Volume III Issue II

Impact of Oil Price Volatility on Exchange Rate in Nigeria

James Tumba Henry – February 2019 Page No.: 01-16

Crude oil price plays an important role in influencing the economies of crude oil exporting countries like Nigeria. This impact can either be negative or positive depending on whether the price of crude oil in the international market increases or decreases. Nigeria moved from managed float exchange rate regime in 1986 shortly after the adoption of Structural Adjustment Programme (in 1986) to a free float exchange rate regime. However, time series data have shown that oil price and exchange rate are correlated because a sudden change in the price of crude oil in the international market is always accompanied by a period of fluctuations in the exchange rate value of the currencies of oil exporting countries, especially when the economy is oil-export dependent. This study therefore is aimed at examining impact of oil price volatility on exchange rate in Nigeria. In doing this, annual time series data from 1986 to 2015 were utilized. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds testing procedures was used for this study because the variables were integrated of order I(0) and I(1) and granger causality test were used to estimate the exchange rate and causality models respectively. The exchange rate model showed a good fit, 99 percent of the variations in the dependent variable were explained by the independent variables and hypotheses tested at 1, 5 and 10 percent levels of significance. The results indicated a negative but significant relationship between volatility of crude oil prices and exchange rates in Nigeria in the long-run. In the short-run, however, this relationship was negative and statistically not significant within the period of study. The results also showed money supply (M2), gross domestic product (GDP) and lending interest rate as important determinants of exchange rate in Nigeria in the short and long runs. The granger causality result indicated there is no causality between oil price volatility and exchange rate. The study recommended urgent shift in the Nigerian economy from crude oil export to none-oil exports through the exploration of other solid minerals and even agricultural produce. It also recommended swift effort to increasing Nigeria’s foreign exchange reserve in the short run so that it can serve as a shock absorber against crude oil price volatility that negatively affect the Naira exchange rate in the long run.

Page(s): 01-16                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 February 2019

 James Tumba Henry
Department of Economics, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Adamawa State University, Mubi-Nigeria

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James Tumba Henry “Impact of Oil Price Volatility on Exchange Rate in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.01-16 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/01-16.pdf

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Information and Communication Technology and Youth Employment in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria

Angioha, P. Unim & Ugal, B. Upeh – February 2019 Page No.: 17-23

The issue of unemployment is not a new phenomenon in Nigeria. Thus, in recent years the rate has caused great concern not only to individuals but also to the general public as well as the policy makers. This study examine the effect information and communication technology have on youth employment in Calabar Municipality, Cross River state, Nigeria, in order to achieve the objective of this study, two specific objectives were raised for the study. To Examine the relationship between call center operator and youth employment in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria and to Assess if internet Café operator relates to youth employment in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria. The survey research design was adopted for the study. The study was carried out in Calabar Municipality. The population of the study is both male and female youths that reside in the study area. The study made use of two hundred (200) samples selected using the purposive sampling technique. The questionnaire was adopted as the main instrument for data collection. Data collected from the field was coded and analyzed hypothesis by hypothesis and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was the statistical tool for data analysis. Out of the 200 administered questionnaires for this study, only 157 respondents returned questionnaire were properly filled without missing values and mutilation, therefore the said number was used for the data analysis. Result revealed that there is statistical considerable relationship between call center operator and youth employment in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria and Internet Café operator statistical considerable relate to youth employment in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria. The study recommends amongst others that both the state and federal Government should as a matter of urgency provide all necessary facilities for the training of youth in ICT management so as to provide job opportunities for the teaming unemployed youth Calabar Municipality.

Page(s): 17-23                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 February 2019

 Angioha, P. Unim
Graduate Students, Department of Sociology, University of Calabar, Nigeria

 Ugal, B. Upeh
Department of Social Work, University of Calabar, Nigeria

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Angioha, P. Unim & Ugal, B. Upeh ” Information and Communication Technology and Youth Employment in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.17-23 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/17-23.pdf

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Unemployment and its Effects on the Institution of Marriage: A Sociological Study of Baramulla District
Zubair Ahmad Bhat – February 2019 – Page No.: 24-27

The social life and other social institutions of Muslims are based on the Islam, the Quran and the teachings of the Prophet Mohammad PBUH are the main sources of Muslim culture and traditions. But throughout the world the customs and traditions of Muslims are not the same as several other factors determine the conduct of life in the contemporary society. The Muslim communities in India are deeply influenced by the Hindu customs and in the valley of Kashmir the changes are evident as marriage patterns among the Kashmiri Muslims have changed after the accession of the state with the union of India. According to Islamic law every Muslim who is adult (age of puberty) 15 years old is fit for getting married. In past the average age of marriage among the Muslim boys in the valley was 18-22 and in case of girls it was 15-20 as marriage was mostly arranged by the parents and other members of the family. The family while arranging the marriage looked for the property of the family and their social status, the number of domestic animals, agricultural land etc were the areas of investigation. However from the last three decades the perceptions of the youth changed due to various socio-cultural and political developments in the state. The growth and expansion of education among the youth, particularly among girls have deeply affected the institution of marriage and other social institutions. The present study will highlight the relationship between the institution of marriage and employment of the youth in Kashmir.

Page(s): 24-27                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 February 2019

 Zubair Ahmad Bhat
Research Scholar, Barkatullah University Bhopal M.P India

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Zubair Ahmad Bhat “Unemployment and its Effects on the Institution of Marriage: A Sociological Study of Baramulla District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.24-27 February 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/24-27.pdf

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An Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking

Ayedero Taiwo Martins – February 2019 Page No.: 28-34

Our main objective in this paper is to improve our logical thinking skills and to expose us to basic pitfalls in human reasoning. The most important critical thinking skill is the skill of making judgments, not spontaneous judgment that occurs in the twinkle of an eye, but those that require careful and deliberate reasoning. The purpose of studying Logic and Philosophy at this level of academic tutelage is to facilitate students’ thinking ability in tackling herculean tasks, addressing recalcitrant and intractable issues and been able to easily confront problem areas in their respective field of study. Good thinking therefore, is a necessary factor to securing excellent academic performance. Logic provides rigorous ground for whatsoever belief, position or opinion we are holding. It enables us to develop critical attitude in us to query and investigate some assumptions and presuppositions in our various disciplines that we often take for granted. It also enables us to identify common errors (fallacies) in human reasoning. As matter of fact, we need logic for good business plan and to manage personal, corporate or public affairs.

Page(s): 28-34                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 February 2019

 Ayedero Taiwo Martins
Ekiti State University, Nigeria

[1]. Adeniyi O.R (2001), “The Nature and Subject Matter of Logic”, in Introduction to Philosophy and Logic, ed. O.R Adeniyi, Newsletter Limited: Yaba Lagos. Pp138
[2]. Grice H.P (2001), Aspects of Reasoning, R. Warner, ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
[3]. Ibid p. 45
[4]. See Adeniyi (2001), pp 139
[5]. Uchaga D.N (19920, “The Nature of Arguments in Logic”, in Introduction to Logic and Scientific Reasoning, Hercon Publisher; lagos Nigeria
[6]. Copi, Irvin (1978) Introduction to Logic, 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publisher Co. Inc.
[7]. Adeniyi (2001) pp. 126
[8]. Robert J.F, Walter S.A (2005), Understanding Argument: An Introduction to Formal Logic, ed. Steve Wainwright, Holly J. Allen Wadsworth: Canada. pp.2.
[9]. Dada S.O (2001), “Symbolic Logic and Logical Symbols”, in Introduction to Philosophy and Logic, ed. O.R Adeniyi, Newsletter Limited: Yaba Lagos. Pp 136
[10]. Alfred N.W (1911), An Introduction to Mathematics, New York: Holt and Co. pp 61.
[11]. Nwigwe B.E (1992), “Logic: Its Development and Areas of Study”, in Introduction to Logic and Scientific Reasoning, Hercon Publishers: Lagos
[12]. Adeniyi O.R (2004), Formal Deductive Logic, Newsletters Ltd. Iwaya Yaba: Lagos.
[13]. Copi Irving & Cohen, (2001) Introduction to Logic,
[14]. Adeniyi O.R (2000), Introduction to Philosophy and Logic, Petoa Education Publishers: Ado Ekiti pp25-27
[15]. Adeniyi (2004), pp. 27
[16]. See Dada S.O (2001), p. 136
[17]. Alfred N.W (1911) p.62
[18]. Adeniyi (2004, 34)
[19]. See Adeniyi 2000, p. 27
[20]. Dada S.O. (2001) p.135
[21]. Adeniyi, (2000)p28
[22]. 21 Ibid p. 33
[23]. Copi Irving & Cohen (2001) pp. 326
[24]. Adeniyi 2004, 27
[25]. Ibid pp.45
[26]. Ibid pp46
[27]. Copi Irving and Cohen (2001) p. 136
[28]. See Copi & Cohen (2001) pp. 176-180

Ayedero Taiwo Martins “An Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.28-34 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/28-34.pdf

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Prevalence of TaeniaSaginata and Fasciola Hepatica in Cows and Goats Slaughtered in Mbale Municipality Abattoir

Abdulkayyum Abubakar Ali – February 2019 Page No.: 35-41

The main purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Taeniasaginata and Fasciola hepatica in cows and goats slaughtered in Mbale Municipality abattoir and to compare the prevalence rate of those parasites among the gender of cows and goats. Also to assess the level of knowledge among the local communities rearing the animals in regards to prevention and control of helminthes infestations. A quasi experimental design was used in this study. One hundred (100) tissue samples of liver, tongue and muscles of the cows and goats each were collected in well labeled polythene bags, taken to the parasitology laboratory for analysis using Postmortem method. One hundred and fifty (150) questionnaires were randomly distributed to the respondents. The results showed that the prevalence of Taeniasaginata and Fasciola hepatica was significantly higher in cows than in goats slaughtered in Mbale abattoir. Prevalence did not show a significant variation among the male and female cows and goats. The level of education among the local communities in Lira and Mbale significantly influenced the mode of animal grazing and source of drinking water for animals, while mode of meat consumption and defecating sites were not significantly influenced by the level of education. Based on the findings, the study recommended that public should be made aware of the helminthes infection (Taeniasaginata and Faciola hepatica) and the need to prevent their animals from getting into contact with these parasites so as to reduce their infestation rates. Further still, the government should assist farmers acquire drugs to deworm their infected animals and also offer extension services to them, sensitizing farmers on the knowledge of prevention and control of Taeniasaginata and Faciola hepatica.

