis of some randomly selected question papers has also justified the over reliance on the cognitive domain. Moreso, clarification/explanation on measurement of affective domain as a tool for promoting values and skills was given. The paper concludes that affective behavior if effectively measured will make students imbibe the habit of trust worthiness and will inform stakeholders about the interest, attitude, feeling, ambitions etc of children for guidance, placement and assignment of responsibilities among others. That school managers and other stakeholders should devise a way of measuring affection for certification as one of the recommendations.

Page(s): 173-179                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 December 2018

 Garba Alhaji Muhammad
Department of Psychology, School of Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria, India

 Abubakar Garba
Ph.D., Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Technology Education, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria, India

[1]. Bichi, M. Y. (2004). Introduction to Research Methods and Statistics. Kano: Debisco Press & Publishing Company.
[2]. Denga, D. I. & Denga, H.M. (1998). Educational Malpractice and Cultism in Nigeria. Calabar: Rapid Educational Publishers Ltd.
[3]. Esere, O. A. & Idowu, I. A. (2003). Continuous Assessment Practices in Nigerian Schools: A Review.
[4]. Nworgu, B. G. (2015). Educational Measurement and Evaluation: Theory and Practice Research: Basic Issues and Methodology (2nd Ed).Ibadan: University Trust Publishers Nsukka.
[5]. Oguneye, W. (2002). Continuous Assessment: Practice and Prospects. Lagos: Providence Publishers.
[6]. Shephard, K. (2008) Higher Educationfor Sustainability: Seeking Affective Learning Outcomes. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 9 (1), 87-98.

Garba Alhaji Muhammad, Abubakar Garba “Assesing Affective Behaviour as a Vehicle for Achieving Attitudinal Change and Manipulative Skills among Students in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.173-179 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/173-179.pdf

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Assessment of Indirect Cost of Onchocerciasis Illness among Farming Households of North-Central Nigeria

Ogebe, F.O., Adanu, D.O. – December 2018 Page No.: 180-186

The study assess the indirect cost of Onchocerciasis illness among Onchocerciasis infected households of North-Central Nigeria. Well- structured questionnaires was used to collect primary data from a sample of 556 respondents from three states: Benue State having 206 respondents, Nasarawa State and Plateau State with 217 and 133 respondents respectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Cost of Illness Approach (COI). The results showed that majority (72.7%) of the respondents were males and married (82.6%). The average age of the respondents was 46.4 years with average household size of 9.9 persons. On the average, economically active patients lost 26.62 workdays valued at N29289, Care-givers lost 15.36 workdays valued at N16896 while the illness limited 20.32 days of work valued at N2552 per cropping season. The results revealed that households incurred a total indirect cost of N289, 780.26 as a result of seeking treatment from Orthodox healthcare facilities (time lost cost) On the average, the indirect cost of illness was estimated atN338, 517.26 per household (time lost cost and workday lost cost) which is high enough to stretch the already tight expenditure budgets of the poor rural households The study therefore recommends that the services of Ivermectin distribution be brought closer to the patients in the remote areas regularly to reduce transportation cost and cost of time in order to improve timeliness of treatment.

Page(s): 180-186                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 December 2018

 Ogebe, F.O.
Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

 Adanu, D.O.
Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

[1]. Adeleke, M. A., Olaoye, I. K &Ayanwale, A. S. (2010). Socio-economic implications of Simuliumdamnosum complex infestations in some rural communities in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State. Journal of Public Health Epidemiology, 2(5): 109-112
[2]. Ajani, O. L. Y & P. C. Ugwu (2008). The impact of adverse health on Agricultural, and Production of farmers in Kanji Basin, North-Central Nigeria using a Stochastic Production Frontier Approach. Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
[3]. Alaba, A. O (2009). Malaria in rural Nigeria: implications for the millennium Development Goals. Report: African Development Bank. Pp. 15 (www.google.com)
[4]. Allen, J. E; O. Adei, O. Bain, A. Hoerauf, W. H. Hoffman, B. L. Makepeace, H. Schulz-Key, V.N. Tanya, A. J. Trees, S. Wanji& D. W. Taylor (2008). Lustigman Sara (ed.) of “Mice, Cattle and Human: the Immunology and Treatment of River blindness”PLOS NeglTropDis2 (4): 217 Pp
[5]. Anonguku, I., Anonguku L.M &Lawan, A.U. (2010). Socio-economic characteristics of farmers and level of livestock pilferages in Benue State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Economics, Management and Development, 1(1): 189-194.
[6]. Asante, F. A & Asenso-Okyere, K (2003). Economic Burden of Malaria in Ghana. www.google.com
[7]. Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (2017): Dollar to Naira Exchange Rate. http//www.cbn.gov.ng/rates/exchratebyCurrency.asp
[8]. Chima, R. T; C. A. Goodman & A. Mills (2003). The Economic Impact of Malaria in Africa: a critical review of the evidence. Health Policy, 63 (1) 17 – 36
[9]. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2004). Trans-boundary Animal Diseases: assessment of socio-economic impacts and institutional responses. Livestock Policy Discussion Paper No. 9. Livestock Information and Policy Branch, AGAL, February, 2004. Pp 48
[10]. Hirth, R. A; E. M. Chernew, E. Miller, A. M. Fendrick& W. G. Weissert (2000). Willingness to Pay for Quality-Adjusted Life Year: In search of a Standard Medical decision making 20 (3): 332 – 342
[11]. Hodgson, T. A &Meiners, M. R (1982). Cost of Illness Methodology: a guide to current practices and procedures. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 60 (3): 429 – 462
[12]. Honeycutt, A. (2003). Economic Costs associated with Mental Retardation, Cerebral Palsy, Hearing Loss and impairment- United States; Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 53 (3): 57 – 59
[13]. Jiang, Y.S & Braun, J. (2005). The economic cost of illness and household coping strategies in Western rural China, Chinese Rural Economy, 11:3-39.
[14]. Koopmanschap, M. A; F. F. H. Rutten, B. M. Vanlneveld & L. VanRoijen (1995). The Friction Cost Method for Measuring Indirect Costs of Disease. Journal of Health Economics14: 171 – 189
[15]. National Population Commission, NPC (2006). National Population Census Report, Abuja.
[16]. Ogebe, F.O, Umeh, J.C and Abu, G.A. (2017).Impact of Onchocerciasis (River blindness) on Agricultural Productivity of North-Central Nigeria..Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES) Vol.3 (2). Pp.118-129
[17]. Rice, D (1995). The Economic Burden of Musculoskeletal Conditions, US in Praemer, A; S. Furner and D. P. Rice (editors); Musculoskeletal conditions in the US. Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons: 1999
[18]. Russell, S (2004). The Economic burden of illness for households in developing countries: A review of studies focusing on Malaria, Tuberculosis, Onchocerciasis and Human Immunodeficiency virus (Acquired Immune-deficiency Syndrome). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 71 (suppl. 2): 147 – 155
[19]. T D R (2001). Onchocercal Skin Disease, in Snippets of Achievement; Mattock, N (Ed) Pp. 6 – 7. TDR/GEN/01.1.
[20]. Ubachukwu, P. O (2006). Socio Economic impact of Onchocerciasis with particular reference to females and children: A Review. Animal Research International Journal 3 (2), 494 – 504. ISSN 159-3115. www.zoo.unn.org

Ogebe, F.O., Adanu, D.O. “Assessment of Indirect Cost of Onchocerciasis Illness among Farming Households of North-Central Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.180-186 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/180-186.pdf

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A Descriptive Study of the Challenges of Manpower Planning Using Retrogressive Data from Borno State, Nigeria

Mohammed K. Abdullahi – December 2018 Page No.: 187-189

This study examined using retrospective data the manpower issues in the Borno State civil service. Published data on manpower between 1995 and 1998 released by the Department of Budget and Planning was collected and analysed. Findings show that there was a general dwindling of staff across the years possibly due to retirement, resignation and death of workers. It was also observed that there is low number of female workers compared to male in the state in nearly all MDAs although the health profession and education are attractive to the female folk in due to cultural reasons. It was recommended that succession plan for recruitment and replacement of staff into the civil service, completion of the employment of 1,000 teachers and 500 nurses/midwives to fill in the existing vacancy gap and programmes that would attract and retain medical doctors in the state civil service are required.

Page(s): 187-189                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 December 2018

 Mohammed K. Abdullahi
Department of Remedial Studies, Mohammed Goni College of Legal and Islamic Studies, Maiduguri, Nigeria

[1]. Combs, J., Liu, Y., Hall, A., Ketchen, D. (2006), “How Much do High-performance Work Practices Matter? A Meta-analysis of their Effects on Organizational Performance”, Personnel Psychology, Vol. 59 pp. 501-28.
[2]. Drucker, P. (2002). The information executives truly need, Harvard Business Review, Jan-Feb, pp 54-62.
[3]. Kolay, W. and Sahu, J. (2005). Separating the Developmental and Evaluative Performance Appraisal uses. Journal of Business & Psychology, 16(3): 391-412.
[4]. Minika, A. (2013) Facors Influencing Human Resources Planning in Equity Bank, Unpublished MBAThesis, University of Nairobi Business School.
[5]. Igbokwe – Ibeto C.J, Osadeke, K.O & Anadozo, R.O (2015). The Effect of Manpower Planning and Development in Lagos State Civil Service Performance. Africa Public Service Review and Performance pp 76 – 116.

Mohammed K. Abdullahi “A Descriptive Study of the Challenges of Manpower Planning Using Retrogressive Data from Borno State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.187-189 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/187-189.pdf

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A Micro Analysis of Child Labour and Poverty Linkages in North-Central Nigeria

Ogebe, F.O – December 2018 Page No.: 190-195

The study was conducted to establish the relationship between child labor and poverty in North central Nigeria by relating child work decisions and household poverty gap. Structured questionnaire was used as research instrument to generate data from 300 households and 600 children between the ages of 5-14 years in the study area. Both descriptive and Heckman two-step model were used for the analysis. The study finds that children work mainly as a result of household poverty, poor access to social services, household labor demand and supply situation and socialization. Type of work the child is involved in follows residential location of the household, sex of the child, predominance of informal sector, and access to infrastructure and services such as water supply and energy source. The study established that child work in different activities relates to household poverty differently and that child work emerges both as a survival strategy and also socialization process and that child work plays both complimentary and substitution roles to adult labor. The study further revealed that child characteristics of age and sex were found to significantly affect child work decisions in different activities. Implying that as children are growing, they develop their skills in most of the activities done by their parents in the informal sector thereby making almost perfect substitutes for their parents’ labor and making them more susceptible to work. Furthermore, parameter estimates for sex of the child showed that girls work for more hours than boys in all activities. The study recommends poverty reduction , improvement in access to education facilities, water supply and energy sources, and anti-child labor campaigns which should be implemented as a package as policy intervention for eradicating child labor.

Page(s): 190-195                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 December 2018

 Ogebe, F.O
Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

[1]. Assaad, R., Levison D., and Zibani, N (2000). The effect of child work on schooling enrolment in Egypt. Economic Research Forum Working Paper 0111, Cairo, Egypt.
[2]. Basu, K., and Van, P.H. (1998). The Economics of Child Labor. AmericanEconomic Review, 88: 412-27
[3]. Blunch, N.H., and Verner, D. (2000). Revisiting the Link between Poverty and Child Labor: The Ghanaian Experience. Policy Research Working Paper No 2488. The World Bank, Washington D.C
[4]. Deb, P., and Rosati, F. (2004). Determinants of Child Labor and School Attendance. The Role of Household Unobservable Mimeo, Indiana University
[5]. FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) (2004). Trans-boundary Animal Disease: Assessment of Socio-economic impacts and Institutional responses. Livestock Policy Discussions Paper No. 9 Livestock Information and Policy Branch, AGAL February, 2004 Pp.48.
[6]. ILO (International Labor Organization) (2003). Investing in Every Child. An Economic Study of the Costs and Benefits of Eliminating child labor. ILO, Geneva, Switzerland.
[7]. NBS (National Bureau of Statistics) (2018). Facts and Statistics about the population below poverty line in Nigeria. http://www.indexmundi.com/nigeria/asp.
[8]. NPC (National Population Commission (2007). National Population Census. Federal Republic of Nigeria official gazette, 94(4) Lagos, Nigeria.
[9]. NOS (National Statistical Office) (2002). Malawi Child Labor Report. Malawi Government and International Labor Organization, Zomba, Malawi.
[10]. Okojie, C.E (1987). “Income Generation in Occupational Structure among the Urban Poor: The case of Women in Benin City” (Pp.79.90) In: P, Mkinwa and A.O Ozo (eds.), The Urban Poor. Ibadan: Evans Publishers.
[11]. Prado, R., and Tobi, D. (1994). “Notes on Poverty focus in Country Programme,”Paper presented at the UNICEF Workshop on the Urban Poor. CEDC/IITA Ibadan, May, 3-4.
[12]. Townsend, P. (1992). The Meaning of Poverty.” British Journal of Sociology, 13: 210-227.
[13]. UNICEF (United Nation International Children Education Fund) (1997). The State of the World Children 1997: Focus on Child Labor. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[14]. World Bank (2005). Gender Issues in Child Labor. PREM Notes Number 1000. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Ogebe, F.O “A Micro Analysis of Child Labour and Poverty Linkages in North-Central Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.190-195 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/190-195.pdf

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Impact of Digital Storytelling on Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Pupils with Special in Sokoto State (Nigeria)

Dr. Umaru Garba, Fatima Attahiru – December 2018 Page No.: 196-200

The study explores the Impact of Digital Storytelling Strategies on Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Pupils with Special Needs in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The problem of the study was the predominant use of conventional instructional method in teaching reading skills to primary school pupils in the study area irrespective of the pupils’ learning condition. The study has a sample size of 94 pupils. Static Group Pre-test and Post-test research design was employed for the study. Two research questions, and two null-hypotheses were formulated. The hypotheses were statistically tested at α=0.05 level of significance. t-test independent sample was employed to test the null-hypotheses. Ten reading passages were selected and converted into multi-modal forms of Digital Storytelling as treatment. The study finds no significant difference in the levels of reading fluency between gender of the pupils exposed to digital storytelling strategy. Also, no significant difference was noted in the level of reading comprehension between boys and girls exposed to digital storytelling in the study area. Consequently, the study concludes that, Digital Storytelling strategy has the potential to enhance reading fluency and comprehension of the participants across genders. In this view, DSTS is recommended to stakeholders in early grade reading programme intervention in the public primary schools, to cater for pupils with Special Needs in the study area.

Page(s): 196-200                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 December 2018

 Dr. Umaru Garba
Department of General Studies, Umaru Ali Shinkafi Polytechnic, Sokoto (Nigeria).

 Fatima Attahiru
Department of General Studies, Umaru Ali Shinkafi Polytechnic, Sokoto (Nigeria).