Page(s): 35-41                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 February 2019

 Abdulkayyum Abubakar Ali
Department of Environmental Health, Caliphate School of Health Technology, No. 2 Achida Road, Gawon Nama Area, Sokoto, Nigeria

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Abdulkayyum Abubakar Ali “Prevalence of TaeniaSaginata and Fasciola Hepatica in Cows and Goats Slaughtered in Mbale Municipality Abattoir” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.35-41 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/35-41.pdf

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Dialectics on the Constitutional Implications of Party Supremacy in Nigeria

Naphtali Ukamwa – February 2019 Page No.: 42-54

This paper interrogates the doctrinal conception and practice of party supremacy in Nigeria. It buttresses the argument that the doctrine of party supremacy has been negatively conceived and practised by Nigerian political elite. This is evident in charismatic-based party as opposed to value-oriented party. Party supremacy in Nigeria is not demonstrative and reflective of the popular will of party members but merely the predominance of party cabals, Chiefs and secretive bodies that constitute themselves into party leadership. Using a constitutional approach, this paper advocates the supremacy of the constitution and sovereignty of the people over party supremacy. It is also submitted that party structure and decision-making must foster democratic doctrine of inclusiveness, a core element of intra party democracy. It is further contended that party supremacy in Nigeria must be practically constitutionally checked and controlled, otherwise the abuse of it will implicitly and explicitly metamorphosed into one party system and the violation of citizens right to freedom of political association, assembly and expression. Most importantly, this paper establishes that hegemonic political party system and the arbitrary rule of godfatherism characterized the last sixteen years of Nigerian constitutional democratic rule which has given rise to the tendency of breeding executive tyranny, lawlessness and negation of the constitutional principle of separation of powers. Therefore, it is acknowledged that party autonomy is an indispensable instrumentality of party institutionalization but a further contention is that it must be subject to practices accustomed to constitutional democracy for the sole ends of good governance and nation building.

Page(s): 42-54                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 February 2019

 Naphtali Ukamwa
LL.B(Lagos), B.L (Abuja)(in view), Faculty of Law, University of Lagos, Nigeria

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Naphtali Ukamwa “Dialectics on the Constitutional Implications of Party Supremacy in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.42-54 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/42-54.pdf

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The Politics of State Capture in Zimbabwe

Teddy Mungwari- February 2019 Page No.: 55-67

This article demonstrates that Zimbabwe experiences serious problems of state capture. State capture began to be an issue in 2017 when factionalism between Team Lacoste and Generation 40(G40) reached its climax. However, state capture became topical in Zimbabwe in October 2018 following Reserve Bank Governor’s (RBZ) announcement of interventions through the 2018 mid–term monetary policy statement, particularly the 2% tax; which immediately triggered price increases and fuel crisis. The research question addressed in this article is: What is state capture and how is it manifested in Zimbabwe? Firstly, it systematically unpacks the phenomenon as a type of business- state relationship distinct from influence and corruption and outlines its types, features and essence. Secondly, the article explores state capture in contemporary Zimbabwe- focusing on the mining, banking, energy (fuel), agricultural sectors, government ministries (legislature, state media and judiciary), the security sector and Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission. The methodology and theoretical framework adopted in this study involves qualitative political economy approach. A combination of current research reports, analysis of newspaper articles and social media to illuminate the phenomenon and its manifestations. The article contributes to existing knowledge by not only clarifying a concept conflated with corruption but also analyzing the manifestations of state capture in Zimbabwe.

Page(s): 55-67                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 February 2019

 Teddy Mungwari
PhD, Senior Lecturer, Centre for Language & Communication Studies, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Zimbabwe

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16 July. Available at: www.iol.co.za/news/opinion/mass-media-is-captured-by-whitemonopoly-capital-10312606
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Teddy Mungwari” The Politics of State Capture in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.55-67 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/55-67.pdf

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Leadership and Good Governance: The Rwandan Experience

NDAGIJIMANA Ibrahim – February 2019 Page No.: 68-78

None can doubt about that, leadership and good governance are central to the success of any country on Earth or any company and economic sector. Promoting and getting it rights has a significant bearing on political, social and economic growth and the way that a given Country performs in all sectors.
Without a strong Leadership and governance can’t ever achieve any positive outcomes on related political, economic and social objectives of any political community and yet it is an imperative. The significance of leadership to governance is seeing in the fact that good leadership sets the strong stone of foundation and standard of governance. This paper engages in the conceptual analysis and examination of the governance and leadership phenomenon based on secondary data, analyzes its phenomenon in Rwanda.
Findings reveal that, for a long time, Rwanda was marked by bad governance based on dictatorship, politic of fear, segregation and exclusion of the people in the governance of their own country. In fact, lacked vision, engrossed with high rate of corruption and poverty, maladministration, political, social and economic instability, consequently Genocide against Tutsis in 1994. Even though elections were held in Rwanda, they were never based on the positive ideas or competence of the candidates but rather on ethnicity, origin, religion and other issues from which the country benefited nothing. After the elections, the elected leaders did not concern themselves with the needs of people’s problems they were allegedly representing.
To make our forefather’s dreams into reality, a country of milk and honey, new regime under the HE, Paul KAGAME leadership, ensured democracy, good governance and leadership where citizen’s are on top and center of everything, leaders are people’s servant and accountability is imperative if good governance and leadership is to be attained in Rwanda.
Note that, achieving leadership and good governance is one of the Rwandan greatest successes that determined the success of policies and programmes to promote Rwandan’s development.

Page(s): 68-78                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 February 2019

 NDAGIJIMANA Ibrahim
PhD Student in Governance and Leadership, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Kigali Rwanda

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NDAGIJIMANA Ibrahim “Leadership and Good Governance: The Rwandan Experience” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.68-78 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/68-78.pdf

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The Effects of Market Location on Traffic Flow in Lagos State

OSOJA, ADEBAKIN OLUYINKA- February 2019 Page No.: 79-89

Markets playscrucial role in the economic life of the people, and they are essential in the distribution of commodity, however pointed out that the rapid growth of urban centres has generated management problems. The most important of these problems are the encroachment of the open spaces environment and health issues including solid waste management, water supply, housing, traffic congestion and water pollution respectively. This research is however aimed at identifying the significant impact of commercial activities on traffic flow on Lagos road in order to in order to recommend ways to curtail the menace.To achieve the aim and objectives hypotheses were formulated. In order to validate the hypotheses regression statistical tools was used. Regression estimates the coefficients of the linear equation, involving one or more independent variables that best predict the value of the dependent variable. The first hypothesis reveals a low coefficient of determination. This can be seen from R-squared of 0.24. The R-squared reports that the independent variables can explain 24 per cent of total variation in the influence of the market in traffic flow in the area, while 76% are accounted for by other variables other than the market location, where some of the traffic are influenced by the non-availability of parking space by the banks and other parameters.The second hypothesis reveals an average coefficient of determination; this can be seen from R-squared of 0.672, which reveals the market location will have 67% impact on traffic flow in the area, while the other 33% of the traffic gridlock in the area is not as a result of the presence of the market, the research thus reveals the market is greatly influencing traffic flow in the area.
The research however revealed that most of the shops and banks along the road are with small or no parking space, which thus result to their customer parking along the road, thereby inhibiting the free flow of traffic in the area. It can however be concluded that market location has negatively affected traffic flow in the study area, as the road thus not only lead to the market but connects with other places such as Ajangbadi, Shibiri etc., the road has been nightmare to motorist as enough provision is not made for parking which may be as a result of land use conversion, the available parking space is not properly utilized by motorist as they consider it too expensive, thereby causing many of the buyers to park their vehicles by the road side which invariably leads to traffic in the area.

Page(s): 79-89                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 February 2019

 OSOJA, ADEBAKIN OLUYINKA
Department of Geography and Planning, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria.

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[9]. Gbadamosi KT (2004). Perspectives of the Nigerian Urban Transport system.Obstacles and option for sustainability. Being a lecture delivered at the 2004 Annual congress at the University of Free state, Bloemfontein, South African.
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[11]. Hougendoorn, S. P. and Bovy, P. H. I. (2001).State-of-the-art of Vehicles Traffic Flow Modelling.Journal of System and Control Engineering, 215(4), 283-303.
[12]. Muli, S. J. (2007). Analysis of market typology and function in development. University of London Press, London.
[13]. World Bank (2009). Ghana Innovation Market place 2009 in Tema, Ghana News Agency. www.the freedictionary.com/market; accessed on 25thMay, 2013.

OSOJA, ADEBAKIN OLUYINKA” The Effects of Market Location on Traffic Flow in Lagos State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.79-89 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/79-89.pdf

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Challenges Facing Islam in Promoting National Cohesion and Integration in Kenya

Michael G. Mwangi, Dr. Janet N. Kassilly and Dr. Nicholas K. Ombachi – February 2019 Page No.: 90-98

National cohesion and integration havebecome an area of interest at both the government and the civic levels in Kenya. This has been occasioned by high degree of social disintegration witnessed in the country especially around the electioneering periods. Islam as the second largest religion in Kenya has attempted to give its input in promoting a cohesive and integrated society. While undertaking the task, several challenges have stood on the way towards a successful contribution by the religion. The paper aimed at exploring the specific challenges that have complicated the work of Islam in the efforts. Evidence for the paper was collected using questionnaires, interview guides and focus group discussion guides. The study was largely qualitative and hence the data collected was organized into thematic areas for ease of analysis. The study found that political interference, increased radicalization, bad leadership and lack of enough resources were major barriers against the religion’s efforts for a cohesive and integrated society in Kenya. Other challenges include negative publicity and stereotypes against Islam and divisions among Muslims while approaching matters of public importance.

Page(s): 90-98                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 February 2019

 Michael G. Mwangi
International Leadership University, Kenya

 Dr. Janet N. Kassilly
International Leadership University, Kenya

 Dr. Nicholas K. Ombachi
International Leadership University, Kenya

[1]. Abdalati, H. (1998). Islam in focus. Nairobi, Kenya: The Islamic Foundation.
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[3]. Abdalla, A.K. (2012). Islamic da’wah and missionary enterprise in Kenyan Coast (Mombasa, Malindi and Lamu Districts):1985-2005 comparative study. PhD research. Khartoum, Sudan: International University of Africa, Centre for research and African Studies.
[4]. Akama, J. (2012). Developing local interfaith capacity in conflict transformation and peace building in Kenya. Nairobi: Center for partnership and civic engagement.
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[11]. Government of Kenya (2014). Social economic atlas of Kenya: Depicting the national population census by county and sub-location. Nairobi, Kenya: KNBS.
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[13]. Kapoor, S. (2010). Islam: Balancing life and beyond. Toronto: Sana Printing Inc.
[14]. Kundnani, A. (2014). The Muslims are coming: Islamophobia, extremism and the domestic war on terror. New York: VERSO.
[15]. Lynch, C. “Local and Global Influences on Islamic NGOs in Kenya”. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 6, no 1(2011): 21-34.
[16]. Mazrui, A.A. (2006). Islam: Between globalization and counterterrorism. Oxford: James Currey.
[17]. Mghanga, M. (2010). Usipozibaufautajengaukuta: Land, elections, and conflicts in Kenya’s Coast Province. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Stiftung.
[18]. Morin, H. (2007). Muslim ministry in the African context. Springfield, Missouri: Africa’s Hope.
[19]. Mugenda, O., and Abel, M. (2003). Research methods: quantitative and qualitative approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.
[20]. Mwangi, I. (2014). The role of communication and the media in inter-religious conflict between Christians and Muslims in Kenya. Unpublished MA Thesis in communication studies: University of Nairobi.
[21]. National Cohesion and Integration Commission and Kenya Institute for public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) (2014). The status of social cohesion in Kenya, 2013.
[22]. Nehls, G., and Walter, E. (2009). Islam: Basic aspects. Nairobi, Kenya: Life Challenge Africa.
[23]. Nyukuri, B. K. (1997). The Impact of Past and Potential Ethnic Conflicts on Kenyan’s Stability and Development. Unpublished Paper prepared for USAID conference on Conflict Resolution in the Greater Horn of Africa. March 27-28, Nairobi.
[24]. Oded, A. (2000). Islam and politics in Kenya. United States: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
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[29]. Said, E.W (1997). Covering Islam: How the media and the experts determine how we see the rest of the world. New York: Vintage Books.