[1]. Abdul-Ameer, M. A. (2014). Improving learning through digital stories with Iraqi young learners of English at the primary level. Journal of studies in social sciences volume 8, number 2, 2014, 197-214
[2]. Applegate, M. D., Applegate, A. J. and Modla, V. B. (2009). “She’s my best reader; she just can’t comprehend”: studying the relationship between fluency and comprehension. The reading teacher, 62(6), pp. 512-521. DOI: 10.1598/RT.62.6.5.
[3]. Beatrice, S. M. (2008). Teaching reading in a second language. Pearson education, Inc. New York
[4]. Chung, S. K. (2007). Art education technology: digital storytelling. Art educ 60 no 2 mr 2007
[5]. Chung, W., Kuo, F., Chiang, H., Su, H., & Chang, Y. (2013) Enhancing reading comprehension and writing skills among Taiwanese young EFL learners using digital storytelling technique. In Wong, L-H. et al (eds) Proceedings of the 21st International conference on computers in education, Indonesia: Asia Pacific Society for computer in education
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[9]. Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L. S. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: what, why, and how valid is it? New direction in research. DOI: 10.15961RRG.41.14.
[10]. Hornstein, S. E. (2004). Whole language democratic values and the preparation of teachers. Literacy and reading in Nigeria. 10. (1). 1. Institute of education Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
[11]. International Dyslexia Association (IDA) (2016) At-Risk Students and Study of Foreign Language. URL: https://DyslexiaIDA.org. Access 2016.
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[13]. Klaude, S. L., & Guthrie, J. E. (2008). Relationships of three components of reading fluency to reading comprehension. American Psychology Association, Journal of education psychology 2008, vol.100, no. 2, 310-321. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0663.2.3.10
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Dr. Umaru Garba, Fatima Attahiru “Impact of Digital Storytelling on Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Pupils with Special in Sokoto State (Nigeria)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.196-200 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/196-200.pdf

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Influence of Parental Occupation and Parental Level of Education on Students’Academic Performance in Public Day Secondary Schools.

Korir Walter – December 2018 Page No.: 201-211

The home environment of a secondary school student could either assist or retard his/her academic performance. Kipelion Sub-county academic performance has been dismal for the last five years (2007 – 2012). Study investigated the influence of home environment on students’ academic performance on the influence of parental occupation and parental level of education on students’ academic performance in public day secondary schools, based on Ecology System Theory by Bronfenbrenner. The sample was 210 form four students selected using stratified and simple random sampling based on the causal-comparative research design, since manifestations of independent variables on dependent variable had already occurred. A questionnaire was used to solicit information on students’ home environment. Whereas, document analysis was used to collect information about the students’ academic performance based on Mock Examination. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as: t-test, (ANOVA). The results revealed that parental occupation significantly influenced students’ academic performance. However, parental level of education had no effect on students’ academic performance. Study recommends active participation of parents on students’ academic affairs regardless of parental level of education.

Page(s): 201-211                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 December 2018

 Korir Walter
Moi Universiy, School of Education, Kenya

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Korir Walter “Influence of Parental Occupation and Parental Level of Education on Students’Academic Performance in Public Day Secondary Schools.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.201-211 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/201-211.pdf

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Student Awareness about the Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Malaysia

Amir Adib, R. Normala, Z.M. Lukman, C. Azlini, M.Y. Kamal – December 2018 Page No.: 212-215

Electronic cigarettes are used as an option to nicotine supplier as tobacco cigarettes. It is also used as a cessation base for someone who has the intention to quit smoking. Majority of electronic cigarette users have argued that electronic cigarettes are a lesser amount of dangerous and safer than tobacco cigarettes. Public awareness of the presence of electronic cigarette makes it an increasingly popular trend in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to identify the awareness of using electronic cigarette among students in Malaysia. This study uses descriptive research method that uses statistic percentage and frequency to accomplish the research objectives. The study was carried out on September to October 2018. This research study uses a quantitative method in the form of an online survey. The respondents of this study were students aged 19 to 26 years old. The number of respondents in this study was 440 persons consisting of 156 males and 284 females. The finding of this study also found that there were only a small number of respondents using electronic cigarettes in their daily lives. Awareness about the use of electronic cigarettes is also at a high stage among students. Almost all the respondents have high levels of knowledge and awareness on the use of electronic cigarette.

Page(s): 212-215                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 December 2018

 Amir Adib
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 C. Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

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[2]. Alanazi, A.M. (2016). The Prevalence of Use, Awareness, and Beliefs of Electronic Cigarettes Among College-Based Health Care Students At a Southeastern Urban University
[3]. Caponnetto, P., Polosa, R., Auditore, R., Russo, C., & Campagna, D. (2011). Smoking Cessation with E-Cigarettes among Smokers with a Documented History of Depressionand Recurring Relapses.International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2, p281-284
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[15]. Sutfin, E.L., McCoy, T.P., Morell, H.E.R., Hoeppner, B.B., & Wolfson, M. (2013). Electronic Cigarette Use Among College Students. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 131, p214-221
[16]. Lotrean, L.M. (2015). Use of Electronic Cigarettes Among Romanian University Students: A Cross-sectional Study. BMC Public Health, 15, 358. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1713-6
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[20]. Choi, K. & Forster, J. (2013). Characteristics Associated with Awareness, Perceptions, and Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Among Young US Midwestern Adults. American Journal of Public Health. 103 (3), 556-561

Amir Adib, R. Normala, Z.M. Lukman, C. Azlini, M.Y. Kamal “Student Awareness about the Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.212-215 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/212-215.pdf

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Assessing University Students’ Risk Factors for Type-2 Diabetes

A.H. Fatin Amira, C. Azlini, R. Normala, Z.M. Lukman, M.Y. Kamal – December 2018 Page No.: 216-220

The purpose of this study is to examine the risk factors that might lead to Diabetes Type-2 and to identify the level of understanding about Diabetes Type-2. This study involved students of Social Work in year one, year two, year three and year four at Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). In this study, the researcher used descriptive methods, which only focuses on frequency and percentages. The results showed that risk factors of Diabetes Type-2 which includes ethnic factor, obesity factor, physical activities factor, hypertension factor, cholesterol factor, bodyshape factor, and family history factor were at anormal level among respondents. Next, the findings showed that the level of understanding among respondents was at a low level. This is because the respondents still do know exactly what Diabetes Type-2 is and what kind of risk factors that might lead toDiabetes Type-2, furthermore respondents are living unhealthy lifestyle that made them at risk of getting Diabetes Type-2.

Page(s): 216-220                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 December 2018

 A.H. Fatin Amira
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 C. Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

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[46]. Ferrian, N. D. (2011). Assessing students’ risk factors for type II diabetes at a Midwest Public University. Master’s Thesis of Science in Community Health, Minnesota State University, Mankato.
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A.H. Fatin Amira, C. Azlini, R. Normala, Z.M. Lukman, M.Y. Kamal “Assessing University Students’ Risk Factors for Type-2 Diabetes” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.216-220 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/216-220.pdf

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Access to Higher Education: A Myth or Reality to Young Girls

Rosemary Seiwah Bosu, and Gifty Dawson-Amoah – December 2018 Page No.: 221-227

Access to higher education is a global critical issue which also is fundamental to stakeholders of education in Ghana today. Presently, Ghana’s Education Agenda 2030 has a focus on ensuring an increase and expansion of access, equity and inclusion to quality education. Although Ghana has a target based on SDG4 to eliminate gender disparities in education at all levels and ensure equal access there are still disparities in female participation in higher education standing at 0.69 in 2017 and 40% of students enrolled in higher education in 2017 being female. The main purpose of this paper is to review the issue of gender disparities in educational access to higher education in Ghana. The focus of the study was on one of most disadvantaged areas in terms of female access and participation in higher education in Ghana namely the Odompo and Ayeldo communities in the Abura-Asebu-Kwamankese (AAK) District of the Central Region. Using a qualitative research paradigm, thirty-three respondents sampled using snowballing technique comprised opinion leaders, girls who have completed Senior High school, assembly men and women, and chiefs of the community were interviewed using a semi structured interview guide. This was done to acquire an in-depth understanding of the situation and meanings participants attached to the concept of female participation in higher education. A case study design was used answer the research questions; What factors affect female participation in higher education? and What are the perceptions of the members of the community towards female participation in higher education? It was found out that socio-cultural, school related, economic, as well as political and institutional policy practices factors caused impediments to female access and participation in higher education. Also, it was found that given the opportunity the girls want to participate in higher education. Recommendations made included the need for stakeholders to mobilise resources for adequate financing of education and continued education to create awareness of the importance of equity and equality in higher education.

Page(s): 221-227                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 December 2018

 Rosemary Seiwah Bosu
Institute for Educational Planning and Administration, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

 Gifty Dawson-Amoah
Institute for Educational Planning and Administration, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

[1]. Abagre, C. I. &Bukari, F. I. M. (2013). Promoting affirmative action in higher education: A case study of University for Development Studies Bridging programme. Journal of Education and Practice 4 (9) 19 – 28
[2]. AburaAsebuKwamankese District Assembly (2012). Annual report. Abura: Government of Ghana.
[3]. Atuahene, F., & Owusu-Ansah, A., (2013). A descriptive assessment of higher education access, participation, equity, and disparity in Ghana. SAGE OPEN DOI:10.1/77/2158244013497725
[4]. Boro, E. B. K. (2005). Income generating among activities of non-governmental organisations among women groups: The case of centre for the development of people in the upper west region of Ghana. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast.
[5]. Cobuld, C. (2003). Advanced learner’s English dictionary (4th ed.). Glasglow: Harper Collins Publishers.
[6]. Colclough, C., & Lewin, K. (2003). Educating all the children: Strategies for primary schooling in the South. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
[7]. Daddieh, C. K. (2003). Gender issues in Ghanaian higher education, (Occasional Papers #36) Accra: Institute of Economic Affairs
[8]. Gravetter, F. J., &Forzano, L. B. (2010). Research methods for the behavioural sciences (3rd ed.). Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth.
[9]. Haddad, L. (1991). Gender and poverty in Ghana: A descriptive analysis. Institute for Development Studies Bulletin, 56(6), 27-34.
[10]. Hertz, B., Subbaro, K., Habib, M., & Raney, L. (1991). Letting Girls Learn,Promising Approaches in Primary and Secondary Education, World Bank Discussion Papers, No 133, World Bank, Washington
[11]. Khan, S. H., (1991). Barriers to Female Education in South Asia. PHREE Background Series, No. PHREE/89/17, Education and Employment Division, Population and Human Resources Department, World Bank. Washington.
[12]. Lihamba, A., Shule, L., &Mwaipopo, R. (2005). Female education in Tanzania. In Working Paper 6: Research findings. Retrieved March, 2007, from www.ioe.ac.uk/efps/ GenderEqComHE.
[13]. Malhotra, N. K., & Birks, D. F. (2010). Marketing research (4th ed.). Harlow: Dentice Hall/Pearson Education.
[14]. Ministry of Education (2013). Education sector performance report, Ministry of Education: Government of Ghana.
[15]. Olomukoro, C. O. (2005). The role of continuing education in national development. Nigeria Journal of Adult and Lifelong Learning, 1(1), 41-56.
[16]. Omoruyi, F. E. O. (2001). The dilemma of women in adult literacy education programme in Benin metropolis. India Journal of Adult education, 62(1), 55-65.
[17]. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Development Centre (2013). Gender inequality and the MDGs: What are the missing dimensions? Issues Brief. Paris: OECD.
[18]. Parveen, S. (2008). Female education and national development: As viewed by women activists and advocates 3 Bulletin of Education and Research 30 (1) 33 – 41
[19]. Psacharapoulous, G., &Patrinos, H. (2002). Returns to investment in education: A further update. Economic and Human Development Costs, 2(1), 27-32.
[20]. Schultz, T. P. (1991). Returns to women’s education. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
[21]. Tilak, J. B. C. (1991). Female Schooling in East Asia: A Review of Growth, Problems and Possible Determinants, PHREE Background Paper Series, No. PHREE/89/13, Education and Employment Division, Population and Human Resources Department, World Bank.
[22]. UNESCO (1998). Towards an agenda for higher education: Challenges and tasks for the 21st century viewed in the light of the regional conference. Paris: UNESCO.
[23]. UNESCO (2000). The Dakar framework for action, education for all: Meeting our collective commitments. World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal.
[24]. World Bank (2009) Literature Review on Equity and Access to Tertiary Education in the Africa Region. World bank

Rosemary Seiwah Bosu, and Gifty Dawson-Amoah “Access to Higher Education: A Myth or Reality to Young Girls” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.221-227 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/221-227.pdf

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An Analysis of the Nexus of Existentialism in Education

Elvis Omondi Kauka – December 2018 Page No.: 228-232

This study sought to examine the bond between existentialism and Education. Two objectives, namely: To examine key concepts of Existentialism and their Educational referents, and to investigate educational implications of existentialism, informed the sub areas under investigation. Using Philosophical analysis the paper investigates the key principles of Existentialism like Anguish, Freedom and Responsibility, and proceeds to attempt to find the place of Existentialism in the aims of education, curriculum, roles of the teacher and the learner, learning environment and Methods of teaching. The study infers that existential locus in education lies in the promotion and uplifting of the individuality of the learner and the teacher, alongside promoting the subsequent freedom that facilitates communion between the learner and the teacher. Finally the study infers the connectivity between the aims of education and the curriculum.

Page(s): 228-232                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 December 2018

 Elvis Omondi Kauka
Department of Educational Foundations, University of Kabianga, Kenya

[1]. Aloni, N. (1989). The three pedagogical dimensions of Nietzsche’s philosophy. Educational Theory, 39(4), 301-306.
[2]. Bailey, R. (1954). What is Existentialism?:The Creed of Commitment and Action. London: S.P.C.K.
[3]. Barker, R. G. (1968). Ecological Psychology: Concepts and Methods for Studying the Environment of Human Behavior. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
[4]. Buber, M. [1947]. Between Man and Man. Routledge.
[5]. Buber, M. (1970). I and Thou. Mansfield CT: Martino.
[6]. Chukwu, C. (2011). Karl Jasper’s Philosophy of Existence: Insights for our Time. Limuru,Kenya: Zapf Chancery Publishers.
[7]. Cronin, B. (2005). Foundations of Philosophy:Lonergan’s Cognition Theory and Epistemology. Nairobi: Consolata Institute of Philosophy.
[8]. Friedman, A. L.(2002). Developing Stakeholder Theory. Journal of Management Studies. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00280.
[9]. Kneller,G. F.(1964). Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. NewYork: Wiley.
[10]. Njoroge, R.A. and. Bennaars, G.A.( 1986). Philosophy of education in Africa. Nairobi: Kenya Transafrica Press.
[11]. Odhiambo, F. O. (2009). A Companion To Philosophy. Nairobi: Consolta Institute of Philosophy.
[12]. Ozmon, A.H. and Craver,M. S. (1995). Philosophical Foundations of Education. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
[13]. Peters, R. S.(1966) . The philosophy of education, in J. W. Tibble (Ed.)(1966) : The study of education. London ( pp. 59–89): Routledge & Kegan Paul.
[14]. Power, E. J. (1982). Philosophy of education: Studies in philosophies, schooling and educational policies. New Jersey : Prentice Hall.
[15]. Scotter, R. D.V. (1985). Foundations of Education. (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: Englewood cliffs.
[16]. Sartre, J. P.(1943). Being and Nothingness. Paris: Editions Gallimard.
[17]. Seetharamu, A. A. (1974). Philosophies of Education. Delhi: APH.
[18]. Stroll, A., and Popkin, R. H. (1965). Introduction to philosophy. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
[19]. Taneja, V. R. (2005). Socio-philosophical approach to education. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors.