Michael G. Mwangi, Dr. Janet N. Kassilly and Dr. Nicholas K. Ombachi “Challenges Facing Islam in Promoting National Cohesion and Integration in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.90-98 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/90-98.pdf

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Examining Global Governance in Africa in Reference to African Union (AU)

Hassan Attahiru Gwandu – February 2019 Page No.: 99-106

Global Governance is a movement towards political integration of trans-national actors in response to issues that affect more than one state or region. It tends to involve institutionalizations. These institutions can be global institutions, regional institution and sub-regional institution for global governance; such as the United Nations, African Union, and ECOWAS. In the present globalized world, regions serve as an effective link amid the international and national systems. Most especially that regional organization, been regional entities are closer to the people and communities. Thus, the regional organization plays an intermediary role in building development and good governance in the world. This can be achieved by closely working from cultural and linguistic cohesion, to provide a forum for building trust and familiarity that is not conceivable on a global scale. Regional organizations can develop ground-breaking and active procedures of regional collaboration that could aid as models for the region by establishing common policies and resolving issues of contention. Therefore, the paperexamines the global governance from a regional perspective (Africa), with reference to the African Union (AU).

Page(s): 99-106                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 February 2019

 Hassan Attahiru Gwandu
Department of History and International Studies, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria

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Hassan Attahiru Gwandu “Examining Global Governance in Africa in Reference to African Union (AU)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.99-106 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/99-106.pdf

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Class Size and Its Impact on Academic Performance of Pupils of Choggu Demonstration Junior High School

Fuseini, Salifu Azindoo – February 2019 Page No.: 107-113

The study was carried out to examine the impact of class size on the academic performance of choggu Demonstration Junior High School pupils’. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population for the study was made up of pupils and teachers in the school. The Stratified Random Sampling method was chosen. It was deem appropriate because the various forms namely form one, two and three, constituted the strata and each stratum was represented in the study to enable the researcher make generalization. Sixty two pupils each from the various forms were therefore sampled from each stratum using the simple random technique. The main tools used in the study were questionnaire and interview. The findings revealed that large class size is caused by the introduction of education policies leading to inadequate classrooms in the schools and large class sizes have a negative impact on academic performance of pupils. It concludes that the main causes of larger class size were as results of Government Policies such as Capitation grant, FCUBE and other Religious factors. The study recommends that Ghana Education Service, District Assemblies and other stakeholders in Education should come to the aid the school.

Page(s): 107-113                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 February 2019

 Fuseini, Salifu Azindoo
Tutor and Head of Education Department, Tamale College of Education, Tamale, Ghana

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Fuseini, Salifu Azindoo “Class Size and Its Impact on Academic Performance of Pupils of Choggu Demonstration Junior High School” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.107-113 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/107-113.pdf

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Senior High School Students’ Challenges in Solving Word Problems Involving Linear Equation in One Variable in Tamale Metropolis

Fuseini Issahaku Ibrahim1 and Osei Yaw (Ph.D) – February 2019 Page No.: 114-120

This paper examined the challenges students in Senior High School face in solving word problems in linear Equations involving one variable. The Action Research designed was used for the study. This is because the study was about helping students to develop interest so as to overcome their difficulties. Population of the study consisted of students of Tamale Business Senior High School. The purposive sampling technique was used in the study. In all, 2H class made up of seventy (70) students consisting of 44 Boys and 26 Girls were purposively selected for the study. Students in 2H class have more difficulties in mathematics than the other classes hence the choice of the class. Test and interview were the main instruments used for the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that students had difficulties in solving non-routine word problems but could easily solved routine word problems. the researchers conclude that students had difficulties in solving non-routine word problems. Mathematics Teachers should involve students in series of non-routine word problems so as to enhance their approach in solving non-routine word problems relating to linear equations in one variable.

Page(s): 114-120                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 February 2019

 Fuseini Issahaku Ibrahim
Mathematics and ICT Department, E.P. College of Education, Bimbilla, Ghana

 Osei Yaw (Ph.D)
Mathematics and ICT Department, Tamale College of Education, Tamale, Ghana

[1]. Anamuah-Mensah, J., Mereku, D K., &Asabere-Ameyaw, A. (2004). Ghanaian Junior secondary school student’ achievement in Mathematics and science: Results from Ghana’s participation in the 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science study (TIMSS-2003. Accra: Ministry of Education.
[2]. Anamuah-Mensah, J., Mereku, D. K., &Asabere-Ameyaw, A. (2008). TIMSS-2007 Ghana Report: Findings from IEA’S Trends in International Mathematics and Science study at Eighth Grade. Accra: Ministry of Education.
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[4]. Baron, M. E. (2003). Implication of cognitive theory for instruction in word problem solving. Review of Educational Research, 54, 363-407.
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[7]. Dewey, J. (1968). How to think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Boston: Health.
[8]. Dickson, R. (1999). Current issues and problems in mathematics teaching. In M. Cornelius (Ed). Teaching Mathematics (pp. 1-16). New York: Nichols publishing company.
[9]. Duckworth, J. R. (2009). Problem based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35 (5), 31-38.
[10]. Duncan, N. (2001). Exploration of students’ mathematical beliefs and behaviour. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 20, 338-355.
[11]. Ellington, M. (2009). Mathematical problem solving characteristics of Middle school students with learning disabilities. The Journal of special Education, 27, 175-201.
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[13]. Heather, K. J. (2005). Conceptual and Procedural Understanding of Algebra Concept in Middle Grades. Texas A & M University.
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[15]. John, L. (2004). Mathematical problem solving. Orlando, FL; Academic Press.
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[17]. Kenney, M. S., & Silver, T. L. (1981). Development of children’s problem-solving ability in arithmetic. In H. Ginsburg (Ed.), The Development of Mathematical Thinking (pp. 153- 200). New York: Academic Press.
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[20]. Le Blanc, T. R. (2002). Representation and translations among representations in mathematics learning and problem solving. In C. Janvier (ED), Problems of representation in the teaching and learning of mathematics (pp. 33-40). Cambridge University press.
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Fuseini Issahaku Ibrahim1 and Osei Yaw (Ph.D) “Senior High School Students’ Challenges in Solving Word Problems Involving Linear Equation in One Variable in Tamale Metropolis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.114-120 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/114-120.pdf

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Analysis of Four Books on Qur’anic Sciences Written by Shaykh Abd Allah bnFoduye

Dr. Muhammad Sani Abdullahi Jos, Zayyanu Altine – February 2019 Page No.: 121-126

Shaykh ‘Abd Allah bnFoduye has numerous writings on various subjects in Islamic studies, but the area of this research is concentrated to the writings on ‘Ulum al-Qur’an (Qur’anic sciences), by Shaykh Abd Allah bnFoduye, the researchers will analyze some of his books on Qur’anic sciences, which include Al-Fara’id al-Jalilahwasa’it al-Fawa’id al-Jamilah Fi‘Ulum al-Qur’an (Great things on the sciences of the Qur’an), Miftah al-Tafsir (The key of al-Tafsir) and Sulalat al-Miftah (summary key) Diya’ al-Ta’wil Fi Ma’an al-Tanzil (Light of explanation in the meaning of the Qur’an), Kifayat al-Dhu’fa.’ and Nail al-Sul min Tafsir al-Rasul. The researchers also discussed the importance of revealing Qur’an in seven letters. The analytical method is used when conducting this research.

Page(s): 121-126                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 February 2019

 Dr. Muhammad Sani Abdullahi Jos
Department of Islamic Studies, Faculty of Arts and Islamic Studies, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Zayyanu Altine
Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Arts and Islamic Studies, Department of Islamic Studies, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

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[6]. __________(2002), Alfara’id al-Jalilahwawa-sa’it al-Fawa’id al-Jamilah Fi ‘Ulum al-Qur’an A. Hamid, A. (ed.) (np), (np).
[7]. __________(2011), Miftah, al-Tafsir, M.T. Gulma (ed.), Dar al-UmmahLiwakalat at-Matbua’at, Kano.
[8]. __________(n.d),Sulalat al-Miftah, M.B. Boyi (ed.), (n.p) (n.p).
[9]. _________ (n.d), Diya’ al-Ta’wil Fi Ma’an al-Tanzil(light of explanation in the meaning of the Qur’an), (n.p)(n.p).
[10]. __________ (n.d), Diya’ al-Hukkam(ms): Cairo, (n.p) (n.p).
[11]. Muslim, M.H. (2008), Sahih Muslim,Siddiqui, A. (trans.): Beirut. Daru al-Arabia.
[12]. _____________(2003), Sahih al-Bukhari, S. J. al-Attar (ed.),. Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon.
[13]. Suyuti, A. (1967), Al-Itqan Fi ‘Ulum al-Qur’an. Ibrahim, M.A. (ed.), (np), (np).

Dr. Muhammad Sani Abdullahi Jos, Zayyanu Altine “Analysis of Four Books on Qur’anic Sciences Written by Shaykh Abd Allah bnFoduye” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.121-126 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/121-126.pdf

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School Inspectors’ Support towards Positive Adolescent Sexuality Development (A Case of Malawi)

Caroline Chiphinga-Mwale – February 2019 Page No.: 127-137

The study used convergent mixed methods design with conveniently sampled school inspectors to analyse their contribution towards positive adolescent sexuality development. A total of 8 inspectors (5 females and 3 males) provided information from the researcher’s workplace. Respondents demonstrated that school inspectors in Malawi offer limited support towards positive adolescent sexuality development due to inspectors’ personal stance on adolescent sexuality development, inadequate continuous professional development, regular routines, real life obligations and dominant circumstances.