Elvis Omondi Kauka “An Analysis of the Nexus of Existentialism in Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.228-232 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/228-232.pdf

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Teaching Philosophy of Education for Heutagogical Ends

Elvis Omondi Kauka – December 2018 Page No.: 233-236

This article examines the modus operandi in the teaching and learning of Philosophy of Education. It is premised on the perspective that a lot more can be done in the process of training teachers. It points out the different areas that a tutor of Philosophy of Education needs to explore before stepping into a lecture hall, and what the student teacher should expect. The highest expectation is that the student teacher should by the end his/her training be a Heutagogue and somehow a Philosopher Teacher.

Page(s): 233-236                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 December 2018

 Elvis Omondi Kauka
Department of Educational Foundations, University of Kabianga, Kenya

[1]. Froebel, F. (1900). The Education of Man. Fairfield, New Jersey: Kelley.
[2]. Moore, T. W.(1982). Philosophy of Education: An Introduction. Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Elvis Omondi Kauka “Teaching Philosophy of Education for Heutagogical Ends” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.233-236 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/233-236.pdf

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A Primordial Review of Thomas Aquinas’ ‘Entity and Essence’

Elvis Omondi Kauka – December 2018 Page No.: 237-242

I. INTRODUCTION
Born in Roccasecca-Italy around 1225, Thomas Aquinas received his early education at the Benedictine Monastery of Monte Cassino and began his theological studies at the University of Naples in 1239. He studied the seven liberal arts, namely, the three subjects of the Trivium which included Grammar, Logic, and Rhetoric, and the four subjects of the Quadrivium (Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, and Astronomy). In addition, he studied philosophy. Part of his philosophical studies at Naples involved was reading the translation of the newly discovered works of Aristotle and their commentaries by Avicenna and Averroes. He joined the Dominicans Friars, a Roman Catholic mendicant order that laid emphasis on studies, prayers, preaching and teaching. In 1256, Thomas was sent to teach at the University of Paris as a Professor of Theology, an assignment he did for three years before being recalled to Italy by his Dominican Superiors. Back in Italy he taught at the University of Naples (1259-1261), Orvietto (1261-1265) and Rome (1265-1268). Pope St. Pius V declared Aquinas as Doctor of the Church in 1567 and in 1879, Pope Leo XIII through the encyclical Aeterni Patris, upheld Thomas as the supreme model of the Christian philosopher. Aquina’s literary works can be divided into nine literary genera of Theological syntheses like Summa Theologiae, commentaries on important philosophical works, Biblical commentaries, Disputed questions, Works of religious devotion, Academic sermons, Polemical works, letters in answer to requests for expert opinion and Short Philosophical treatises like ‘On the Principles of Nature’ and ‘On Entity and Essence’. This article review ‘On Entity and Essence ‘ as translated by Silvano Borusso(Second Edition), Published by Consolata Institute of Philosophy (Nairobi-Kenya) in 2001.

Page(s): 237-242                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 December 2018

 Elvis Omondi Kauka
Department of Educational Foundations, University of Kabianga, Kenya

[1]. Ackrill, J. L. (1963) Aristotle: Categories and De Interpretatione, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
[2]. Albritton, R . (1957).“Forms of Particular Substances in Aristotle’s Metaphysics,” Journal of Philosophy, 54: 699–707
[3]. Anagnostopoulos, G(ed.).( 2009). A Companion to Aristotle, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
[4]. Lowe, E. (2008). Two Notions of Being: Entity and Essence. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement,62,23-48. doi:10.1017/S1358246108000568
[5]. Miethe, T. L. and Vernon, B.(1980). Thomistic Bibliography 1940-1978 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Elvis Omondi Kauka “A Primordial Review of Thomas Aquinas’ ‘Entity and Essence'” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.237-242 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/237-242.pdf

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Waziri Junaidu and His Contributions to Linguistics

Muhammad Arzika Danzaki – December 2018 Page No.: 243-246

This paper attempts to highlight the contributions of Waziri Junaidu to linguistics through a survey of some of his works on the subject. It established that, his contributions to linguistics are manifested in the works he wrote on aspects of Fulfulde language, especially syntax, morphology and phonology. It posit that, despite those works written by Waziri Junaidu, there was hardly any attention paid by researchers to his contributions in the study of language. After presenting a brief biography of the subject, the paper identified the works which represent his major contribution to the field. It further outlined some of the specific aspects of the language he dealt with in his said works.

Page(s): 243-246                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2018

 Muhammad Arzika Danzaki
Department of Arabic, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto-Nigeria

. Alkali, H., (2002). The Chief Arbiter: Waziri Junaidu and his Intellectual Contributions. Sokoto: CIS, Usmanu Danfodiyo, University.
[2]. Junaidu, I., (1993). Rayuwar Wazirin Sokoto Alhaji Dr. Junaidu. Zaria: Gaskiya Corporation Ltd.
[3]. El-Tekeinah, M. M., (1980). Al-Ab’ad al-Fanniyyatu fi ash’ar al-Waziri Junaidu. (Artistic Dimensions in the Poetry of Waziri Junaidu). Unpublished MA thesis, ABU Zaria.
[4]. Sokoto, N. A., (2001). Al-Qiyamu al-Ruhiyyatu fi Shi’ri Waziri Junaidu. (Spritual Values in the Poetry of Waziri Junaidu). Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Arabic, UDU, Sokoto.
[5]. de Saussure, F., (1916). Course in General Linguistics. Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye (eds.)
[6]. Hijaziy, M. F., (n.d.). ‘Ilm al-Lughati al-‘Arabiyyah. Kuwait: wikalatu al-Matbu’at.
[7]. Ibrahim, A., (2012). Samples of Prepositions in the Anthology of Waziri Junaidu: A grammatical Study. Unpublished MA dissertation, Department of Arabic, UDU, Sokoto.
[8]. Simons, G. F. and Charles, D. F. (eds.). 2018. Ethnolugue: Languages of the World, twenty first edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Available at: http//ethnologue.com
[9]. Junaidu, S. W., (2001). Wakakken Fassarar Marta’ul Adhhan zuwa Hausa, (Translation of Marta’ul Adhhan to Hausa in verse). Hausa Studies. Vol III (3). PP. 30-54.
[10]. Junaidu, W., (n.d.). Marta’ul al-Adhhan li man Yuridu Lughati al-Fullani. [Eng. ‘A Pasturage for the Minds for he who intends (to learn) Fulfulde Language.’]
[11]. Junaidu, W., (n.d.). Iqdu al-Murjan ‘alã Lughati al-Fullãni. [Eng. ‘A Coral Jewellery on Fulfulde Langauge.’]
[12]. Junaidu, W., (n.d.). Al-Bakuratu al-Janiyyah ‘ala Lughati al-Fullani. [Eng. ‘Ripe first fruits on Fulfulde Language.’]
[13]. de St. Croix, F. W., (1998) Fulfulde – English Dictionary; Daudu, G. K. et al (eds.). Kano: CSNL, Bayero University, Kano.
[14]. Junaidu, W., (n.d.). Al-Murshid al-Muwati Ila Tahajji Lughati al-Fullani. [Eng. ‘The suitable guide in Fulfulde Language spelling.’]

Muhammad Arzika Danzaki “Waziri Junaidu and His Contributions to Linguistics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.243-246 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/243-246.pdf

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The Linguistic and Non-linguistic Features in Facebook Status Updates among Malaysian Youths: A Sociolinguistic Perspective

Ying Qi Wu – December 2018 Page No.: 247-253

This study aims at exploring the linguistic and non-linguistic features found in the Facebook status updates among Malaysian youths. Firstly, the prevalent features of code switching, code mixing and emoticons are identifiedand the use of them among three main races in Malaysia isalso examined. Then the main purpose of this study is to find out the functions of code switching, code mixing and emoticons. For this purpose the status updates are analyzed through Appel and Muysken’s (2006) as well as Dresner and Herring’s (2010) works as analytical frameworks in this study. The results show that code switching and code mixing are frequently used by Malaysian youths in their Facebook status updates. Code switching mainly achieves the expressive and directive functions. Code mixing mainly fulfills expressive and referential functions. In addition, the emoticons are mainly functionally used as facial expression, emotion/feelings indicators and illocutionary force indicators.

Page(s): 247-253                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2018

 Ying Qi Wu
Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Language and Linguistics, University of Malaya, Malaysia

[1]. Abu Bakar, H. (2009). Code-switching in Kuala Lumpur Malay, Explorations, Retrieved from http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/10712/1/UHM.Explorations.2009.v9.AbuBakr.Rojak.pdf.
[2]. Ahkter, J. K., & Soria, S. Sentiment Analysis: Facebook Status Messages.Final Project CS224N. Retrieved from https://nlp.stanford.edu/courses/cs224n/2010/reports/ssoriajr-kanej.pdf.
[3]. Akaichi, J. (2013). Social networks’ Facebook’ statutes updates mining for sentiment classification. 2013 International Conference on Social Computing. IEEE. Alexandria, VA, USA.
[4]. Appel, R., &Muysken, P. (2006). Language contact and bilingualism. Amsterdam University Press.
[5]. Barash, V., Ducheneaut, N., Isaacs, E., & Bellotti, V. (2010). Faceplant: Impression (Mis)management in Facebook Status Updates. Fourth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, 207-210.
[6]. Baron, N. S. (2008): Always on: Language in an Online and Mobile World. New York: Oxford University Press.
[7]. Benson, E. (2001). The neglected early history of codeswitching research in the United States. Language & Communication, 21, 23-36.
[8]. [8].Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2008). Social network sites: Definition, history and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13 (1), 210–230
[9]. [9].Bullock, B. E. &Toribio, A. J. (2009). Themes in the study of code-switching. In B. E. Bullock & A. J. Toribio (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic code-switching: 1-17. New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press.
[10]. Carol, M. C. (2006). Multiple Voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Maldan, MA:Wiley-Blackwell.
[11]. Chua, S.K.C. (2010). Singapore’s language policy and its globalised concept of Bi(tri)lingualism. Current Issues in Language Planning, 11 (4), 413-429.
[12]. Clark, H.H. (1996). Using Language. Cambridge, UK: CUP.
[13]. David, M.K. (2007). Changing language policies in Malaysia: Ramifications and implications. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Language, Education and Diversity, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
[14]. Dresner, E., & Herring, S. C. (2010). Functions of the non-verbal in CMC: Emoticons and illocutionary force. Communication Theory..
[15]. Gunter, S.K. (2010). SAM’S Teach Yourself Facebook in 10 Minutes. USA: Pearson Education.
[16]. Heller, M. (1988). Codeswitching: Anthropological and Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
[17]. Holtgraves, T.M. (2002). Language as Social Action: Social Psychology and Language Use. New Jersey, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[18]. Huang, H. T. M., (2013). Language, identity and mobility: Perspective of Malaysian Chinese youth. Malaysian Journal of Chinese Studies, 2 (1): 83-102.
[19]. Ilyas, S., &Khushi, Q. (2012). Facebook status updates: A speech act analysis. Academic Research International, 3 (2), 500-507.
[20]. Katsuno, H., & Yano, C. (2007). Kaomoji and expressivity in a Japanese housewives’ chat room. In B. Danet& S. C. Herring (Eds.), The multilingual Internet: Language, culture, and communication online (pp. 278-301). New York: Oxford University Press.
[21]. Köbler, F., Riedl, C., Vetter, C., Leimeister, J. M., &Krcmar, H. (2010). Social connectedness on Facebook-An explorative study on status message usage. Social Connectedness on Facebook, 1-11.
[22]. Kramer, A. D. I., & Chuang, C. K. (2011). Dimensions of self-expression in Facebook status updates. Conference of ICWSM Barcelona, Spain.
[23]. Malik, L. (1994). Socio-linguistics: A study of code-switching. New Delhi, ND: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd
[24]. Nilep, C. (2006). “Code switching” in sociocultural linguistics. Colorado Research in Linguistics, 19.
[25]. Social Networking Fact Sheet. (2016). Retrievedfrom http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheets/social-networking-fact-sheet/.

Ying Qi Wu “The Linguistic and Non-linguistic Features in Facebook Status Updates among Malaysian Youths: A Sociolinguistic Perspective” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.247-253 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/247-253.pdf

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Effects of Prices Before and After Tax and Income Per Capita on Tobacco Consumption in Kenya: Cointegration Approach

Edwin Kipyego Kipchoge, Silas Kiprono Samoei, Daniel Kipruto Tuitoek, Mathew Kipkoech Bartilol – December 2018 Page No.: 254-262

Cigarette smoking is one of the causative agents of the various cancerous diseases and deaths among other factors worldwide. In fact, it is the leading cause of deaths in the world in cancer deaths yet it is preventable. Governments worldwide drain a lot of money into cancer institute to cater for treatment of cancer, which is attributed with the consumption of tobacco and its products. Despite the many studies and campaigns against this menace, the “war” is still on for the “enemy” is still taking on the lives of loved ones and potential individuals who would steer up Kenya’s economic growth and development. Tobacco death toll will continue to escalate with each passing year incase Kenyans decide to give up the fight against the vice. This study sought to analyze tobacco consumption with respect to the prices of tobacco both before and after tax and also with respect to income per capita. The study employed time series analysis. Data was extracted from statistical abstracts. Other sources were economic survey published by the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. The sample period was 1980 to 2016. Unit root test was estimated using Augmented-Dickey-Fuller and Phillips-Perron tests. There were no unit root at levels but first differencing they became stationary. Johansen’s cointegration and Phillips-Ouliaris’ cointegration tests was employed to determine if the variables are cointegrated. There was one cointegrating equation and therefore Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) was used to estimate the parameters of the model. All the three null hypotheses were rejected since all p-values were less than 0.05 level of significance. Roots of companion matrix used to check model stability. Langrage Multipliers were used to test for residual autocorrelation. It is expected that results obtained provides guide on policy formulation on tobacco pricing, taxation and suggested ways of reducing tobacco consumption and ensure a healthy and productive economy in general and assist governments to acquire more tax revenue for their economic budgets.

Page(s): 254-262                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 December 2018

 Edwin Kipyego Kipchoge
Postgraduate Student, University of Eldoret Department of Mathematics and Computer Science; P. O. Box 1620-30100, Eldoret, Kenya

 Silas Kiprono Samoei
Postgraduate Student, Moi University, Department of Agricultural Economics and Resource Management; P. O. Box 631-30100, Eldoret, Kenya

 Daniel Kipruto Tuitoek
Lecturer, Moi University, Department of Economics; P. O. Box 3900-30100, Eldoret, Kenya

 Mathew Kipkoech Bartilol
Postgraduate Student, Moi University, Department of Agricultural Economics and Resource Management; P. O. Box 631-30100, Eldoret, Kenya

[1]. Abdullah, A. S., Driezen, P., Quah, A. C., Nargis, N., & Fong, G. T. (2015). Predictors of smoking cessation behavior among Bangladeshi adults: findings from ITC Bangladesh survey. Tobacco Induced Diseases, 13(1), 23.
[2]. Adioetomo, S. M., & Djutaharta, T. (2005). Cigarette consumption, taxation, and household income: Indonesia case study.
[3]. Ahsan, A., & Wiyono, I. (2007). An analysis of the impact of higher cigarette prices on employment in Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia: Demographic Institute, University of Indonesia.
[4]. Ansari, H. A. F. F, Baharuddin N. Jusoh Mohamad Z Shamsudin and Jusoff K (2011). A Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) Approach in Explaining the Relationship Between Interest Rates and Inflation Towards Exchange Rate Volatility in Malaysia World Applied Science Journal: 49-56, 2011.
[5]. Arcavi, L., & Benowitz, N. L. (2004). Cigarette smoking and infection. Archives of Internal Medicine, 164(20), 2206–2216.
[6]. Cameron, S. (1998). Estimation of the demand for cigarettes: a review of the literature. ECONOMIC ISSUES-STOKE ON TRENT-, 3, 51–72.
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[8]. Dickey, D. and W. Fuller, (1979): Distribution of the estimators for autoregressive time series with a Unit Root. J. The American Statistical Association, 74(366): 427-431.
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[12]. Greene, W. H. (2008). Econometrics Analysis Sixth Edition Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River New Jersey New York USA: Chapters 13, 16, 19, 20, 21 and 22.
[13]. Government of Kenya: Economic Survey (Various). Nairobi: Government Printer, Nairobi Kenya.
[14]. Hamilton J. D. (1994). Time Series Analysis First Edition Princeton University Press Princeton, New Jersey New York USA.
[15]. Hidayat, B., & Thabrany, H. (2010). Cigarette smoking in Indonesia: Examination of a myopic model of addictive behavior. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(6), 2473–2485.
[16]. Hu, T., & Mao, Z. (2008). Effects of cigarette tax on cigarette consumption and the Chinese economy. In Tobacco Control Policy Analysis In China: Economics and Health (pp. 247–258). World Scientific.
[17]. Johansen, Søren (1989). “Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegrated Vectors in Gaussian VAR Model,” Econometrica, 59, 1551-1580
[18]. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. (2014). Economic Survey 2015.
[19]. Lutkepohl H. (2005). New Introduction to Multiple Time Series Analysis First Edition New York: Springer USA
[20]. Lutkepohl, H. and Kratzik M. (Eds) (2004). Applied Time Series Econometrics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK
[21]. Magee L. (2008). EC0 762 “VARs, VECMs and the Rank of the Cointegration Matrix II” Second Year PhD Lecture Notes for Macro econometrics PhD Course at University of Manchester,University Press, Manchester UK.
[22]. Mozaffarian, D., Benjamin, E. J., Go, A. S., Arnett, D. K., Blaha, M. J., Cushman, M., … Fullerton, H. J. (2015). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, CIR-0000000000000350.
[23]. Nikaj, S., & Chaloupka, F. J. (2013). The effect of prices on cigarette use among youths in the global youth tobacco survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 16(Suppl_1), S16–S23.
[24]. Perron, P. (1989). “The great crash, the oil price shock, and the unit root hypothesis”, Econometrica, 57, pp.1361-1401.
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[27]. World Health Organization. (2013). Global tuberculosis report 2013. World Health Organization.

Edwin Kipyego Kipchoge, Silas Kiprono Samoei, Daniel Kipruto Tuitoek, Mathew Kipkoech Bartilol “Effects of Prices Before and After Tax and Income Per Capita on Tobacco Consumption in Kenya: Cointegration Approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.254-262 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/254-262.pdf

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Translation and Analysis of Ibn Taymiyyah’s Third Anti-Mongol Fatwa

Dr. Jabir Sani Maihula – December 2018 Page No.: 263-268

The three Anti-Mongol fatwas of Ibn Taymiyyah are his most controversial treatises regarding jihad. The controversial nature of the fatwas exposed them to the exploitation by the jihadists. The fatwas are cited in volume twenty eight of the Majmūʿfatāwā, the third anti-Mongol fatwa is in 28:543 -553. This paper will translate one of these fatwas, the third anti-Mongol fatwa into English and make some analysis on the content of the fatwa. The aim of the translation and analysis is to make the fatwa available to the non-Arabic readers to avoid accessing the fatwas from the analysis of the extremists and also to contextualize Ibn Taymiyyah’s harshness in fatwas to the Mongol period.

Page(s): 263-268                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 December 2018

 Dr. Jabir Sani Maihula
Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria

[1]. Aigle D. (200), “The Mongol Invasions of Bilād Al-Shām by GhāzānKhān and Ibn Taymīyah’sThree “Anti-Mongol” Fatwas.”Mamlūk Studies Review 11, no.2.
[2]. Bonney, R. (2004), Jihād: From Qur’ān to bin Laden. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
[3]. Hoover, J. (2016), “IbnTaymiyya between Moderation and Radicalism.” In Reclaiming Islamic Tradition: Modern Interpretations of the Classical Heritage. Ed. Elisabeth Kendalland Ahmad Khan, 177–203. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.
[4]. IbnTaymiyya, A. A. (1978),Fatāwā al-kubrā. ed. Muhammad A. A. And Musṭafā A. A. (ed), Beirut: Dāralkutub al-ʿIlmiyya.
[5]. Ibn Taymiyyah, (1961), A. A.Majmūʿfatāwā ed. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, M. Q. and Muḥammad M. (ed),(Riyadh: Maṭābiʿ al-Riyāḍ, 1961-67).
[6]. Lessons from the Fitnah of the Mongols,” Dabiq 14, (April/May 2016): 47. Last accessed 25/04/2017https://azelin.files.wordpress.com/2016/04/the-islamic-state-22dacc84bi magazine-1422.pdf.

Dr. Jabir Sani Maihula “Translation and Analysis of Ibn Taymiyyah’s Third Anti-Mongol Fatwa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.263-268 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/263-268.pdf

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Measuring the Aspects of Youth Crime: An Sociological Study

Dr. Karabi Konch – December 2018 Page No.: 269-271

Youth Crime has become vibrant and serious issue in present day that creates unpleasant situation in society. Where the youths are considered the future and energetic strength of a country yet day by day that group become morally degraded and involve themselves easily in illegal activities. As consequence many menace have arisen such as violent inhumane sex crimes, family conflicts, murder cases, dacoits, kidnapping, attempt to murder, prostitution etc. where most of the youth has been engaged. So, to throw light on the impact of various risk factors behind the crime, in this paper an attempt has been prepared to focus on some important institution as family, and influence of peer groups, neighbours, alcohol addiction and media influences on youth in present day context.

Page(s): 269-271                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 December 2018

 Dr. Karabi Konch
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology MSSV, Nagaon, Assam, India

[1]. Akers, R., 1985: “Deviant Behaviour: A Social Learning Approach” (4th Ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth.
[2]. Collins, J.J., 1982: “Alcohol Use and Criminal Behaviour: An Empirical, Theoretical and Methodological Overview”, in Drinking and Crime: Perspectives on the Relationships between Alcohol Consumption and Criminal Behaviour, Ed. J.J. Collins, Tavistock Publications, London.
[3]. Cyril, B., 1915: “The Young Delinquency”, University of London Press, pp.129.
[4]. Derzon, J. H., 2005: “Family Features and Problem, Aggressive, Criminal, or Violent Behaviour: A Meta-Analytic Inquiry”, Unpublished Manuscript, Calverton, MD: Pacific Institutes for Research and Evaluation.
[5]. Earls, F.J., 1994: “Violence and Today’s Youth. Critical Health Issues for Children and Youth”, Vol. 4, pp.4–23.
[6]. Farrington, D.P., 1989: “Early Predictors of Adolescent Aggression and Adult Violence”, Violence and Victims Vol. 4, pp. 79–100.
[7]. Gershoff, E. T., 2002: “Corporal Punishment by Parents and Associated Child Behaviours and Experiences: A Meta-Analytic and Theoretical Review”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 128, No.4, pp. 539-579.
[8]. Ireland, C.S., & Thommeny, J.L., 1993: “The Crime Cocktail: Licensed Premises, Alcohol and Street Offences”, Drug and Alcohol Review, Vol. 12, No.2, pp. 143-150.
[9]. Kraemer, H. C., Kazdin, A. E., Offord, D. R., Kessler, R. C., Jensen, P. S., & Kupfer, D. J., 1997: “Coming to Terms with the Terms of Risk”, Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 54, pp.337–343.
[10]. Mills, J.F., Kroner, D.G., & Forth, A.E., 2002: “Measures of Criminal Attitudes and Associates” (MCAA): Development, Factor Structure, Reliability and Validity. Assessment, Vol. 9, pp.240–253.
[11]. Rhodes, M.L., 1979: “The Impact of Social Anchorage on Prisonization”, Dissertation Abstracts International, 40, 1694A. (UMI No. 79-19, 101).
[12]. Schur, E. M., 1969: “Our Criminal Society”, Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
[13]. Stevenson, S. F., Hall, G., & Innes, J. M., 2003: “Socio-moral Reasoning and Criminal Sentiments in Australian Men and Women Violent Offenders and Non-Offenders”, International Journal of Forensic Psychology, Vol.1, pp.111–119.
[14]. Sutherland, E. H., Cressey, D. R., & Luckenbill, D. F., 1992: “Principles of Criminology”, Dix Hills, N.Y.: General Hall.
[15]. Thornberry, T., 1998: “Membership in Youth Gangs and Involvement in Serious, Violent Offending”, In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), “Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions”. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp.147-166.
[16]. Wallace, A., 1986: “Homicide: The Social Reality”, NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, Sydney.

Dr. Karabi Konch “Measuring the Aspects of Youth Crime: An Sociological Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.269-271 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/269-271.pdf

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Influence of Social School Climate and Teachers’ Effectiveness in Senior Secondary Schools in Yobe State, Nigeria

Waziri Garba, El-jajah, Luka Yelwa Barde, Mohammed Gishiwa – December 2018 Page No.: 272-277

This study investigated the’ influence of social school climate and teachers’ effectiveness in senior secondary schools in Yobe State, Nigeria. There were three purposes that guided the study. One research question and one null hypothesis was formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study was 5322 subjects comprising school administrators and classroom teachers of senior secondary schools in Yobe State. The Sample size of 359 element comprising 18 school administrators and 341 Teachers were selected using Taro Yamane’s method and 18 senior secondary schools were selected through purposive sampling. A structured questionnaire with 20 items was used to gather data. Using five likert format rating scale. The statistical tool used in the analysis of one research question was mean and standard deviation while linear regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Findings from this study showed that social climate is high in senior secondary schools in Yobe State. The result of this study revealed that there is significant moderate relationship between social school climate and teachers’ effectiveness in senior secondary schools in Yobe State, Nigeria. This study recommended that Principals, teachers and students should maintain cordial relationship with teachers.There should also be free flow of communication among members of the staff in all senior secondary schools in Yobe State so that specific objectives and general goal of education could be achieved.

Page(s): 272-277                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 December 2018

 Waziri Garba, El-jajah
Yobe State Teaching Service Board Damaturu Yobe State, Nigeria.

 Luka Yelwa Barde
Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria

 Mohammed Gishiwa
Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria

[1]. Allodi, M. W. (2010).The meaning of social climate of learning environments. Journal-of-Environments-Research,-13(2),89–104-Retrieved-fromhttps://link.springer.com/article.

[2]. Askell W. H., Murray-Harvey, R. and Lawson, M. J. (2007). Teacher education students’ reflections on how problem-based learning has changed their mental models about teaching and learning. The Teacher Educator, 42(4), 237-263.
[3]. DuFour, R., &Marzano, R. J. (2011). leadership is an affair of the heart. Leaders of learning: how district, school, and classroom leaders improve student achievement .Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press
[4]. Emmanuel, B. T. & Ogunsakin, F. C. (2015). Influence of peer group on academic of secondary school students in Ekiti State; International Journal of Innovation and Development 4 (1), 323-325.
[5]. Federal Republic of Nigeria FRN (2009). The national policy on education 8th Edition.
[6]. Goe, L Bell, C., & Little, O. (2008). Approaches to evaluating teacher effectiveness: A Research Synthesis. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
[7]. Hurst B, Wallacey R and Nixon S. B. (2013) The impact of social interaction on student. learning: reading Horizons (52), (4 ) 375- 379. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/reading.
[8]. Kajo, D. T. (2011). Administrative constraints on teacher effectiveness in government secondary schools in Benue State, Nigeria. An unpublished Phd thesis presented to the faculty of education university of nigeria, nsukka.
[9]. Kayode O. I (2009) A survey of teacher-student relations in secondary schools. Journal of Educational Research. .4 (2).25-50
[10]. Loukas A. (2007) High-quality school climate as advantageous for all students and particularly beneficial for at-risk students. leadership compass, 5 (1), 1-3.
[11]. Murray, J. (2005). Social-emotional climate and the success of new teachers: A new look at the ongoing challenge of new teacher retention. A review of the literature. Wellesley, MA: Wellesley Centers for Women, Wellesley College. Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. Auchi Nigeria.
[12]. Oborah, M. U. (2009) Improving management of school organizational climate of secondary schools in Kogi State, An unpublished master’s thesis in the Department of Educational Foundations University of Nigeria.
[13]. Ogunniyi, F. O. (2007). “Impact of teacher-student relations on academic performance. a case study of selected secondary schools in Ijebu-Ode Local Government”. B.Ed Project.75
[14]. Olalekan A.B (2016) Influence of peer group relationship on the academic of students in secondary schools. Global Journal of Human-Social Science Arts & Humanities – Psychology 16(4), 249-460.
[15]. Pang .C. Lau. J, Poh. S. C, Cheong. L and Low. P. A, (2008) Socially challenged collaborative learning of secondary school students in singapore(8) (24) 4-10 Retrived from www.mdpi.com/journal/education ,June, 07 2018.
[16]. Schneider S. H. & Duran, L. (2010) School climate in middle schools: A cultural perspective. Journal of Research in Character Education. 8 (2), 25-37.
[17]. Tschannen-Moran, M., Parish, J., & DiPaola, M. (2006). School climate: the interplay between interpersonal relationships and student achievement. Journal of School Leadership,1(6), 386-415.
[18]. Umar S.S. (2013).The effects of social factors on students’ academic performance

Waziri Garba, El-jajah, Luka Yelwa Barde, Mohammed Gishiwa “Influence of Social School Climate and Teachers’ Effectiveness in Senior Secondary Schools in Yobe State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.272-277 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/272-277.pdf

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Barriers to Effective Implementation of Curriculum in Post Primary Schools In Benue State, Nigeria

Yeke, C. M.; Ogboji, J. N.; Onah, D.O; Iorungwa, E. – December 2018 Page No.: 278-283

This study attempts to examine the barriers to effective implementation of curriculum in Ukum Local Government Area of Benue State. Using survey research design, the study discovered factors that constitute barriers to effective implementation of curriculum as teacher motivations, resources as well as knowledge of curriculum. The attendant problems such as examination malpractices and poor performance in examinations are among the social Vices associated with barriers to effective implementation of curriculum were seen in the post primary schools in Ukum Local Government Area of Benue State. One hundred (100) questionnaires were administered in the ten (10) schools and collected. Results from the ten (10) schools were subjected to chi-square. Hypothesis one and two were accepted at 35.18 and 36.66 while hypothesis three was rejected at 40.62 calculated values respectively, with the critical value of 40.11. The study therefore recommended that teacher’s welfare should be made a top most priority by Government and private proprietor. Teachers should be trained on what to implement while necessary resources should be put in place if effective implementation of curriculum must be achieved.