Page(s): 127-137                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 February 2019

 Caroline Chiphinga-Mwale
Master of Education Alumni, The University of Queensland, School of Education; Principal Inspector of Schools, Ministry of Education Science and Technology, Malawi

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Caroline Chiphinga-Mwale “School Inspectors’ Support towards Positive Adolescent Sexuality Development (A Case of Malawi)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.127-137 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/127-137.pdf

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Role and Developmental Activities of women in Panchayati Raj Institution of Shopian District of Jammu and Kashmir

Mohammad Iqbal Ganie- February 2019 Page No.: 138-140

The idea of Panchayati Raj is unquestionably Indian in foundation. Panchayati Raj bodies, which are real and useful democratic decentralized institutions, provide plenty opportunities for a huge number of rural people to take real and useful involvement in the progress and democratic decision-making process and to impart in the minds of the rural people a courage of self help, self reliance and self dependence and to obtain the skill in the art of local self-government. Panchayati Raj institutions have been playing a vital role in order to monitor these rural development programmes. However these institutions have been supportive in identifying genuine beneficiary in order to get most benefits out of these schemes. A various number of constraints, hurdles and deficiencies are also to blame for letdown of these rural development programmes. Various issues, aspects and dimensions related to Panchayati Raj Institutions in Shopian district of Jammu and Kashmir are studied in this paper.

Page(s): 138-140                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 February 2019

  Mohammad Iqbal Ganie
Research Scholar, Department of Political Science, Govt. Hamidia Arts and Commerce College Bhopal, Barkatullah University, Madhya Pradesh, India

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Mohammad Iqbal Ganie, “Role and Developmental Activities of women in Panchayati Raj Institution of Shopian District of Jammu and Kashmir” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.138-140 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/138-140.pdf

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Demographic Characteristics and Workers’ Performance in Public Service in Nigeria

Anne E. Omori, Peter U. Bassey – February 2019 Page No.: 141-146

There has been persistent poor performance among workers in Nigerian public organisations and Cross River State in particular over the years. The trend is exacerbated by changes in demographic variables. Previous studies have focused more attention on staff performance appraisal, commitment and job involvement with less attention paid to the influence of demographic characteristics (such as age, gender, marital status, work experience and educational level) on workers’ performance. This study therefore, examined the extent to which demographic characteristics predisposed workers’ performance in some selected public service in Cross River State, Nigeria. The survey design of ex-post facto was employed and the study was guided by five research questions and hypotheses. A total of 1,068 respondents were randomly selected to represent the entire population of public servants in Cross River State. Participants were 584 males and 484 females. Two validated instruments namely: Demographic Characteristis and Workers’ Performance scales was validated was used in collecting data for the study. The reliability co-efficient of 0.86 was obtained using test-retest method and Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis. Data was analyzed using percentage count, weight mean and Analysis of Variance statistics. The results showed that demographic characteristics significantly influence performance of workers in public service. By implications, the results of the study attest to the fact that even though workers’ performance may be influenced by other factors as portrayed by many scholars, performances of workers are equally affected by their demographic characteristics. Hence, adequate consideration should be given to employee personal characteristics in motivating them to a higher performance level. This study could be useful to government and human resource administrators as a measure of employee performance.

Page(s): 141-146                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 February 2019

 Anne E. Omori
Ph.D., Institute of Education, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

 Peter U. Bassey
Ph.D., Department of Educational Foundations, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

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Anne E. Omori, Peter U. Bassey “Demographic Characteristics and Workers’ Performance in Public Service in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.141-146 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/141-146.pdf

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Urban Expansion and Agricultural Land Use in Peri-Urban Makurdi, Nigeria

Iorliam, Tarungwa Sylvester & Ortserga, Daniel Serki – February 2019 Page No.: 147-156

This study explored the impact of urban physical growth on agricultural land use in peri-urban districts of Makurdi town from 1986 to 2016. Satellite data from RS images and GIS maps of the area in combination with data from questionnaire survey of 150 farmers and key informants were used for the study. Again RS and GIS techniques were used to analyse the data in conjunction with descriptive tools such as percentages, tables and pie charts. The result of the study shows that built up land use class expanded significantly in the city from barely 8.73% by 1986 to 64.15% in the year 2016. On the contrary the finding also shows that whereas agricultural land use occupied 32.6% of the city region in 1986, it decreased in the following three decades to 7.50% by 2016. Also from the findings all other land uses and land cover classes such as forest/vegetation, bare lands, and wetlands similarly declined in area coverage significantly in the period due to conversions. This finding shows that the city’s expansion was derived largely from conversion of other land uses/cover classes to built-up land use type especially mixed agricultural land use. From the result the highest land conversion to built up area was from mixed agricultural land use class. About 72% of prime agricultural land use class was converted and this accounted for 57% (more than half) of the growth of built up land use. Finally the survey result also shows a dramatic reduction in the sizes of farmlands owned by farmers now as against ten to twenty years ago. This development has likely effect on livelihoods and food security of urban and peri-urban residents. Consequently it has been recommended that an agro-ecological map of Makurdi town using zoning regulation be developed as part of a long term spatial development framework that can safe guard all prime agricultural lands from further encroachment by urban developments. And that further investigation be carried out to unravel the emerging livelihood and food security issues that could have aroused following depleting agricultural lands in the city’s peri-urban regions.

Page(s): 147-156                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 February 2019

 Iorliam, Tarungwa Sylvester
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Benue State University Makurdi, Nigeria

 Ortserga, Daniel Serki
Department of Geography Benue State University Makurdi, Nigeria

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Iorliam, Tarungwa Sylvester & Ortserga, Daniel Serki “Urban Expansion and Agricultural Land Use in Peri-Urban Makurdi, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.147-156 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/147-156.pdf

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Rape Post –Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Perception of Female Young Adults

Peter Unoh Bassey, Omori, Anne Emmanuel- February 2019 Page No.: 157-162

Millions of women and young girls all over the world are sexually abused, humiliated and traumatized. This study attempts to bring to the limelight the perception of young female adults on rape post-traumatic stress symptoms in Nigeria. Although several studies have examined rape and Posttraumatic stress disorder among women in developed countries, only a few study explicitly examined rape post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and perception using a population in Nigeria. Therefore this study investigated rape post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and perception of young female adults in Nigeria. This study adopted a descriptive survey design. The sample comprised 225 female drawn from four faculties in University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria through multi stage sampling technique. The instruments for data collection were Rape Post-traumatic Stress Symptom(r = 0.68) and Student Perception Rating (r= 0.64) Scales. The data collected was analyzed using simple percentage, frequency count, and inferential statistic of independent t-test. The results revealed among others that rape events are prevalence among young female adult. Also, young female adult have had experience of different rape traumatic stress disorder symptoms. The study suggests that the inclusion of sex education at all levels of education will create more awareness and enable students to learn from their peers’ diverse experiences and professional circumstances can meaningfully impact and assist students perceptions and understanding of handling rape post-traumatic stress disorder.

Page(s): 157-162                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 February 2019

 Peter Unoh Bassey
Ph.D, University of Calabar, Nigeria

 Omori, Anne Emmanuel
Ph.D, University of Calabar, Nigeria

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Peter Unoh Bassey, Omori, Anne Emmanuel”Rape Post –Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Perception of Female Young Adults” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.157-162 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/157-162.pdf

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Addressing Ethnic and Cultural Diversity through Cultural Responsive Pedagogy: Pushing For Equity Pedagogy and Cultural Competence in the Nigerian Educational System

Chia, Ogheneovo Esther – February 2019 Page No.: 163-170

The continuous search for better living standards and globalization has encouraged the movement of people from different parts of the world. This has posed a great strain on education in the 21st century. Diversity in the classroom is on the increase, adopting effective and efficient teaching practices that suits all the learning needs of multicultural and ethno linguistically diverse students is becoming imperative. There is a growing need for the educational system in Nigeria to move from the “one-size-fits-all” model of education to more culturally relevant pedagogy where education is built around the learner, rather than the learner being required to fit with the educational system. This article seeks to address ethnic and cultural diversity through cultural responsive pedagogy; it is aimed at having an all-inclusive classroom and pushing for pedagogies that promote equity and cultural competence in the Nigerian educational system. The article outlines the roles and need for infusing cultural responsive pedagogy into the educational system. It is also aimed to promote the creation of conducive classroom conditions, and support educational stakeholders in the creation of education systems that are responsive to ethnic and cultural diversity. Through the reviews of various literatures, the paper placed emphasis on the need to advance tolerance for diversity, developing respect, values of responsibility across all levels of education.

Page(s): 163-170                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 February 2019

 Chia, Ogheneovo Esther
Department of General Studies Education, Federal College of Education Zaria, Nigeria

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[73]. Waxman, H.C. & Tellez, K. (2002). Research synthesis on effective teaching practices for English language learners. Philadelphia, PA: Mid-Atlantic Laboratory for Student Success. (ERIC document Reproduction Services).
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[76]. Zirkel, S. (2008a). How do you read me? White teachers, students of color, and the role of racial and ethnic identity in achievement in education.Manuscript in preparation.

Chia, Ogheneovo Esther “Addressing Ethnic and Cultural Diversity through Cultural Responsive Pedagogy: Pushing For Equity Pedagogy and Cultural Competence in the Nigerian Educational System” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.163-170 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/163-170.pdf

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Critical Analysis of Credit Management in Nigeria Banks

Ajugwe Chukwu Alphonsus. Ph.D – February 2019 Page No.: 171-179

It is noteworthy to stress that management or administration of credit is a critical task facing every bank in the world of which Nigerian banks are inclusive. Specifically, the application requires experience and in-depth knowledge of banking practice. And for its effective performance, top management must be involved because of its critical importance in the overall performance of the bank and the fact that credit administration can impact either positively or negatively on the financial position of the bank. It determines the liquidity of the bank and how solid is the capital structure as well, the combination of both is imperative to determine how healthy the bank is.
A positive lending policy will ensure a constant flow of income to the bank which will lubricates their liquidity mechanism and making it possible to meet its cash demand as and when due, remains sound and resilient, and impact positively on its profitability for the benefit of the stakeholders or shareholders. This important task is not only achieved through the intermediation functions of the bank that triggers the injection of funds to the real sector of the economy, which stimulates economic growth and development. Nevertheless to stress that negative administration of credit will lead to the accumulation of bad debts in the books of the banks, dry up their liquidity, and led to the erosion of their capital. The continuous erosion of capital will trigger the folding up of the bank or lead to a merger or simple acquisition of the weaker banks by the stronger banks; typical examples are Skybank acquired by the Polor is bank or Diamond Bank that merged with a stronger Access bank.
Therefore, this paper will critically analyze the importance of credit management by the banks, and carefully crutinize its positive and negative impacts on the financial position of the banks and the economy as a whole. And recommend major steps to be deployed by the banks to ensure good credit management that will usher in confidence in the lending policy of the banks, by enunciating steps to be taken in the administration of credits to eliminate the possibilities of the loans crystalizing into bad debts.