Page(s): 278-283                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 December 2018

 Yeke, C. M.
Department of Educational Foundations, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.

 Ogboji, J. N.
Department of Educational Foundations, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.

 Onah, D.O
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Health Technology, Agasha, Nigeria.

 Iorungwa, E.
Department of Educational Foundations, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.

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Yeke, C. M.; Ogboji, J. N.; Onah, D.O; Iorungwa, E. “Barriers to Effective Implementation of Curriculum in Post Primary Schools In Benue State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.278-283 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/278-283.pdf

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Relationship between Administrative School Climate and Teachers’ Effectiveness in Senior Secondary Schools in Yobe State, Nigeria

Waziri Garba, El-jajah, Luka Yelwa Barde, Mohammed Gishiwa – December 2018 Page No.: 284-288

This study investigated the’ relationship between Administrative school climate and teachers’ effectiveness in senior secondary schools in Yobe State, Nigeria. There was one purpose that guided the study. One research question and one null hypothesis was formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study was 5322 subjects comprising school administrators and classroom teachers of senior secondary schools in Yobe State. The Sample size of 359 element comprising 25 school administrators and 334 Teachers were selected using Taro Yamane’s method and 25 senior secondary schools were selected through purposive sampling. A structured questionnaire with 20 items was used to gather data. Usingfivelikertformat rating scale. The statistical tool used in the analysis of one research question was mean and standard deviation while linear regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Findings from this study showed that administrative climate high in senior secondary schools in Yobe State. The result of this study revealed that there is significant relationship between administrative school climate and teachers’ effectiveness in senior secondary schools in Yobe State, Nigeria. Principals should ensure that all administrative activities of their schools are properly planned and maintain cordial relationship with teachers and students. Principals should be adequately trained and enlightened with more robust supervision strategies.

Page(s): 284-288                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 December 2018

 Waziri Garba, El-jajah
Yobe State Teaching Service Board Damaturu Yobe State, Nigeria.

 Luka Yelwa Barde
Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria

 Mohammed Gishiwa
Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria

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[17]. Paulsen, T., and Martin, R. (April, 2014). Supervision of agricultural educators in secondary schools: What do teachers want from their principals? Journal of AgriculturalEducation.55 (2), 136-18.
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[20]. Strunk, K.O., & Grissom, J.A. (2010). Do strong unions shape district policies? Collective bargaining, teacher contract restrictiveness, and the political power of teachers’ unions.Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 3(2), 389-406.
[21]. Vedavathi.B. 2017) Secondary school organizational climate and work values of secondary school heads in Mysore University, Karnataka. India . Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME) 7, (2) 25-29
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Waziri Garba, El-jajah, Luka Yelwa Barde, Mohammed Gishiwa “Relationship between Administrative School Climate and Teachers’ Effectiveness in Senior Secondary Schools in Yobe State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.284-288 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/284-288.pdf

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The Paradox of 1914 and the June 12: Nigeria’s Unending Nightmares

Olayinka Kehinde BINUOMOYO – December 2018 Page No.: 289-307

The name Nigeria appears to bring multidimensional meanings to different people. Nigerians and foreigners have been amazed at the endurance the country has made amidst several military conflicts and civil disturbances over the years without eventually disintegrating. It has therefore been pre-supposed that the country will continue as one entity in spite of its cycles of instability following perennial political and social upheavals. But two events in history: its amalgamation in 1914 and the events surrounding June 12 1993 (pre- and post -) have been seen to be important landmarks in the country’s destiny. This paper showed the significances of these two dates (and related ones) as well as their impacts in shaping the future of the country, which have been both nightmarish and positive on the country’s present. Two broad perspectives are examined: the political construct of the Nigerian nation and its social characteristics. The former was examined in detail as the determinant of the secondary characteristics which are borne on the latter.

Page(s): 289-307                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 January 2019

 Olayinka Kehinde BINUOMOYO
Postgraduate Studies, Department of Economics, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

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Olayinka Kehinde BINUOMOYO “The Paradox of 1914 and the June 12: Nigeria’s Unending Nightmares” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.289-307 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/289-307.pdf

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Between Utility and Rights: The Expected Changes in Tom Regan’s Defence of the Right of Animals

Dr. Omotosho I.F. – December 2018 Page No.: 308-312

The theme of Tom Regan’s writings on animal rights is to influence the attitude and change the beliefs of people that animals are resources or property. For Tom Regan, The idea that non human animals are property is the reason for the exploitation and use of animals. His theory, though well argued has been unpopular and neglected especially by scientists. This paper examines why Regan’s defence of animal rights has not gained much acceptance and influence, thereby failing to change the attitudes of people especially scientists toward non human animals and the belief that they are resources. The paper, having used the method of philosophical analysis and critical argumentation reveals that Regan’s deonlological absolutism and his failure to recognise some of the implications of granting rights to animals for scientists – that scientists owe society a duty while they need to respect animal rights at the same time are some of the problems among others with Regan’s defence of the right of animals. All these have made the defence seems unacceptable and ‘impracticable’. The paper then suggests changes that will make the defence acceptable to scientists, science and influence people’s attitude positively toward nonhuman animal status and rights.

Page(s): 308-312                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 January 2019

 Dr. Omotosho I.F.
Lecturer, Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Nigeria

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Dr. Omotosho I.F. “Between Utility and Rights: The Expected Changes in Tom Regan’s Defence of the Right of Animals” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.308-312 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/308-312.pdf

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Sociometric Status of Social Work Student in Malaysia

M. Nadhrah, R. Normala, C. Azlini, Z.M. Lukman, M.Y. Kamal – December 2018 Page No.: 313-318

The study conducted following explanatory study with the intent to discover the facilitative and restrictive factors of undergraduate social work student involvement in social work student organizations. Social work student organizations can provide supplemental experiences for students for further shapeunderstanding and implementation of the social work profession’s core values. The total samples are 157 social work students from University Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). Factor Analysis (FA) has been applied in this study by using XLSTAT for further analysis. In FA, there are 4 most suitable variablesthat is >0.8 for factor analysis. The analyzing data of Correlation Matrix (r) was applied to know the relationship between membership status of PMKS and factor involvement in PMKS. After correlation matrix, Descriptive Statistic was performedto summarize the data such as mean by using simple statistics or charts. The method in this study can help the current social work student involvement in PMKS.

Page(s): 313-318                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 January 2019

 M. Nadhrah
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 C. Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

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M. Nadhrah, R. Normala, C. Azlini, Z.M. Lukman, M.Y. Kamal “Sociometric Status of Social Work Student in Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.313-318 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/313-318.pdf

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Exploring Parental Perception towards Children’s Activities

M. Nazatul Azwanie, R. Normala, C. Azlini, M.Y. Kamal, Z.M. Lukman – December 2018 Page No.: 319-322

This study aimed to identify parents’ perceptions towards children’s activities such as structured games (puzzles, construction toys, swim and soccer), unstructured games (outdoor play, art, craft, dress-up, pretend play and musical play) and screen time (video game, play stations, smart phone and watching movies or TV). The total number of 333 parents in Malaysia who had children aged of three years old and below had participated in this study. The questionnaire was constructed according to the game perception scales. This study adopted descriptive analysis approach and the findings were recorded using frequency and percentage. The findings revealed that the majority of children under the age of three years old spent approximately 2 hours daily in structured games which equal to 27% (n=91). Meanwhile, the time allocated by the children when playing unstructured games was 3 hours daily rank roughly up to 27% (n=90) and 2 hours 28% (n=93) was utilized daily by the children on screen time. Nevertheless, the development of children can be nurtured by playing games whether it is structured or unstructured because children can easily absorb what is happening around them and turned it into a value that they will later learn. Hence, parents play an essential role in shaping the early growth of their children.

Page(s): 319-322                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 January 2019

 M. Nazatul Azwanie
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 C. Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

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M. Nazatul Azwanie, R. Normala, C. Azlini, M.Y. Kamal, Z.M. Lukman “Exploring Parental Perception towards Children’s Activities” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.319-322 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/319-322.pdf

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The Perception of University Students on Mental Illness Patients

A.H. Najwa, Z.M. Lukman, M.Y. Kamal, R. Normala, C.Azlini – December 2018 Page No.: 323-326

Lack of understanding about mental disorder among society has caused the mentally ill patients to suffer from social exclusion. Mental illness patient is often misunderstood as having a severe disease however society failed to understand that it is also associated with many other common mental illnesses such as dementia, anxiety disorder and depression.This study was conducted to determine the perception of society towards mental disorder patients. A total of 353 respondents which consisted of Sultan Zainal Abidin University (UniSZA) students were involved in this research. This study adopted a descriptive analysis approach by reporting the results of the study in terms of frequency and percentage. The instrument used for this study is a questionnaire. The researcher examines the students’ perceptions towards mental disorder patients through two aspects 1) students’ perceptions towards the behavior of the mentally ill patient and 2) students’ perceptions towards the life of mentally ill patients. Thus, the results of the study on behavioral aspects showed that the majority of students agreed that mental patients behaved unknowingly (90.1%), while some students disagreed with the notion that mental illness patients have lower IQ (62.0%). In terms of perception towards the life of mental patients, the majority of 97.2% students agreed that mental patients need immaculate and thorough care, while 84.7% students disagreed with the outlook that patients do not have a good future. The results showed that UniSZA students have a negative perception of the behavior of mental disorder patients, however, reacting positively towards the perception of mental patients’ life.

Page(s): 323-326                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 January 2019

 A.H. Najwa
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 C.Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

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A.H. Najwa, Z.M. Lukman, M.Y. Kamal, R. Normala, C.Azlini “The Perception of University Students on Mental Illness Patients” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.323-326 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/323-326.pdf

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Factors of Depression among Adolescents in Secondary School

W.Nurina Nadhira, M.Y. Kamal, R. Normala, C.Azlini, Z.M. Lukman – December 2018 Page No.: 327-332

Depression is a phenomenon that has existed and endured among human beings either severe or non severe. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors of depression among adolescents. The factors that are studied are relationship of adolescents and parents, adolescent’s involvement in physical activities and emotional stability of adolescent. This research was conducted involving high school students in Muar, Johor. In this research, researcher used quantitative method that used questionnaire to collect data. The results showed that the relationship between parents and adolescents and involvement in physical activities are at a normal rate, while the finding on the emotional stability of adolescents are abnormal and contribute to depression.

Page(s): 327-332                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 January 2019

 W.Nurina Nadhira
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 C.Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

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[31]. Bienvenu, O. J., & Stein, M. B. (2003). Personality and anxiety disorders: a review. Journal of Personality disorders, 17(2: Special issue), 139-151.
[32]. Berkman, L. F., Glass, T., Brissette, I., & Seeman, T. E. (2000). From social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Soc Sci Med, 51:843–857.
[33]. Lemstra, M., Rogers, M., Moraros, J., & Grant, E. (2013). Risk indicators of suicide ideation among on-reserve First Nations youth. Paediatrics & Child Health, 18(1): 15–20.
[34]. Patel, V., Araya, R., Chatterjee, S., Chisholm, D., Cohen, A., De Silva, M., & van Ommeren, M. (2007). Treatment and prevention of mental disorders in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet, 370: 991-1005.
[35]. Miller, G. (2001). Finding Happiness for Ourselves and our Clients. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79: 382-385.
[36]. Neff, K. D., Kirkpatrick, K., & Rude, S. S. (2007). Self-Compassion and its Link to Adaptive Psychological Functioning, Journal of Research in Personality, 41: 139–154.
[37]. Melo-Carrillo, A., Van Oudenhove, L., & Lopez-Avila, A. ( 2012). Depressive symptoms among Mexican medical students: high prevalence and the effect of a group psychoeducation intervention. Journal of affective disorders, 136: 1098-103.
[38]. Green, H., A. McGinnity, H. Meltzer, T. Ford, & R. Goodman. (2005). Mental Health of Children and Young People in Great Britain, 2004. TSO: London.
[39]. Hankin, B. (2006). Adolescent depression: Description, causes, and interventions. Epilepsy & Behaviour, 8: 102-114.
[40]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health. (2015). Depression (NIH Publication No. 15-3561). Bethesda, MD: U.S. Government Printing Office.
[41]. W. A. H. W. Nooraini, Z. M. Lukman, R. Normala, and C. Azlini, “Support on Families with Autistic Children : An Exploratory Research,” vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1–13, 2018.
[42]. R. Noraini, Z. M. Lukman, C. Azlini, R. Normala, A. H. Mutia, and M. Y. Kamal, “Multivariate Analysis of University Student ’ s Attitude Towards Financial Management,” vol. V, no. Xii, pp. 1–7, 2018.
[43]. W. M. Y. Bukhari, Z. M. Lukman, M. Z. Zulaikha, N. S. S, and M. Y. Kamal, “Do Volunteer Management Practices Retain a Volunteer ? A Case Study in Global Peace Malaysia,” vol. II, no. X, pp. 145–150, 2018.
[44]. M. Zulaikha, Z. M. Lukman, C. Azlini, R. Normala, and M. Y. Kamal, “The Perception of Social Work Students on Human Trafficking in Malaysia,” vol. II, no. X, pp. 159–165, 2018.
[45]. N. S. S, Z. M. Lukman, M. S. Syafiq, M. Z. Zulaikha, W. M. Y. Bukhari, and M. Y. Kamal, “The Study of Depression and Loneliness among Elderly Women,” vol. II, no. X, pp. 110–113, 2018.
[46]. Z. Zulaikham, Z. M. Lukman, W. M. B. Bukhari, N. S. S, and M. Y. Kamal, “Assessing Eating Disorder and Stress amongst Dancers : Case Study in Malaysia,” vol. II, no. X, pp. 231–235, 2018.
[47]. M. Y. Kamal and Z. M. Lukman, “The Influence of Talent Management Practices on Job Satisfaction,” Int. J. Acad. Res. Bus. Soc. Sci., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 859–864, 2017.
[48]. M. Kamal and Z. Lukman, “the Relationship Between Developing Talent Towards Performance Management and Job Satisfaction in Selected Public,” Eprajournals.Com, no. 6, pp. 2–7, 2017.
[49]. M. Y. Kamal, “Segmentation of Talent Management Variables in Selected Public Higher Learning Institutions,” vol. V, no. 2, pp. 1369–1387, 2017.
[50]. M. Y. Kamal and Z. M. Lukman, “Challenges in Talent Management in Selected Public Universities,” no. 5, pp. 3–7, 2017.
[51]. M. Kamal, … Z. L.-J. of A. R. in B., and undefined 2017, “The Effects of Talent Management on Performance Management,” Hrmars.Com, vol. 7, no. 9, 2017.
[52]. K. My and L. ZM, “The relationship between attracting talent and job satisfaction in selected public higher learning institutions,” Int. J. Manag. Res. Rev., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 2013–2018, 2017.

W.Nurina Nadhira, M.Y. Kamal, R. Normala, C.Azlini, Z.M. Lukman “Factors of Depression among Adolescents in Secondary School” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.327-332 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/327-332.pdf

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Level of Internet Addiction Among University Students

Z. S. Rabiah, C. Azlini, R. Normal, Z.M. Lukman, M.Y. Kamal – December 2018 Page No.: 333-336

The main purpose of this study is to identify the level of internet addiction among university students. A self-administered questionnaire which consisted of demographic respondent and Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was employed. A total of 304 University students of Universiti Sultan ZaianlAbidin(UniSZA) have participated in this study. The data was analyzed using descriptive data. Descriptive data were reported as frequency and percentage to show the level internet addiction by UniSZA students. The result shows that the level of internet addiction among students of UniSZA is moderate and tend to be high. The paper concludes by giving suggestions the university should block all social network to enhance student participation in the class to policy makers and gives a future recommendation on the research area

Page(s): 333-336                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 January 2019

 Z. S. Rabiah
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 C. Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 R. Normal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

[1]. Smita, G.,&Azhar, FA. (2018). Prevalence and Characteristics of Internet Addiction among University Students in Mauritius. SM J Case Rep. 4(1), 1077
[2]. İbrahim Taş. (2017). Relationship between Internet Addiction, Gaming Addiction and School Engagement among Adolescents : Universal Journal of Educational Research 5(12), 2304-2311.
[3]. Mohammadkhani, P., Alkasir, E., Pourshahbaz, A., Jafarian, D, F., & Soleimani, S, E. (2017) Internet Addiction in High School Students and Its Relationship With the Symptoms of Mental Disorders. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal. 15(2), 141- 148.
[4]. Daria, J. K. (2016). Internet Addiction: The Problem and Treatment. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions. 3(10), 15805.
[5]. Shahnaz, I., & Karim, A.K.M.R., (2014) Life satisfaction as a determinant of life engagement. Bangladesh Psychological Studies, 24.
[6]. Kuss, D. J., Griffiths, M. D., & Binder, J. F. (2013). Internet addiction in students: Prevalence and risk factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 29 (3), 959–966.
[7]. Young, K.S. (1996). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. CyberPsychology and behavior, 1, 237-244.
[8]. DiNicola, M. D. (2004). Pathological Internet Use Among College Students: The Prevalence of Pathological Internet Use and its Correlates (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio Universiti, United States
[9]. Block, J. J. (2008). Issues for DSM-V: Internet addiction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 306-307.
[10]. Ananda, M.,& Rae, L. S. (2001). From Cyber Space to Cybernetic Space: Rethinking the Relationship between Real and Virtual Spaces, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Volume 7, Issue 1, JCMC713.
[11]. Yee, N. (2002). Ariadne: Understanding MMORPG Addiction.
[12]. Orzack, M. H. (2004). “Computer Addiction Services.”
[13]. Griffiths, M. D. (2010). The role of context in online gaming excess and addiction: Some case study evidence. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8, 119–125.
[14]. Koyuncu, T., Unsal, A., and Arslantas, D. (2014) Assessment of internet addiction and loneliness in secondary and high school students. J Pak Med Assoc. 64, 998-1002
[15]. Goldberg, I. (1996). Internet Addiction Disorder
[16]. Pallanti, S., Bernardi, S. & Quercioli, L. (2006). The shorter PROMIS questionnaire and the internet addiction scale in the assessment of multiple addictions in a high-school population: Prevalence and related disability. Journal of MBL Communication, Inc.
[17]. Chou, C., & Hsiao, M. (2000). Internet Addiction, Usage, Gratifications, and Pleasure Experience-The Taiwan College Students’ Case. Computers& Education. 35(1), 65-80.
[18]. H. R. Wu & K. J. Zhu. (2004). Path analysis on related factors causing internet addiction disorder in college students, Chinese Journal of Public Health, vol. 20, 1363–1364.
[19]. Upadhayay, N., & Guragain, S. (2017). Internet use and its addiction level in medical students: Advances in medical education and practice, 8 ,641-647.
[20]. Encieh, S., Mohammad, J. K., & Afsaneh M. (2017).Relationship of Internet Addiction with Loneliness and Depression among High School Students: International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 7(4), 99-102
[21]. M. Y. Kamal, “Segmentation of Talent Management Variables in Selected Public Higher Learning Institutions,” vol. V, no. 2, pp. 1369–1387, 2017.
[22]. Z. Zulaikham, Z. M. Lukman, W. M. B. Bukhari, N. S. S, and M. Y. Kamal, “Assessing Eating Disorder and Stress amongst Dancers : Case Study in Malaysia,” vol. II, no. X, pp. 231–235, 2018.
[23]. W. M. Y. Bukhari, Z. M. Lukman, M. Z. Zulaikha, N. S. S, and M. Y. Kamal, “Do Volunteer Management Practices Retain a Volunteer ? A Case Study in Global Peace Malaysia,” vol. II, no. X, pp. 145–150, 2018.
[24]. M. Y. Kamal and Z. M. Lukman, “The Influence of Talent Management Practices on Job Satisfaction,” Int. J. Acad. Res. Bus. Soc. Sci., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 859–864, 2017.
[25]. M. Kamal and Z. Lukman, “the Relationship Between Developing Talent Towards Performance Management and Job Satisfaction in Selected Public,” Eprajournals.Com, no. 6, pp. 2–7, 2017.
[26]. R. Noraini, Z. M. Lukman, C. Azlini, R. Normala, A. H. Mutia, and M. Y. Kamal, “Multivariate Analysis of University Student ’ s Attitude Towards Financial Management,” vol. V, no. Xii, pp. 1–7, 2018.
[27]. M. Zulaikha, Z. M. Lukman, C. Azlini, R. Normala, and M. Y. Kamal, “The Perception of Social Work Students on Human Trafficking in Malaysia,” vol. II, no. X, pp. 159–165, 2018.
[28]. N. S. S, Z. M. Lukman, M. S. Syafiq, M. Z. Zulaikha, W. M. Y. Bukhari, and M. Y. Kamal, “The Study of Depression and Loneliness among Elderly Women,” vol. II, no. X, pp. 110–113, 2018.
[29]. M. Y. Kamal and Z. M. Lukman, “Challenges in Talent Management in Selected Public Universities,” no. 5, pp. 3–7, 2017.
[30]. M. Kamal, … Z. L.-J. of A. R. in B., and undefined 2017, “The Effects of Talent Management on Performance Management,” Hrmars.Com, vol. 7, no. 9, 2017.
[31]. W. A. H. W. Nooraini, Z. M. Lukman, R. Normala, and C. Azlini, “Support on Families with Autistic Children : An Exploratory Research,” vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1–13, 2018.
[32]. K. My and L. ZM, “The relationship between attracting talent and job satisfaction in selected public higher learning institutions,” Int. J. Manag. Res. Rev., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 2013–2018, 2017.

Z. S. Rabiah, C. Azlini, R. Normal, Z.M. Lukman, M.Y. Kamal “Level of Internet Addiction Among University Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.333-336 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/333-336.pdf

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On the Effect of Implementation of Treasury Single Account on Economic Growth in Nigeria

Bilesanmi, A. O. – December 2018 Page No.: 337-346

This study examines the effect of implementation of treasury single account on economic growth in Nigeria. The economic variables considered in this study were real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), recurrent expenditure, and total expenditure. The study employed secondary source of data collection. The statistical tools employed were the time series analysis, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) test and Chow test. Findings showed that all the variables considered in the study were stationary and were used for making future forecast of the series. It was observed that real GDP has an increasing trend over the year except for the slight decline in 2016 which can be attributed the recession faced by the country in that period. It was found that the model (6) was adequate for estimating real GDP since the model obtained R-square value of 93.1%. Result showed that the implementation of TSA in 2015 has significant impact on real GDP in Nigeria. Findings revealed that model (7) was adequate for estimating recurrent expenditure in Nigeria with R-square value of 96.9%. Further result revealed that the implementation of TSA in 2015 has significant impact on recurrent expenditure in Nigeria. It was found that the model (8) can explain about 93.4% of the total variation in total expenditure with R-square value of 93.4%. This result implies that the implementation of TSA in 2015 does not significantly impact on total expenditure in Nigeria.

Page(s): 337-346                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 January 2019

 Bilesanmi, A. O.
Department of General Studies, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurum-Delta State, Nigeria

[1]. Adeolu I.A. (2015). Understanding The Treasury Single Account (TSA) System –Things You Should Know. Business & Economy, Market Development.
[2]. Bashir, Y. M. (2016). Effects of Treasury Single Account on Public Finance Management in Nigeria. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 7(6): 164-170
[3]. Chow, G. C. (1960). Test of equality between sets of coefficients in two linear regression. Econometrica, 28(3): 591-605.
[4]. Franses, P. (1996). Periodicity and Stochastic Trends in Economic Time Series, Advanced Texts in Econometrics. Oxford University Press.
[5]. Kanu, C. (2016) Impact of Treasury Single Account on the Liquidity. A BC Journal of Advanced Research , 5, 43-52.
[6]. Kwiatkowski, D., Phillips, P., Schmidt, P. and Shin, Y. (1992). Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root: How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?. Journal of Econometrics, 54, 159–178.
[7]. Ofurum, C. N., Oyibo, P. C., & Ahuche, Q. E. (2018). Impact Of Treasury Single Account On Government Revenue And Economic Growth In Nigeria: A Pre – Post Design. International Journal Of Academic Research In Business And Social Sciences, 8(5): 283–292.
[8]. Ogbonna, C.J. and Amuji, H.O. (2018) Analysis of the Impact of Treasury Single Account on the Performance of Banks in Nigeria. Open Journal of Statistics, 8, 457-467.
[9]. Utsu, E.A., Mohammed M.B. and Obukeni, C.O. (2016) An Assessment of the Treasury Single Account Policy on Nigeria Economy. Social Sciences Journal of Policy Review and Development Strategies , 2.

Bilesanmi, A. O. “On the Effect of Implementation of Treasury Single Account on Economic Growth in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.337-346 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/337-346.pdf

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The Relationship Between Playing Online Games and its Impact on Human Sleep Patterns among Youth in Malaysia

N. Fatimah, M.Y. Kamal, R. Normala, C.Azlini, Z.M. Lukman – December 2018 Page No.: 347-351

Online games can be addictive, and it could affect one’s sleeping patterns. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between playing online games and also its impact on human sleep patterns among youth specifically in Malaysia. The respondents consisted of 317 youth people who were in the age range of 15-year-old until 30-year-old. This study adopted descriptive analysis approach and the findings were recorded using frequency and percentage to determine the index of sleeping quality of the youth whether it correlated with playing online games or otherwise. The instrument used was in the form of questionnaire. The findings showed that the majority of the respondents do have sleeping problems but on various indexes. The index of having minor sleeping problem due to online games found that the highest value recorded was significantly 42.05%. Meanwhile, only 3.47% of the youth suffered from severe sleeping problem because of playing online games. Therefore, the impact of playing online games excessively could affect the sleeping patterns if it becomes uncontrollable.