Page(s): 171-179                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 February 2019

 Ajugwe Chukwu Alphonsus. Ph.D

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Ajugwe Chukwu Alphonsus. Ph.D “Critical Analysis of Credit Management in Nigeria Banks” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.171-179 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/171-179.pdf

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The Nexus between Globalization and Income Inequality in Sri Lanka

H.R.A.C. Thilanka – February 2019 Page No.: 180-184

This study examines the impact of globalization on income inequality in Sri Lanka for the period of 1980-2015 based on the Cointegration technique and Vector Error Correction Model. The results of the study show that foreign direct inflows affect negatively the income inequality in long run implying that FDI inflows help to mitigate the income inequality. However, trade openness affects positively the income inequality in long run showing that although the country engages in global trade and does have comparative advantages, the income accumulation through this process is convergent. Moreover, School enrollment ratio (primary) has the negative impact on the income inequality implying that increasing the school education level may lead to have high level of employment and then it leads to decrease the income inequality through the distribution of income. These findings of the study lead to timely guidance for policy compilations on income inequality in the country. The government can tend to give more incentives for attracting FDI while imposing proper restrictions on imports, incentives for more exports and ensuring fair distribution of benefits from external trade. Moreover, it is necessary to create more employment opportunities to rise up the labor force participation through increasing the level of education.

Page(s): 180-184                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 February 2019

 H.R.A.C. Thilanka
Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

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[6]. Bukhari, Mahnoor and Munir, Kashif (2016). Impact of Globalization on Income Inequality in Selected Asian Countries. Munich Personal RePEc Archive,pp. 1-33. Retrieved from: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/74248/
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[10]. Jaumotte, Florence, Lall, subir and Papgeorgiou, Chris (2013). Rising Income Inequality: Technology, or Trade and Financial Globalization?.International Monetary Fund Economic Review.Vol. 61(2), pp. 271-309. Retrieved from: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WP/Issues/2016/12/31/Rising-Income-Inequality-Technology-or-Trade-and-Financial-Globalization-22170
[11]. Karunarathne, Hettige Don (2003). Globalization Service Sector Expansion and Income Inequality in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 29(2), pp. 47-70. Retrieved from:http://www.academia.edu/3192232/
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H.R.A.C. Thilanka “The Nexus between Globalization and Income Inequality in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.180-184 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/180-184.pdf

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Bamileke Businessmen in the Realm of Political Transition in Bamileke Region of Cameroon, 1990-2000

Nzeucheu Pascal, Prof. Simon Tata Ngenge – February 2019 Page No.: 185-195

In the Bamilike County of Cameroon the businessmen prior to the 1990s were not interested in party politics. After independence they were not interested in politics and concentrated in building wealth. The creation of a monolithic systemon 1st September 1966, made it that they were simple militants of the political system and went about doing their businesses successfully. The re-emergence of multi-party democracy in 1990 changed the perception of the businessmen toward political participation. To protect their businesses most of them became militants of Cameroon Democratic Movement (CPDM) in their various home towns in order to preserve their businesses while other defected from CPDM to join the opposition or created their own political parties. Following this change, the Bamileke businessmen actively participated in the 1996 council election, 1992 and 1992 legislative elections. During this political exercised they exhibited their financial capabilities of distributing electoral gifts and propagating their political platforms. This paper attempts to explain why the businessmen became involved in politics and participated in elections. It also expounds on the effects of transition from monolithic to multi-party system in the Bamileke region in the 1990s.

Page(s): 185-195                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 February 2019

 Nzeucheu Pascal
History Department, Faculty of Arts, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

 Prof. Simon Tata Ngenge
Vice Dean, Faculty of Law and Political Science, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

References are not available.

Nzeucheu Pascal, Prof. Simon Tata Ngenge “Bamileke Businessmen in the Realm of Political Transition in Bamileke Region of Cameroon, 1990-2000” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.185-195 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/185-195.pdf

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Democracy and National Security Challenges: The Nigerian Experience

Dr Orkar, Oryina Michael-David, Shaminja, Tersoo Solomon and Nev, Timothy Terwase – February 2019 Page No.: 196-201

Till the recent past Nigeria has been ruled by several military dictatorships. Upon her return to democratic rule, Nigeria has been faced with several national security challenges. Most of these challenges were not only carried over from the many years of military dictatorship but arose as a result of many years of military dictatorship. It is a truism that the military handed over several pending national security issues to the incoming democratic regime. The present day Nigeria has been able to witness handing over from one democratic regime to another. This paper highlights a few issues of concern in relation to Nigeria’s national security. The major task of this paper is to find out whether democratic regimes in Nigeria have been able to maintain Nigeria’s national security. With this question in view, the study used primary data in answering the question through survey design and collection of data from relevant states as means of generating data. The results of the study show that Nigeria’s democratic government have the capacity and also have been able to maintain Nigeria’s national security. More can be done in this area, so recommendations were made towards further enhancement and greater maintenance of Nigerians National Security.

Page(s): 196-201                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 February 2019

 Dr Orkar, Oryina Michael-David
Strategy and Governance Programme, Institute of Food Security, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.

 Shaminja, Tersoo Solomon
Department of Sociology, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.

 Nev, Timothy Terwase
Market and institutions Programme, Institute of Food Security, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi Nigeria.

[1]. Abdullahi, A. and Saka, L. (2007). Ethno-religious and Political Conflicts: Threats to Nigeria’s National Security Democracy. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. Vol.9 (3)
[2]. Anyadike, N. (2013). Boko Haram and National Security in Nigeria: Causes and Solutions; Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development 4(5).
[3]. Anza, P. (2010). Jos Crisis Is More Than Religious. Newswatch, 19th April.
[4]. Atia, S. (2007). Demoracy and Fundamental Human Rights in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic in Sullah, D.K., Mode I, Ikpa, I. (eds) Nigeria’s Rebirth and Reconstruction: Issues and Challenges A Book of Readings, School of Arts and Social Sciences, College of Education KatsinaAla – Nigeria.
[5]. Atim, T. (2014). Civil Society and Demoralization in Africa. Benue Journal of Social Sciences Vol.2 No.1. 1 September
[6]. Audu, J. (2009). The Dialectics of Corruption and Development in Post-Colonial Africa: The Nigerian Experience in Edoh, T and Wuam, T. (eds) Democracy, Leadership and Accountability in Post-Colonial Africa: Challenges and Possibilities Essays in Honour of Professor A.P. Sorhaa, Makurdi Nigeria: Aboki Publishers.
[7]. Ayokhai, F. (2010). National Integration and Democratic Governance in Nigeria: Historical Reflection on the Niger-Delta Question 1999-2009 in J. Mangut and D.O. Egbefo (eds) The Fourth Republic and National Integration in Nigeria 1999-2009 Makurdi: Aboki Publishers.
[8]. Babangida, M. (2011). The Search for National Security in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects. A Paper presented at Obafemi Awolowo Institute of Government and Public Policy, Lagos.
[9]. Davies, C. (1962). Towards a Theory of Revolution: American Sociological Review Vol. XXVI February
[10]. Devise, H. (1961). Nigeria: The Prospects of Democracy. London: Weilden Field and Nicholson.
[11]. Dunia, A. (2010). Abuja Bomb Blasts: Senate Takes Decision Today Daily Sun Newspaper, October, 6.
[12]. Dzurgba, A. (2010). Prevention and Resolution of Conflict: Local and International Perspectives. Ibadan: John Anchers Publishers
[13]. Egwu, S. (2006). Promoting the social contract through the due process mechanism: The Role of the legislature, A lecture delivered at the Kogi State House of Assembly. Lokoja, May, 18.
[14]. Eric, E. (2016). Curbing Violence in Nigeria (II) The Boko Haram Insurgency Africa Report No.216 International Crisis, Group.
[15]. Falcti, S. (2007). Theories of Social Conflict in Best, E.A. (2007). Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West African. Ibadan, Spectrum Books Limited.
[16]. Gurr, T. (1970). Why Men Rebel. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
[17]. Hannya, B and Fada, A. (2016). Poverty and Poverty Reduction Programmes in Nigeria: Implications for National Security in Genyi, M.E. (2016). The National Question and Development in Nigeria Abuja, Danafrique Publishers.
[18]. Ikoni, U. (2010). Nigeria in Search of Credible Leadership: A Reflection of 50 years of Nigeria as an Independent Nation. Makurdi, Nigeira: Book Makers Publishing.
[19]. IseOlorunHanmi, O. (2017). Internal Security Threats and Insecurity in Nigeria in Changwak, Emmanuel Jonah, Ezonbi, Bormo, Wuam, Terhemba (2017). The Fourth Republic in Nigeria Society and Security Lagos Batati and Dalila Publishers.
[20]. Mesjasz, C. (2004). Security as an Analytical Concept Paper presented at the 5th Pan-European Conference on International Relations, September 9-11. The Hague
[21]. Mohamed, H and Johnson, P. (2005). Nigeria’s Transition to Democracy and the Persistence of Ethno-Regional Tendencies Journal of Political Science Vol.II. No.1. June.
[22]. National Bureau of Statistics (2012). Nigeria Poverty Profile Report Abuja: National Bureau of Statistics retrieved from http://www.nigerianstat.goring/index.php/page/sectorsstatistics 01-12-2018.
[23]. Okoroafor, E, Nzenwa, B and Oti, B (2012). Democracy and National Security: Exploring the Synergy for Good Governance in Nigeria Journal of Research and Development Vol.4 No.1.
[24]. Okoli, A. and Orinya, S. (2013). Oil Pipeline Vandalization and Nigeria’s National Security. Global Journal of Human Social Science. 13(5).
[25]. Okunmandewa, F. (2001). Poverty Reduction in Nigeria: A Four Point Demand, Ibadan, Dabfol Prints and Pach Ltd.
[26]. Oladoyimbo, Y. (2007). Jos Crisis is over culture and land dispute Sunday Tridine January.
[27]. Omodia, S. and Aliu, M. (2013). Governance and Threats to National Security in Emerging Democracies: A Focus on the Nigerian Fourth Republic. Research on Humanities and Social Science. Vol.3 No.4.
[28]. Onyewuenyi, I. (2000). The Legislature as the people representative in the Democratic System of Government in Onuh led. The Millennium hope for the Afflicted in Nsukka Diocese Nsukka: SodejupePublicaiton
[29]. Salihu, M. (2016). The Nigerian State and Poverty Alleviation Strategies 1999-2014. In Genyi, M.E. (2016). The National Question and Development in Nigeria. Abuja Donafrique Publishers.
[30]. Ucha, C. (2010). Poverty in Nigeria: Some Dimensions and Contributing Factors Global Majority E. Journal Vol.1. No.1.
[31]. Usman, T. (2015). Buhari Sacks Service Chiefs, Premium Times, July 13.
[32]. Wehemeir, P. and Ashby, N. (2002). National Security Challenges and Sustainable Economic Evidence from Nigeria in M. Adebahlin, and L. Raimi (eds) Journal of Studies in Social Sciences Vol.I (1).