Page(s): 347-351                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 January 2019

 N. Fatimah
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 C.Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

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[2]. Freeman, C.B. (2008). Internet Gaming Addiction. The Journal Of Nurse Practitioners (JNP). 42-47.
[3]. Aji, C.Z. (2012). Berburu Rupiah Lewat Game Online. Yogyakarta: Bouna books.
[4]. Billieux, J., Thorens, G., Khazaal, Y., Zullino, D., Achab, S., & Van der Linden, M. (2015). Problematic Involvement in Online Games: A Cluster Analytic Approach. Computers in Human Behavior, 43, 242-250.
[5]. Schiebener, J., Laier, C., & Brand, M. (2015). Getting Stuck With Pornography? Overuse Or Neglect Of Cybersex Cues In A Multitasking Situation Is Related To Symptoms Of Cybersex Addiction. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4(1), 14-21.
[6]. Moorcroft, W.H., & Belcher, P. (2003). Understanding Sleep and Dreaming (pp. 168-169). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
[7]. Hidayat, A.A. (2006). Pengantar Kebutuhan Dasar Manusia: Aplikasi Konsep dan Proses Keperawatan. Jakarta: Salemba Medika.
[8]. Wan, C.S., &Chiou, W. B. (2006). Why are Adolescents Addicted to Online Gaming? An Interview Study in Taiwan.Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 9(6), 762-766.
[9]. Smith, L. (2017). Individual And Social Influences On Videogaming And Sleep In Adolescents.(Doctoral dissertation).
[10]. Nahar, N., Sangi, S., Rosli, N., & Abdullah, A.H. (2018). Negative Impact Of Modern Technology To The Children’s Life And Their Development.UMRAN-International Journal of Islamic and Civilizational Studies, 5(1).
[11]. New Zoo. (2017 ). The Malaysian Gamer 2017.
[12]. Van den Bulck, J. (2004). Television Viewing, Computer Game Playing, And Internet Use And Self-Reported Time To Bed And Time Out Of Bed In Secondary-School Children. Sleep, 27(1), 101-104.
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[14]. Choi, K., Son, H., Park, M., Han, J., Kim, K., Lee, B., &Gwak, H. (2009). Internet Overuse and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness In Adolescents. Psychiatry And Clinical Neurosciences, 63(4), 455-462.
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[16]. Born, J., Rasch, B., & Gais, S. (2006). Sleep to remember. The Neuroscientist, 12(5), 410-424.
[17]. Irwin, M. (2002). Effects of Sleep and Sleep Loss on Immunity and Cytokines. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 16(5), 503-512.
[18]. Maquet, P. (1995). Sleep Function (S) and Cerebral Metabolism. Behavioural Brain Research, 69(1-2), 75-83.
[19]. Van den Bulck, J. (2004). Media Use and Dreaming: The Relationship among Television Viewing, Computer Game Play, and Nightmares or Pleasant Dreams. Dreaming, 14 (1), 43-49.
[20]. Gradisar, M., Wolfson, A.R., Harvey, A.G., Hale, L., Russell Rosenberg, F., &Czeisler, C.A. (2013).The Sleep and Technology Use of Americans: Findings from the National Sleep Foundation’s 2011 Sleep in America Poll. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 1291-1299.
[21]. Hassan, J., Rashid, R.A., & Shahrina, R. (2012). Ketagihan Penggunaan Internet Di Kalangan Remaja Sekolah Tingkatan 4 di Bandaraya Johor Bahru. Journal of Technical, Vocational & Engineering Education, 6, 23-43.
[22]. Van den Bulck, J. (2007). Adolescent Use of Mobile Phones for Calling and for Sending Text Messages After Lights Out: results from a prospective cohort study with a one-year follow-up. Sleep, 30(9), 1220-1223.
[23]. Jap, T., Tiatri, S., Jaya, E.S., &Suteja, M.S. (2013). The Development of Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire. PloS one, 8(4), e61098.
[24]. Kim, M.G., & Kim, J. (2010). Cross-Validation of Reliability, Convergent and Discriminant Validity for the Problematic Online Game Use Scale. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(3), 389-398.
[25]. Taylor, D.J., &Roane, B.M. (2010). Treatment of Insomnia in Adults and Children: A Practice‐Friendly Review Of Research. Journal of clinical psychology, 66(11), 1137-1147.
[26]. Bowers, A.J., & Berland, M. (2013). Does Recreational Computer Use Affect High School Achievement?. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(1), 51-69.
[27]. Hysing, M., Harvey, A.G., Torgersen, L., Ystrom, E., Reichborn-Kjennerud, T., & Sivertsen, B. (2014). Trajectories and Predictors of Nocturnal Awakenings and Sleep Duration in Infants. Journal of Developmental &BehavioralPediatrics, 35(5), 309-316.
[28]. Calamaro, C. J., Mason, T. B., & Ratcliffe, S. J. (2009). Adolescents Living The 24/7 Lifestyle: Effects Of Caffeine And Technology On Sleep Duration And Daytime Functioning. Pediatrics, 123(6), e1005-e1010.
[29]. Hershner, S.D., &Chervin, R.D. (2014). Causes and Consequences of Sleepiness Among College Students. Nature and science of sleep, 6, 73.
[30]. Cheung, L.M., & Wong, W.S. (2011). The Effects of Insomnia and Internet Addiction on Depression in Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Analysis. Journal of Sleep Research Society, 20, 311-317.
[31]. Syracuse University, (2007).Online Multiplayer Video Games Create Greater Negative Consequences, Elicit Greater Enjoyment than Traditional Ones. ScienceDaily.
[32]. Wang, L., & Zhu, S. (2011). Online Game Addiction among Univesity Student. International Degree Project.
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N. Fatimah, M.Y. Kamal, R. Normala, C.Azlini, Z.M. Lukman “The Relationship Between Playing Online Games and its Impact on Human Sleep Patterns among Youth in Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.347-351 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/347-351.pdf

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The Factors of Social Media Use on Depression in Malaysia

Nuramanina, Z.M. Lukman, C.Azlini, R.Normal, M.Y Kamal – December 2018 Page No.: 352-356

The objective of this study is to understand the factors between social media use and depression, by helping eliminate any inconsistencies from prior findings and research employed quantitative method that rettrist information to online survey. The data obtained in the analysis into the superior form by using the pivod table expanding the research to include other possible contributing factors that have yet to be explored. Participants consist of 18-34 years old in Malaysia. This to get the percentage and frequency. Participations (N = 326) reported that there are several potential causes of depression caused by the use of social media. The factors include loss of interest 47.1%, fatigue 34.7%, social isolation 49.1%, mood swings 52.8%,in ability to feel pleasure 29.1%, sadness 60.1%, give up 26.1% and unhealthy sleep 34%. The majority of respondents who answered the survey questionnaire 76.7% were those who had cyberbullying through social media. These results confirmed that social media cyberbullying is a potential causal factor of depression. Furthermore, it was found that there are additional causal factors resulting from social media use include emotional, too much time spent on social media.

Page(s): 352-356                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 January 2019

 Nuramanina
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 C.Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

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[33]. W. M. Y. Bukhari, Z. M. Lukman, M. Z. Zulaikha, N. S. S, and M. Y. Kamal, “Do Volunteer Management Practices Retain a Volunteer ? A Case Study in Global Peace Malaysia,” vol. II, no. X, pp. 145–150, 2018.
[34]. M. Y. Kamal and Z. M. Lukman, “Challenges in Talent Management in Selected Public Universities,” no. 5, pp. 3–7, 2017.

Nuramanina, Z.M. Lukman, C.Azlini, R.Normal, M.Y Kamal “The Factors of Social Media Use on Depression in Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.352-356 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/352-356.pdf

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The Artisans: Livelihood Sustainability in the Context of Handicraft Micro and Small Enterprises in Moshi Tanzania

Isaac Kazungu, Julieth Njau – December 2018 Page No.: 357-364

This study analyses the contribution of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) on sustainable livelihoods of the people, taking handicraft MSEs in Moshi Tanzania as a case in point. Specifically, it focused on determining the impact of handicrafts MSEs’ income on household health status, education, food safety shelter and assets ownership as the livelihood outcomes. 50 operators were identified by the use the stratified random sampling technique and studied. We applied a triangulation of questionnaire, interviews and library search. Pearson’s Product Moment correlation coefficient (r) and ANOVA were used to test the strength and significamce of the relationship between variables of the study, while hypothesis was tested by using P-value. Handicrafts MSEs income was found to have a positive and significant relationship with livelihood outcomes. Institutional problems on business premises, registration and infrastructure, marketing information and financial access were also the outcomes of this study. It is concluded that handicraft MSEs are essential contributors of sustainable livelihoods and thus there is a need to improve their operating environment. We recommend improvement in business infrastructure, market information, business development services, and taking up of business accreditation schemes for the development of the handicrafts industry.

Page(s): 357-364                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 January 2019

 Isaac Kazungu
Moshi Co-operative University, P.O.Box 474, Moshi, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

 Julieth Njau
Moshi Co-operative University, P.O.Box 474, Moshi, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

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Isaac Kazungu, Julieth Njau “The Artisans: Livelihood Sustainability in the Context of Handicraft Micro and Small Enterprises in Moshi Tanzania ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.357-364 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/357-364.pdf

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Moral and Ethical Dilemma for Administrators at Higher Educational Institutions in Arusha Tanzania

Dr. Ndalahwa Musa Masanja – December 2018 Page No.: 365-371

The main purpose of the study was to identify challenges on ethical and moral dilemma facing administrators in educational institutions. The study reveals common ethical problems that leaders have to tackle in their institutions. Additionally, the research identifies the moral concerns that leaders have to consider in decision making. Specifically, the study examines the ethical and moral dilemma that leaders encounter on a daily basis. The literature discussed various approaches in solving ethical and moral dilemma. In this case, administrators have different approaches in making decision about dilemmas in the field of leadership. The data collected was expected to identify new ethical and moral dilemmas in leadership. The data analysis suggested possible solutions for administrators in educational institutions.The study indicated that there are certain aspects to be considered as administrators think of tackling ethical and moral dilemmas. The study identified the best way to solve the dilemmas in leadership. Moreover, the findings providedpractical steps to be taken in handling ethical and moral dilemmas. These results can help leaders to make the right choices in the future. Administrators will have a basis to guide their daily decisions on ethical and moral dilemmas. The study will create a link between the ethical theories and the implementation of ethical and moral principles for the benefit of their organization.

Page(s): 365-371                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 January 2019

 Dr. Ndalahwa Musa Masanja
PhD., Lecturer of Accounting and Management, University of Arusha, Tanzania

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Dr. Ndalahwa Musa Masanja “Moral and Ethical Dilemma for Administrators at Higher Educational Institutions in Arusha Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.365-371 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/365-371.pdf

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Smoking Behaviour among Secondary School Students in Malaysia

O. Aziela, R. Normala, C.Azlini, M.Y. Kamal, Z.M. Lukman – December 2018 Page No.: 372-378

The purpose of this study was to scrutinize the smoking behaviours among high school students around Kuala Nerus Terengganu. The two main objectives were 1) smoking behaviours among students and 2) smoking habits among students. This study was conducted involving 419 secondary school students around the Kuala Nerus district in Terengganu, Malaysia. Respondents of this study are limited to students who are smoked only. This study was adopting descriptive analysis approach by using questionnaire as a research instrument. The overall study found that there are various behaviours and smoking habits that influenced secondary school students. The results showed that peers and sex influence were the biggest contributor to the smoking behaviour of students and individuals who had a lot of smokers who influenced smoking habits of school students.

Page(s): 372-378                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 January 2019

 O. Aziela
Faculty of Applied Social Science, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Science, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 C.Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Science, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Science, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Science, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

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[58]. R. Noraini, Z. M. Lukman, C. Azlini, R. Normala, A. H. Mutia, and M. Y. Kamal, “Multivariate Analysis of University Student’s Attitude Towards Financial Management,” vol. V, no. Xii, pp. 1–7, 2018.
[59]. W. M. Y. Bukhari, Z. M. Lukman, M. Z. Zulaikha, N. S. S, and M. Y. Kamal, “Do Volunteer Management Practices Retain a Volunteer ? A Case Study in Global Peace Malaysia,” vol. II, no. X, pp. 145–150, 2018.
[60]. M. Zulaikha, Z. M. Lukman, C. Azlini, R. Normala, and M. Y. Kamal, “The Perception of Social Work Students on Human Trafficking in Malaysia,” vol. II, no. X, pp. 159–165, 2018.
[61]. N. S. S, Z. M. Lukman, M. S. Syafiq, M. Z. Zulaikha, W. M. Y. Bukhari, and M. Y. Kamal, “The Study of Depression and Loneliness among Elderly Women,” vol. II, no. X, pp. 110–113, 2018.
[62]. Z. Zulaikham, Z. M. Lukman, W. M. B. Bukhari, N. S. S, and M. Y. Kamal, “Assessing Eating Disorder and Stress amongst Dancers : Case Study in Malaysia,” vol. II, no. X, pp. 231–235, 2018.
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O. Aziela, R. Normala, C.Azlini, M.Y. Kamal, Z.M. Lukman “Smoking Behaviour among Secondary School Students in Malaysia ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.372-378 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/372-378.pdf

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Student Perceptions of Security Services at Public Higher Learning Institutions

O. Syaznida, R. Normala, C. Azlini, Z.M. Lukman, M.Y. Kamal – December 2018 Page No.: 379-382

Students’ perceptions of the security service in their universities are crucial in ensuring that they get the best quality of service that they deserved. The student’s point of view, how they think the service will work efficiently, and what are their special needs can be used as a cornerstone in reforming the security services into a modernize and efficient system. Students are the ‘customers’ of security services, but very little is known about their behaviors, attitudes and their perceptions of their safety and security needs. In response to this, researchers gathered and analyzed the safety perceptions of students in public higher learning institutions. This study aims to evaluate student perceptions on the quality of services provided by security officers in the public higher learning institutions. It will highlight the comparisons of each student whether there are differences existed in their perception on the security officers. This descriptive study was done by using the questionnaire to scrutinize perception of the students. The result of this study indicates that students understand and have a positive response to the services provided by their security officers.

Page(s): 379-382                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 January 2019

 O. Syaznida
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 C. Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

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[19]. W. A. H. W. Nooraini, Z. M. Lukman, R. Normala, and C. Azlini, “Support on Families with Autistic Children : An Exploratory Research,” vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1–13, 2018.
[20]. K. My and L. ZM, “The relationship between attracting talent and job satisfaction in selected public higher learning institutions,” Int. J. Manag. Res. Rev., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 2013–2018, 2017.
[21]. M. Y. Kamal, “Segmentation of Talent Management Variables in Selected Public Higher Learning Institutions,” vol. V, no. 2, pp. 1369–1387, 2017.

O. Syaznida, R. Normala, C. Azlini, Z.M. Lukman, M.Y. Kamal “Student Perceptions of Security Services at Public Higher Learning Institutions” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.379-382 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/379-382.pdf

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The Negative Impact of Social Media on Students’ Self Esteem

M.F. Adilah, Z.M. Lukman, C.Azlini, R.Normala, M.Y. Kamal – December 2018 Page No.: 383-387

Nowadays, social media has influenced in every aspect of teenagers’ life; either by uploading photos on Instagram, expressing feelings on Twitter or deliberately triggering phenomenon on Facebook. But do social media make the teenagers consider about themselves? How do they feel? Whether it affects their mental and physical or leads to their low self-esteem? Due to the concerns, it is necessary to examine whether the use of social media influences their level of self-esteem. This paper aims to examine the negative impact of social media on the self-esteem of the secondary school students.This study was conducted in the area of Seberang Perai, Pulau Pinang. The researcher took three months to obtain the findings which are between August and October.The questionnaire was distributed to 305 students (130 males and 175 females). Data were collected and analyzed using the simple percentage method.The findings show that secondary school students will be distressed if they do not receive the desired ‘likes’ by their followers after they uploaded their pictures. The students disagree that they will take a positive attitude towards themselves. Majority of the students agree that they are uncomfortable with themselves at certain times and this leads them to think that they are not good at all.From the study conducted, it can be concluded that majority of the students have low self-esteem when uploading pictures, writing status and sharing videos on social media. They tend to feel uneasy if they do not receive the ‘likes’ for their postings on social media. The students also denied that they would take a positive attitude towards themselves when receiving negative comments from the followers. Due to this matter, they feel that they do not have a good impression of the public. After all, it can be deduced that the use of social media leads to the students’ low self-esteem.

Page(s): 383-387                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 January 2019

 M.F. Adilah
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 C.Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

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M.F. Adilah, Z.M. Lukman, C.Azlini, R.Normala, M.Y. Kamal “The Negative Impact of Social Media on Students’ Self Esteem” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.383-387 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/383-387.pdf

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Perception and Attitude towards Online Dating Relationships

F. Rizuan, C.Azlini, R. Normala, M.Y Kamal, Z.M. Lukman – December 2018 Page No.: 388-392

The advancement of technology especially social media had influenced how we communicate in daily lives especially towards our partners. Thus, this study is executed in order to identify the perception and attitude towards online dating relationships among Malaysian. 316 respondents which consisted of Malaysians had taken part in this research. This study uses descriptive analysis and the results are reported in the form of frequency and percentage. The research instrument which is in the questionnaire had been used by the researcher for this study. The study found out that 46.5% of the respondent had the right perception about the online dating relationships. Meanwhile, 52.5% of them gave the positive perception to the online dating of relationship and 61.7% of respondent accepted online dating relationship. The results for attitude towards this type of relationship showed that most of the respondents which amounted to 60.1% did not experience an online relationship. The researcher concluded that even the socially accepted and gave a positive reaction to an online romantic relationship; it does not practice by a lot of people. This situation might happen because the public is aware of the risks getting in an online relationship such as fraud and sexual harassment.

Page(s): 388-392                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 January 2019

 F. Rizuan
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 C.Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 M.Y Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

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[3]. Finkel, E., Eastwick, P., Karney, B., Reis, H., & Sprecher, S. (2012). Online Dating: A Critical Analysis from the Perspective of Psychological Science. PsychologicalScience in The Public Interest, 13(1), 3-66.
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F. Rizuan, C.Azlini, R. Normala, M.Y Kamal, Z.M. Lukman “Perception and Attitude towards Online Dating Relationships” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.388-392 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/388-392.pdf

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The Quality of Life among Malay Single Mother in FeldaChini and FeldaJengka, Pahang, Malaysia

M. Y. Dinie, R. Normala, M.Y. Kamal, Z.M. Lukman, C.Azlini – December 2018 Page No.: 393-395

The purpose of this study is to identify the quality of life among Malay single mother in FeldaChini and FeldaJengka, Pahang, Malaysia in term of safety and satisfaction in a residential area. The quantitative method has been used in which focus on Malay single mother as a respondent. The information obtained was translated into percentage in analysis data. As a result, Malay single mothers were felt safe and satisfied in the residential area of FeldaChini and FeldaJengka, Pahang, Malaysia.

Page(s): 393-395                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 January 2019

 M. Y. Dinie
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 C.Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

[1]. Landau, J. and Griffiths, J. (2007). The South African Family in Transition: Training And Therapeutic Implications: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. 7(3), 339-344.
[2]. Clarke, S. and Hamplová, D. (2010) Single motherhood in Sub-Saharan Africa, A life Perspective, Montreal, Canada
[3]. Amato, P.R. (2005). “The impact of family formation change on the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the next generation.” The Future of Children 15(2):75-96.
[4]. Gregory, D. and Watts, M. (2009). “Quality of Life”. Dictionary of Human Geography (5th ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell
[5]. Leplege, A. & Hunt, S. (1997). The problem of quality of life in medicine. JAMA 278:47-5
[6]. Carbonari, N.K. (2013). Perceived quality of life for Single Mothers Living in Affordable Housing in Columbus. Ohio State University, Ohio.
[7]. Zainab Ismail. (2001). Proses kaunseling Islam di kalanganpasanganbermasalah:Satukajiankes di Jabatan Agama Islam Wilayah Persekutuan, Kuala Lumpur. Tesis Ph.D. UniversitiSains Malaysia, Minden.
[8]. Cairney, J., Boyle, M.H., Offord, D.A., & Racine, Y. (2003). Stress, social support and depression in single and married mothers. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38, 442-449.
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[11]. Utusan Malaysia. (2000). Ibu Tunggal Kekuatan Diri Penentu Keputusan. 7 Ogos.
[12]. Mungwini, P. (2008). Shona Womanhood: Rethinking Social Identities in the Face of HIV and AIDS in Zimbabwe. Masvingo: Great Zimbabwe University.
[13]. O’Neil, R. (2002). Experiments in living: The fatherless Family, London: Mezzanine Elizabeth House.
[14]. W. A. H. W. Nooraini, Z. M. Lukman, R. Normala, and C. Azlini, “Support on Families with Autistic Children : An Exploratory Research,” vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1–13, 2018.

M. Y. Dinie, R. Normala, M.Y. Kamal, Z.M. Lukman, C.Azlini “The Quality of Life among Malay Single Mother in FeldaChini and FeldaJengka, Pahang, Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.393-395 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/393-395.pdf

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Effect of Goronyo Dam on Soil Physical & Chemical Characteristic in Upstream and Down Stream Soils

Abubakar Aminu, Hadiza Jibril, Zayyanu Muazu Gwadabawa, Nasiba Sahabi Gada, Dr. Mohammad Sirajo – December 2018 Page No.: 396-400

With dam construction thousand hectares of land are cleared off vegetation especially for the reservoir of the dam, there by subjecting the land to erosion, land degradation and poor fertility. Also with dam construction thousand tones of sediment are trapped within the reservoir of the dam and as such not allowed to reach downstream, thereby causing variation in soil nutrients (chemical constituent) in both up and down stream.
The aim of this research is to examine the effect of Goronyo dam on soil physical and chemical characteristic in upstream and downstream, both systematic and purposive sampling techniques were employed in taking the soil samples. Similarly the data generated after laboratory test was subject to both descriptive and inferential statistic. The findings shows that the soil in the area are predominantly sandy loam, (with an average value of 73.3% sand,10.8%silt and15.8%silt). And the soils were rated low in organic carbon content (0.77%), low Nitrogen content (0.084mg/kg), low phosphorus (0.89mg/kg), low calcium ( 0.95mol/kg), moderate in sodium and Magnesium and high in Cec (32.9cmol/kg). And in term of pH, the soils in both upstream and down stream was slightly acidic. In conclusion, the Goronyo dam has no statistically significance effect on soils characteristic in the area as there is little variation between soil parameters tested. The study recommended addition of both organic and chemical fertilizers for higher yield.

Page(s): 396-400                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 January 2019

 Abubakar Aminu
Lecturer, Department of Geography, Faculty of Art and Social Sciences, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

 Hadiza Jibril
Lecturer, Department of Geography, Faculty of Art and Social Sciences, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

 Zayyanu Muazu Gwadabawa
Lecturer, Department of Geography, Faculty of Art and Social Sciences, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

 Nasiba Sahabi Gada
Lecturer, Department of Geography, Faculty of Art and Social Sciences, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

 Dr. Mohammad Sirajo
Department of Chemistry, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria

[1]. Anonymous (2003). Sokoto state Government Ministry of Imformation, Youth sport and Culture, Sokoto Nigeria.
[2]. Bravard JP, Goichot M. Tronchere H. (2014). An assessment of sediment-transport processes in the lower mekon River based on deposit grain sizes, the CM technique and flow energy data. Geomorphology 207: 174-189.
[3]. Chude,v.o.i.y. Amadu,P E A Ako and S.G.Pam(2005).Micro nutrient research in Nigeria.A R review.Samaru J.Agric sci 10pp117.
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[5]. Jackson, M.L (1962) Soil chemical analysis advance course department of soil science. University of Wisconsin, Madison.
[6]. Mustapha, S., G.N. Udom and A.M. Umar, (2003). Profile distribution of some physic-chemical properties of some hydromorphic soils of Buachi State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture Technology. 11:38
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[8]. Singh, B.R. 1997. Potentials and challenges of Fadama farming in the semi-arid East where Sokoto State, Nigeria. Twenty-third Annual Conference, soil science society of Nigeria, 2-5 March, 1997. Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.
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[11]. Soil Science Society of America (2011). Glossary of Soil Science Terms Madison, Wisconsin, USA 140 PP.
[12]. Singh, B. R and Babaji, G.A (1989) Characterristic of soils in Dundaye district: 1. The soils of the University Dryland farm Nigerian Jounal of Basic and Applied Science 3: 7-16.
[13]. Soil Survey Staff (1996). Soil Survey Laboratory Method Manuals Soil Survey investigation Report No 4. Version 3.0
[14]. Yakubu, M and Singh B. R (2001). Erosional losses of Soil nutrients from a dry farm land in Sokoto, Nigeria, Journal of Agriculture and Environment.1: 147-15.

Abubakar Aminu, Hadiza Jibril, Zayyanu Muazu Gwadabawa, Nasiba Sahabi Gada, Dr. Mohammad Sirajo “Effect of Goronyo Dam on Soil Physical & Chemical Characteristic in Upstream and Down Stream Soils” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.396-400 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/396-400.pdf

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Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women in Ekpo Abasi Primary Health Care Centre, Calabar South, Cross River State, Nigeria

Ogana, Josephine. F. , Takon, Mary. B., Udom, Hannah. T. & Angioha, Pius U. – December 2018 Page No.: 401-408

The main objective of the study is to assess birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women in Ekpo Abasi Primary Health Care Center, Calabar South, Cross river state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study assesses the effect of regular antenatal visit and healthy nutrition on complication readiness among pregnant women in Ekpo Abasi Primary Health Care Center, Calabar South, Cross River State, Nigeria. Two hypotheses were raised based on the variables of the study and were stated in null form. Literature was reviewed according to each variable raised and the health belief model was adopted to guide the study. The survey research design was used for the study. The sample of the study comprised of one hundred and twenty pregnant women who were purposively selected from the Ekpo Abasi primary health centre in Calabar South. The instrument of data collection was the questionnaire. Data collected from the field was coded and analysed using the appropriate statistical tool at 0.05 confidence level. Out of the one hundred and twenty question distributed, one hundred and eighteen was return and used for the analysis. Results revealed that Regular antenatal visits have a statistical effect on complication readiness among pregnant women in Ekpo Abasi Primary Health Care Centre, Calabar South, Cross river state, Nigeria and Healthy nutrition have a statistical effect on complication readiness among pregnant women in Ekpo Abasi Primary Health Care Center, Calabar South, Cross river state, Nigeria. The study thereby recommends that pregnant women should be motivated and mobilized to utilized Antenatal Clinic for effective complication readiness; pregnant women should always deliver their children under skilled birth attendant amongst others.

Page(s): 401-408                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 January 2019

 Ogana, Josephine. F.
Department of Public Health Nursing, College of Health Technology, Calabar, Nigeria

 Takon, Mary. B
Department of Public Health Nursing, College of Health Technology, Calabar, Nigeria

 Udom, Hannah. T.
Department of Social Work, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Angioha, Pius U.
Department of Sociology, University of Calabar, Nigeria

[1]. Abu-Saad, K. & Fraser, D. (2010). Maternal Nutrition and Birth Outcomes, Epidemiologic Reviews, Volume 32, Issue 1, 1 April 2010, Pages 5–25,
[2]. Bishaw, W., Awoke, W. & Teshome, M. (2014) Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in Basoliben District, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia, 2013. Primary Health Care 4:171.
[3]. El‐Sayed Azzaz, A.M., Martínez‐Maestre, M.A. & Torrejón‐Cardoso, R. (2016). Antenatal care visits during pregnancy and their effect on maternal and foetal outcomes in pre‐eclamptic patients. The Journal of obstetrics and gynecology Research. 1069-1079.
[4]. Fateme D. T., Mohseni, M. Ghajarzadeh, M.. & Shariat, M. (2013). The Effects of Healthy Diet in Pregnancy. J Family Reprod Health. . 7(3): 121–125.
[5]. Markos, D. & Bogale, D. (2014). Birth preparedness and complication readiness among women of child bearing age group in Goba woreda, Oromia region, Ethiopia. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 14:282
[6]. Moinuddin, M, Christou. A., Hoque, D.M.E., Tahsina, T., Salam, S.S., Billah, S.M. (2017) Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) among pregnant women in hard-to-reach areas in Bangladesh. PLoS ONE 12(12):
[7]. Onwuhafua, P.I, Ozed, W. I.C., Kolawole, A.O., Adze, J.A.. (2016). The effect of frequency of antenatal visits on pregnancy outcome in Kaduna, Northern Nigeria. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol;33:317-21.
[8]. Rodríguez-Bernal, C.L., Rebagliato, M., Iñiguez, C., Vioque, J., Navarrete-Muñoz, C.M., Murcia, M., Bolumar, F. & Marco, A. (2010). Diet quality in early pregnancy and its effects on foetal growth outcomes: the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Childhood and Environment) Mother and Child Cohort Study in Spain. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91, (6), 1659–1666.
[9]. Sabageh, A.O., Adeoye, O. A., Adeomi, A.A., Sabageh, D. & Adejimi, A.A. (2017). Birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women in Osogbo Metropolis, Southwest Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J.; 27: 74.
[10]. Tuladhar, H. & Dhakal, N. (2011). Impact of Antenatal Care on Maternal and Perinatal utcome: A Study at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital. NJOG 6 (2): 37-43.
[11]. Ye, X., Skjaerven, R., Basso, O., Baird, D.D., Eggesbo, M., Cupul Uicab, L.A.(2010). In utero exposure to tobacco smoke and subsequent reduced fertility in females. Hum Reprod. 25:2901–6
[12]. Young, J., Trotman, H., Thame, M. (2007). The impact of antenatal care on pregnancy performance between adolescent girls and older women. West Indian Med J. 56(5):414-20.

Ogana, Josephine. F. , Takon, Mary. B., Udom, Hannah. T. & Angioha, Pius U. “Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women in Ekpo Abasi Primary Health Care Centre, Calabar South, Cross River State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.401-408 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/401-408.pdf

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The Effect in Cognitive, Affective, and Behavior of Using Electronic Gadget among University Students

F. Mariam, M.Y. Kamal, Z.M. Lukman, C.Azlini, R. Normala – December 2018 Page No.: 409-412

The problem of using electronic gadgets is increasing as a result of rising modern development and the widespread sophistication of the internet. This main purpose of this study is to identify the effect in cognitive, affective and behavior of electronic gadget among university students. The data was collected through questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The descriptive statistic is reported by frequency and percentage to show the effect in cognitive, affective and behavior of electronic gadgets. A total of 352 respondents had completely answered the questionnaire. The result shows behavior effect greatly affects the use of the electronic gadget.

Page(s): 409-412                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 January 2019

 F. Mariam
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 M.Y. Kamal
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 Z.M. Lukman
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 C.Azlini
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

 R. Normala
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Malaysia

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