Dr Orkar, Oryina Michael-David, Shaminja, Tersoo Solomon and Nev, Timothy Terwase “Democracy and National Security Challenges: The Nigerian Experience” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.196-201 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/196-201.pdf

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Housing Scheme Developments and Social Amenities in Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) Plantations, 1947-1961: A Historical Analysis

Prof. Simon Tata Ngenge, Obi Godfred Ayuk – February 2019 Page No.: 202-208

Plantation involvement in worker’s care in the CDC in Cameroon was a phenomenon that practically began after the Second World War. Management provision for workers’ welfare in the broader sense was virtually non-existent in the German plantations before 1945. This neglect was in striking contrast to the care given to the security and recreation of the senior staff who were all or nearly all, expatriates. With the exception of a few bungalows laid down by the German planters, there were no recreational facilities of any kind provided by estates for workers in the German plantations in Cameroon. The absence of facilities in estate communities was of far more significance than any, comparable to lack of facilities attached to factories. This paper argues that the CDC implemented a policy that prompted the building of housing camps in the plantations. It examines the nature of houses and measures implemented to improve accommodation conditions of the workers. The housing facilities for labourers and administrative staff inherited by the Corporation were far below modern standards and even further below those, which the Corporation would have wished ultimately to institute throughout the estates. Apart from the Corporation’s own desire in the matter of improving such facilities, the obligations placed upon it by law required the earliest possible remedial action. Consequently, plans were made for the improvement of accommodation housing, throughout the area covered by the estates and the institution of other social welfare services for the employees. How far the Corporation undertook the project of better housing for the labourers is the main concern of this paper. It further examines social amenities provided by the Corporation meant to better the welfare conditions of workers. However it is noted that the housing conditions and amenities were fairly inadequate.

Page(s): 202-208                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 February 2019

 Prof. Simon Tata Ngenge
Vice Dean, Faculty of Law and Political Science, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

 Obi Godfred Ayuk
History Department, Faculty of Arts, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

Reference are not available.

Prof. Simon Tata Ngenge, Obi Godfred Ayuk “Housing Scheme Developments and Social Amenities in Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) Plantations, 1947-1961: A Historical Analysis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.202-208 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/202-208.pdf

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A Comparative Analysis of Job Position, Income and Quality of Husbands’ Care of Women Working in The Public and Private Sector Organisations in Imo State, Nigeria

Nwokorie, Chinedu N., Iheriohanma, E. B. J. – February 2019 Page No.: 209-222

The study specifically examined the effect of job position and income of women on the quality of husbands’ care. The public and private sector organizations in Imo State, Nigeria were our focus in the study. This study is anchored on the Rational Choice Theory. The quantitative data for this study were collected from 524 respondents selected from two privately owned and two publicly owned organizations in Imo State, while the qualitative data were from 8 key informants interviewed. The objective of this study is to examine whether the job position and income of women working in private or public sector can affect quality of husbands’ care. The quantitative data were analyzed using a combination of correlation coefficient, chi-square, cross-tabulation, mean and standard deviation, and one-way ANOVA. The hypothesis revealed that, though the women in the lower cadre show more care for their husbands, position and income of women do not significantly influence the quality of husband care. The study suggests that the position of a woman in her work place and her income should not affect the attention and care for her husband, especially in terms of his emotional needs, as this may lead to his looking outside the house. Lack of adequate attention, respect, satisfaction and frequent absence of the woman from the home can result in a gradual emotional distancing between spouses, lead to marital separation, increase the rate of family conflict and spousal and marital distress. These should be avoided for a healthy society.

Page(s): 209-222                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 February 2019

 Nwokorie, Chinedu N.
Department of Sociology, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

 Iheriohanma, E. B. J.
Directorate of General Studies, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

[1]. Adekola, A. (2010) Inferences between work and family among male and female executives in Nigeria. African Journal of Business Management, 4(6), 1069- 1077.
[2]. Ajayi, M. P. (2013). Work-Family balance among women in selected banks in Nigeria. (Unpublished Ph.D thesis) Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria
[3]. Anugwom, E. (2009), “Women and work in Nigeria” Educational Research Review, 4 (4): 127-134.
[4]. Astin, H. S. (1984). The meaning of work in women’s lives: A sociopsychological model of career choice and work behavior. Counseling Psychologist, 12: 117-126.
[5]. Baldwin, J.N., 1984. Are we really lazy? Review of Public sector Administration. 4 (2), 80–89.
[6]. Bagali, M. M. (2014). An empirical investigation on work-life balance among working mothers: Emerging HRM Interventions, International Journal of Business and Administration Research Review, 1, (5) ,165-168
[7]. Balchin, J., Wooden, M., 2005. Absence penalties and the work attendance. Aust. Econ. Rev. 28 (4): 43–58.
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Nwokorie, Chinedu N., Iheriohanma, E. B. J. “A Comparative Analysis of Job Position, Income and Quality of Husbands’ Care of Women Working in The Public and Private Sector Organisations in Imo State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.209-222 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/209-222.pdf

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What went wrong with: National Conferences Supervising Transitions to Multiparty Rule in Francophone Africa, since 1989 – A Re-visitation

Prof. Simon Tata Ngenge – February 2019 Page No.: 223-231

After the fall of communism in 1989, the winds of democracy swept from Eastern Europe to French-speaking Africa and provoked a popular need for multiparty politics. One-partyism had lost its importance. Advocates of change advocated the Sovereign National Conference as a means of transition from one-party to multi-party. It began in Benin and became very popular throughout sub-Saharan Francophone Africa. The dictators quickly realized that it was a way to take power away from them and they quickly took steps to end the transition. Their initiative nevertheless led to the introduction of multi-party politics but not to a genuine democratic culture, the people’s wish. Democracy has become a sham because it is not just about holding elections and legalizing hundreds of political parties. No one has ever sought to know who is organizing, sponsoring and proclaiming the election results, nor is it concerned about whether democratic values have actually transformed society, the ultimate goal of this system. As a result, because of the presidential majorities, people have returned to the dictatorial single party except for a few countries like Benin. In most countries, therefore, the presidential monarchy still prevails.

Page(s): 223-231                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 February 2019

 Prof. Simon Tata Ngenge
Vice Dean, Faculty of Law and Political Science, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

References are not available.

Prof. Simon Tata Ngenge “What went wrong with: National Conferences Supervising Transitions to Multiparty Rule in Francophone Africa, since 1989 – A Re-visitation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.223-231 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/223-231.pdf

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Likeable Attributes of Beauty Product Consumer Purchase Intention (With Special Reference to Kandy Area in Sri Lanka)

H.M.W.M.Herath, K.P.N.S.Parakramage – February 2019 Page No.: 232-234

I. INTRODUCTION
Advertisements attract the customer to purchase a certain product. Advertising through television is one of the most effective medium to communicate. In promotion, TV has assumed significant importance as it combines both visual and oral communication. Also TV advertisements are considered one of the most effective medium to influence the purchase decision of consumers. According to the Yang and Smith (2009) the audience perceives the advertisements by the product advertised or the brand is one of the most researched issues regarding the processing of creative advertisements.
Scholars who are Kim-Shyan Fam and David S. Waller (2007) found the implication being that advertising likeability provides the potential to facilitate consumer responsiveness, if most impacting factors are held constant. According to the Haley & Baldinger (1991) liking an advert has even been shown to be the strongest factor linked with persuasion and sales, and is thus considered a very important measurement of advertising effectiveness. Advertisements that are liked by consumers will be given greater mental processing for their buying decision. Also likeable attributes of advertisements get more attention of customers and augment their brand loyalty towards their products.

Page(s): 232-234                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 February 2019

 H.M.W.M.Herath
Department of Management Sciences, Uva Wellassa University, Sri Lanka

 K.P.N.S.Parakramage
Department of Management Sciences, Uva Wellassa University, Sri Lanka

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H.M.W.M.Herath, K.P.N.S.Parakramage “Likeable Attributes of Beauty Product Consumer Purchase Intention (With Special Reference to Kandy Area in Sri Lanka)
” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.232-234 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/232-234.pdf

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Ethnic Pluralism in Nigeria, Adverse Effects and the Way Forward

Aboh, Fidelis Isomkwo & Okom, Emmanuel Njor – February 2019 Page No.: 235-238

If Nigeria is a project that requires the collective efforts of the diversity of its ethnic nationalities to survive, then we are faced with a threat of its collapse as a single entity given the perception of its constituents about national issues along the lines of ethnic divide. As a socio-political entity run according to the principles of federalism, one would think that the unity-in-diversity ideology of national integration should be upheld rather than the diversity-in-unity ideology. Politics, work and business opportunities, admissions into schools (especially tertiary institutions), sharing of the national largess, marriages, to mention but a few, are all conducted along the lines of divisive ethnic consciousness. This is a desktop research which looked at the problems of ethnic pluralism as they affect the corporate existence of Nigeria as a unitary entity. It also proffered solution on the way out of the woods of divisive ethnic consciousness.

Page(s): 235-238                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 February 2019

 Aboh, Fidelis Isomkwo
University of Calabar, Nigeria

 Okom, Emmanuel Njor
University of Calabar, Nigeria

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Aboh, Fidelis Isomkwo & Okom, Emmanuel Njor “Ethnic Pluralism in Nigeria, Adverse Effects and the Way Forward” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.235-238 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/235-238.pdf

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Domestic Violence against Women and Children’s Nutritional Health Outcomes: A Bargaining Power Approach in Pakistan

Qurra-tul-ain Ali Sheikh, Altaf Hussain Solangi, Prof. Dr. Mahpara Begum Sadaqat – February 2019 Page No.: 239-269

This paper mainly aims to examine the effects of domestic violence on maternal and children health using bargaining power model. The proposed model represents how domestic violence weakens woman’s stability and influences her health care decisions by declining the probability of health inputs. Data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (2012-13) is used and 13,558 women (aged 15-49) are arbitrarily chosen from different regions of Pakistan. A bargaining power approach is used to check the various impacts of domestic violence on mother’s health inputs (antenatal visits, iron intake, breastfeeding and prenatal care) and children’s nutritional health outcomes (stunting, wasting and underweight). In order to estimate the probability of women’s health inputs and children’s health outcomes, probit estimation technique is used. OLS technique is also used to analyze the reduced-form specification of mother’s health inputs (number of antenatal visits). Results showed that domestic violence reduces the probability of woman’s iron intake, breastfeeding and prenatal care by 10.8, 24.5 and 6.7 percent, respectively. Physical violence increases the probability of under nutrition (stunning, wasting and underweight) among children by 10.4, 10.9 and 15.0 percent, respectively. On the basis of empirical results, this study proposes auxiliary efforts for condensing high prevalence of domestic violence and its afterwards detrimental effects on maternal and child’s health. Initiatives and programs are required on urgent basis for progressing women’s empowerment, through easy access to education and economic opportunities that may not only counteract the risk of domestic violence but also improve the long term growth of many children in Pakistan.

Page(s): 239-269                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 February 2019

 Qurra-tul-ain Ali Sheikh
Ph. D candidate, Applied Economics Research Centre (AERC), University of Karachi, Pakistan
Asst. Prof. (Economics Department), Govt. Girls Degree College, Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan

 Altaf Hussain Solangi
M. Phil Candidate, Institute of Business Administration, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan

 Prof. Dr. Mahpara Begum Sadaqat
Department of Business Administration, Iqra University, Karachi, Pakistan

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[53]. Romero-Gutierrez, G. V., Cruz-Arvizu, V. H., Regalado-Cedillo, C. A., Ponce-Ponce de Leon, A. L. (2011). Prevalence of violence against pregnant women and associated maternal and neonatal complications in Leon. Mexico, Midwifery, 27(5), 750-753.
[54]. Rutstein, S.; Rojas, G. (2003). Guide to DHS Statistics, Demographic and Health Surveys, ORC Macro, Calverton, Maryland.
[55]. Sachdev, H. P.S. (2011). Overcoming challenges to accelerate linear growth in Indian children. India Health Beat. 5(2), Published by Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI) and The World Bank.
[56]. Schei, B. and Bakketeig, L.S. (1989). Gynecological impact of sexual and physical abuse by spouse: A study of random sample Norwegian women. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 96(12), 1379-1383.
[57]. Scholl, T.O. (2005). Iron status during pregnancy: setting the stage for mother and infant. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81(5), 1218- 1222.
[58]. Tauchen, H., and Witte, A., Long, S. (1991). Domestic Violence: A Nonrandom Affair. International Economic Review, 32(2), 491-511.
[59]. Victora, C.G., de Onis, M., Hallal, P.C., Blössner, M., Shrimpton, R. (2010). Worldwide timing of growth faltering: revisiting implications for interventions. Pediatrics, 125(3), 473-480.
[60]. Wilson, K. S., Silberberg, M. R., Brown, A. J., Yaggy, S. D. (2007). Health needs and barriers to healthcare of women who have experienced intimate partner violence. Journal of Women’s Health, 16(10), 1485-1498.
[61]. World Health Organization (WHO), (2014). Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2013. Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, the World Bank, and the United Nations. Population Division, ISBN 978 92 4 150722 6.
[62]. Yount, K. M., DiGirolamo, A.M. and Ramakrishnan, U. (2011). Impacts of domestic violence on child growth and nutrition: a conceptual review of the pathways of influence. Social Science and Medicine, 72(9), 1534-1554.
[63]. Zimmerman, M. B. (2012). The effects of iodine deficiency in pregnancy and infancy. Peri-natal Epidemiology, 26(1), 108-117.

Qurra-tul-ain Ali Sheikh, Altaf Hussain Solangi, Prof. Dr. Mahpara Begum Sadaqat “Domestic Violence against Women and Children’s Nutritional Health Outcomes: A Bargaining Power Approach in Pakistan” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.239-269 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/239-269.pdf

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An Intervention Study to Improve Interpersonal Relationship Skills

N.Vipulan, V.Piratheepa – February 2019 Page No.: 270-273

The recent educational reforms are emphasizing to gain skills that could develop personalities. There are many problems faced during teaching and learning activities due to lack of skills among the students. Daily teaching and learning behavior have been observed of the students studying in secondary school that, they are having difficulties in communication methods, using words, activity forms, conflict of ideas, and communication skills. In this juncture, understanding the importance of this problem, this study has been carried out to improve the inter personal relationship skill and identify the factors which are influencing in interpersonal relationship skill and put forward the suggestion to improve the skill. Twenty five percentage samples were selected who have lack of Interpersonal Relationship Skills among the forty students in the class. Specific problems regarding the interpersonal relationship skills have been identified through observations, Questionnaire and discussions. Activities have been planned and implemented to solve this problem. Progresses have been recorded in reflective journals and strength and weaknesses also identified of each intervention. After intervention of planned activities, satisfactory progress has been assessed through the analysis and that, it has improved from 0-36 % to 71 – 100% in planned intervention. The progress in each intervention has been observed and reorganized the activities for further improvement.

Page(s): 270-273                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 March 2019

 N.Vipulan
J/Hindu College, Jaffna, Sri Lanka

 V.Piratheepa
Department of Geography University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka

[1]. Jeyarasa.S,(1993).”Psychology and Modern Teaching”, Poobalasingam Book Depot-Colombo
[2]. Karunanithy.M,(2008),”Methods to Improve Teaching and Learning Activities”,Semamadu Publication -Colombo
[3]. Navaratnam.U,(2007).”Educational Phycology in Teaching and Learning Activities”,Kumaran Book Depot- Colombo, Chennai
[4]. Samarasinga Gunasekara,(1998),”laws of child rights”,National Institute of Education- Maharagama
[5]. UNICEF, (1997),Education and child right, Colombo,Sri Lanka

N.Vipulan, V.Piratheepa “An Intervention Study to Improve Interpersonal Relationship Skills” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.270-273 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/270-273.pdf

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The Effectiveness of Suspension of Debt Payment Obligations Penundaan Kewajiban Pembayaran Utang or PKPU to Avoid the Debtor’s Bankruptcy (Law Number 37 of 2004)

Sherly Nelsa Fitri, Adi Sulistiyono, Yudho Taruno Muryanto – February 2019 Page No.: 274-279

This study has purpose to determine the effectiveness of PKPU in avoiding the bankruptcy of debtors. This legal study was included in a normative legal research with perspective method. The legal material used in this study were primary legal materials, and secondary legal materials, through the documentation study (literature studies), and analyzed by using deduction techniques. The results of the study showed that Law Number 37 of 2004 concerning Bankruptcy and Delaying Obligations of Debt Payments (UUK-PKPU) has not been very effective to avoid the debtor bankruptcy, this is one of the form of imbalance in the position between debtors and creditors in PKPU.

Page(s): 274-279                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 March 2019

 Sherly Nelsa Fitri
Master Program of Law, Sebelas Maret University Surakarta, Surakarta, Indonesia

 Adi Sulistiyono
Lecturer Master Program of Law Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia

 Yudho Taruno Muryanto
Lecturer Master Program of Law Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia

Books
[1]. Ahmad Yani & Widjaja Gunawan. 2002. Bankruptcy Business Law Series. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada.
[2]. Amin Tunggal Wijaya. 1993. Introduction to Management, First Edition. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta Jaya Hidayat. 1986
[3]. Kartini Muliadi, in Lontoh dkk. 2001. Debt Settlement Receivables: Through Bankruptcy or Suspension of Obligations of Debt Payment. 2001. Bandung : Alumni
[4]. ____________, Gunawan Widjaya. 2003. Guideline to Bankruptcy Cases. Jakarta: Grafindo
[5]. Louis E. Levinthal. 1999. The Early History of Bankruptcy Law, in Jordan, et.al, Bankruptcy, New York: Foundation Press
[6]. Sunarmi. 2010. Bankcruptcy Law 2nd Edition. Jakarta: PT Sofmedia
[7]. Suyatno. 2012. The Use of Suspension of Debt Payment Obligation, As Effort to Avoid Bankcruptcy. Jakarta: Kencana Media Prenada Group
[8]. Zainal Asikin. 1994. Bankruptcy Law and Suspension of Paymeny in Indonesia. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada

Journals and Articles

[9]. Hartono, Redjeki, Sri. 1999. “Civil Law As A Basis For Modern Bankruptcy Law”. Jakarta: Journal of Business Law, Volume 7, Yayasan Pengembangan Hukum Bisnis.
[10]. Kheirah. “The Independence of Management of Suspension of Debt Payment Obligation (PKPU) in Bankruptcy Law”. Jurnal Hukum. Volume III, Number 2, 2013. Riau: University of Riau
[11]. Maswandi, Tan Kamello, Budiman Ginting, Baik, Bankruptcy Practices in Indonesia Relating to Legal Protection for Solvent Debtor, International Organization Of Scientific Research (IOSR), IOSR Volume 21, Edisi 1, Ver. 5 (Jan 2016), P 99, http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jhss/papers/Vol.21 Issue1/Version-5/M0211599103.pdf
[12]. Professional standards for Indonesian curators and administrators http://krediturpailit.wordpress.com/standartkurator-pengurus-indonesia/accesses on Februari 24th, 2018.
[13]. Suharto Abdul Majid. 2016. Analysis on the Factors Causing Airlines Bankruptcy: Cases in Indonesia. International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research, Feb-2016 ISSN (2226-8235) Vol-5, Issue 2, P 13
Legislation

[14]. Law Number 37 of 2004 concerning Bankruptcy and Delaying Obligations of Debt Payments

Sherly Nelsa Fitri, Adi Sulistiyono, Yudho Taruno Muryanto “The Effectiveness of Suspension of Debt Payment Obligations Penundaan Kewajiban Pembayaran Utang or PKPU to Avoid the Debtor’s Bankruptcy (Law Number 37 of 2004)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.274-279 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/274-279.pdf

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The Impact of Construction of Drainage and Culvert Project on the Rural Dwellers of Irasa Community of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Gladys Modupe Kayode, Dr (Mrs.) Mary Olufunke Adedokun – February 2019 Page No.: 280-283

The study examined the impact of a community driven development project involving the construction of roads and culvert in Irasa, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The objective of the study is to assess the impact the project have on the social economic wellbeing of the inhabitants of the community, determine the factors affecting the implementation of the project and identify possible ways of sustaining the project. Three research questions guided the study. The instrument used for data collection was combined observation, questionnaire administration and interviews. Results obtained revealed that the construction of drainage and culvert impact positively on the conveyance of farm products from inhabitants’ farms as well as on trading activities. Vehicular access to school, site of the maternity centre and the main road to the community were equally improved upon. No difficulties were experienced in the mobilization of community members for the project, as well as in monitoring of the project as personnel saddled with responsibilities concerning the project were dedicated and the community members participated actively in every facet of the project. Difficulties were experienced in funding of the project. Thus, the project is considered as important infrastructures that should be taken seriously especially by the policy makers.

Page(s): 280-283                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 March 2019

 Gladys Modupe Kayode
Department of Adult Education and Community Development, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Dr (Mrs.) Mary Olufunke Adedokun
Department of Adult Education and Community Development, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

[1]. Ahmed, R., and Donovan, C. (1992). Issues of infrastructural development : a synthesis of the literature . International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C.
[2]. Booth, D., Hanmer, L., and Lovell, E. (2000). Poverty and transport: a report prepared for the World Bank in collaboration with DFID, Overseas Development Institute, London.
[3]. Lipton, M., & Ravallion, M. (1995). Poverty and policy. Pp. 2551-2657. In Behrman, J. and Srinivasan, T. N (Eds.), Handbook of development economics. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam; New York and Oxford.
[4]. Omoyeni, K. (2017). The rural road to economic development. The Guardian, Dec. 13, 2017.
[5]. O’Neill, P. (2011). The problem with rural transport is that it is rural, the solution is in branding. The World Bank. http://blogs.worldbank.org/transport/the-problem-with-rural-transport-is-that-it-is-rural-the-solution-is-in-branding
[6]. World Bank. (1994). World Development Report. Oxford University Press, Washington, D.C.

Gladys Modupe Kayode, Dr (Mrs.) Mary Olufunke Adedokun “The Impact of Construction of Drainage and Culvert Project on the Rural Dwellers of Irasa Community of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.280-283 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/280-283.pdf

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Education and Awareness among Muslim Women of Madhya Pradesh: A Case Study of Noor Mahel Asoka Colony Bhopal

Zulfqar Ashraf Wani – February 2019 Page No.: 284-286

This research work is all about the education and awareness among women folk, particularly women of Bhopal. Here, we discussed the problems related to education and awareness about the programmes of education. Education is the basic need of life. No. society can progress without education. It is said that an individual is born only as a biological being in the world but soon after becomes a social being. This Trans formation from biological to social takes place through socialization and education. Education is an attempt to shift their Knowledge to the younger members of the society. Thus education is a process that develops the personality and interest capabilities of a child. It socializes the child to play adult roles in society and provides the necessary Knowledge and skills for the individual to be a responsible member of the society. As part of the socialization process, it inculcates among new members the norms, values and cultural heritage of a society. Socialization is a primary and informal process where by an individual shapes his or her own behavior in accordance with the social expectation of others.

Page(s): 284-286                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 March 2019

 Zulfqar Ashraf Wani
Research Scholar, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Barkatullah University Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Reference are not available.

Zulfqar Ashraf Wani “Education and Awareness among Muslim Women of Madhya Pradesh: A Case Study of Noor Mahel Asoka Colony Bhopal ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.284-286 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/284-286.pdf

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Infusion of Marginalised Voices in Peer Counselling Strategy to Alleviate Drug Abuse in Rural Learning Ecology: Need Analysis

Munyaradzi Chidarikire – February 2019 Page No.: 287-293

The study was necessitated by the absence of a peer counselling strategy formulated by and for the stakeholders in Chivi, Zimbabwe rural learning ecologies. Reviewed literature substantiated that peers had the capacity to influence one another to avoid drugs and the use of drugs, using a peer counselling strategy. I realised that there was a gap in terms of a specific peer counselling strategy in relation to drug abuse in rural learning ecologies. The research study involved participants within Zimbabwean rural learning ecologies in a formulating peer counselling strategy that was culturally grounded. That gave voice to the marginalised and brought transformation on how previous peer counselling strategies are formulated. The study adopted Critical Emancipatory Research (CER) as a lens. CER allowed participants from rural learning communities, who are marginalised, to participate in formulating a peer counselling strategy in Zimbabwe. I adopted the Participatory Action Research (PAR) approach, which buttresses the theoretical framework CER as they advocate CER. Both PAR for empowerment and emancipation of the marginalised members of the rural learning community. I used the Free Attitude Interview to generate data. The researcher analysed the data, made findings, determined implications, and did strategy formulation. The research results revealed that there was a need for peer counselling strategy formulated through the inclusion of views of rural learning communities. Moreover, the research found that, most peer counselling strategies in Zimbabwe are western in nature and lack suitability to assist rural learners. Furthermore, I noted that there are threats to peer counselling strategies, such as lack of peer counselling trainings. The significance of a peer counselling strategy was portrayed in Zimbabwe urban learning communities. This shows conflict of power, domination and social injustice perpetuated by urban dwellers on the rural communities in terms of formulation of a peer counselling strategy.

Page(s): 287-293                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 March 2019

 Munyaradzi Chidarikire
School of Education, Educational Psychology, Student Bachelor of Honours in Educational Psychology – Great Zimbabwe University, Zimbabwe

[1]. Bett, J.C. 2013.Importance of Promoting the Value and Role of Peer Counselling Among Students in Secondary Schools.International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences, 3(10):45-67.
[2]. Cargo, M. & Mercer, S.L. 2008. Value and Challenges of participatory research: strengthening its practice. Annual Review of Public Health, 3(29):325-350.
[3]. Charema, J. &Shizha. 2008. Counselling Indigenous Shona People in Zimbabwe: Traditional Practices verse Western Eurocentric Perspectives Alternatives. An International Journal of Indigenous People, 4(2):123-176.
[4]. Chimonyo, L., Mapuranga, B. &Runganye, S. 2015. The Effectiveness of Guidance and Counselling Programmes in Secondary Schools in Marondera, Zimbabwe. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 5 (20):143-151.
[5]. Chireshe, R. 2013. Peer Counselling in Zimbabwe Secondary Schools.International Journal of Education and Sciences, 5(4):349-354.
[6]. Cooper, R.G. 2009. Alcohol and tobacco abuse in Zimbabwe adolescents. Journal of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Research, 3(2):89-123.
[7]. Department of Basic Education. 2013. National Strategy for the Prevention and Management of Alcohol and Drug Use Amongst Learners in Schools. Pretoria: Government Printers.
[8]. Dube, B. 2016.A Socio-Religious Hybridity Strategy to Respond to the Problems of Religious Studies in Zimbabwe.(Unpublished doctoral thesis). Bloemfontein: University of the Free State.
[9]. Hidden Curriculum. (In S. Abbott., ed. The glossary of education reform. http://edgeglossary.org.hidden-curriculum. Accessed 17 November 2018).
[10]. Higginbottom, G. &Liamputtong, P. 2015. Participatory Qualitative Research Methodologies in Health: Qualitative Health and Nursing Research. London: Sage Publication, Inc.
[11]. Jansen, J. & Sayed, N. 2010.The pre-service training of teachers.Perspectives in Education, 25(2):1-145.
[12]. Kemmis, S. & McTaggart, R. 2007.Communicative action and public sphere. (In N.K. Denzil& Y.S. Lincoln., eds. The SAGE handbook of qualitative research.Thousand Oaks. CA. Sage. p.559-603).
[13]. Kisii University. 2016. Influence of peer counsellors training on their performance. Journal Kisii University, 5(5):1-12.
[14]. Mahoso, T. & Kuyayama-Tumbare, A. 2014.Curriculum Issues in Early Childhood Development. Harare: University of Zimbabwe.
[15]. Maseko, M.M., Ngwenya, F. &Maunganidze, L. 2014. Substance Use Among Adolescence in Gweru, Zimbabwe: Perceived Predictive and Protective Factors. The Dyke Journal, 3:10-45.
[16]. Mthiyane, N.P. 2015. Chronicles of the Experiences of Orphaned Students in Higher Education Institution in KwaZulu-Natal.(Unpublished doctoral thesis).University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.
[17]. Mucheke School Newsletter. 2016. Headmasters Report. 4 December: 2.
[18]. Mutsvanga, T. 2011. Alcohol, drug abuse rampant. The Mail, Issue 021 – Saturday 7 May: 3.
[19]. United Nations Office Of Drug and Crime (UNODC). 2004. World Drug Report. www. Unodc.org/pdf.WDR-2004-presentation. Accessed on 2nd February 2019.
[20]. Nkoane, M.M. 2010. Critical liberatory, inclusive pedagogy: Arguing for a zero-defect discourse. ActaAcademica, 43(4):111-126.
[21]. Odirile, L. 2012. The Role of Peer Counselling in a University Setting: The University of Botswana. A Paper Presented at the 20th Anniversary Summit of the African
[22]. Shizha, E. 2005. Reclaiming our memories: The education dilemma in postcolonial in Africans school curricula. (In A. Abdi & A. Cleghorn., eds. Issues in African Education: Sociological Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
[23]. Oliha, J.A. 2014. Adolescent and drug abuse in tertiary institution implication for counselling.European Centre for Research Training and Development. International Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 6(2):100-116
[24]. Semali, M.L. &Stamback, J. 2007. What is indigenous knowledge? Voices from the academy. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0815884524 Accessed 31 January 2019.
[25]. Setlalentoa, M., Ryke, E., & Strydom, H. 2015. Intervention Strategies used to address alcohol. Social Work Journal, 3(2):89-123.
[26]. Sinnerbrink, R. 2012. Critical theory as disclosing critique.A response to Kompridis.Constellations, 19(3):370-381.

Munyaradzi Chidarikire “Infusion of Marginalised Voices in Peer Counselling Strategy to Alleviate Drug Abuse in Rural Learning Ecology: Need Analysis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.287-293 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/287-293.pdf

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Socio Cultural Values and their Effect on Development- A Study of Muslim Women in Bhopal City

Pervaiz Ahmad Parrey – February 2019 Page No.: 294-298

Every society has set of values, beliefs, traditions and habits known as their socio cultural values. These values shape how we approach risk, how we view careers our perceptions of money, and our ideas of an ideal life style. Values are those criteria according to which a group or a Society judges the importance of persons, patterns, goals and other Socio cultural objects. The present study is conducted in Bhopal city with the intention to investigate the socio cultural values of Muslim women and their effect on development. The main focus is given on age, religion, education level, family income and the changing gender roles and for this purpose data was collected from 300 respondents by using multi stage systematic random sampling method.

Page(s): 294-298                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 March 2019

 Pervaiz Ahmad Parrey
Research Scholar, Department of Sociology & Social Work, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

[1]. Weber, Max 1958. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Translated by T. Parsons. Reprint, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
[2]. Blood, R. and D.M. Wolfe. 1960. Husbands and Wives: The Dynamics of Married Living. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press.
[3]. Rokeach, M. 1973. The Nature of Human Values. New York: Free Press.
[4]. Robinson, J.P. 1977. How Americans Use Time: A Socio-Psychological Analysis. New York: Praeger.
[5]. Woronoff, Jon. 1981. Japan’s Wasted Workers. Lotus Press.
[6]. Ball-Rokeach, S., Rokeach, M., and Grube, J. W. 1984. The Great American Values Test. New York: Free Press.
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[8]. Wink, Andre 1990. Al-Hind, The Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval
[9]. Anderson, R. W. Jr., Mayton, K. I. and Ensor, B. E. 1991. Prevention Theory and Action From The Religious Perspective. Prevention in Human Services, 10, 9-27.
[10]. Pina, Darlene L., and Vern L. Bengston. 1995. Division of Household Labor and the Well-Being of Retirement-Aged Wives. Gerotologist 35:308-17.
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[12]. Biggs, S and Powell, J. L. 2001. A Foucauldian Analysis of Old Age and the Power of Social Welfare. Journal of Aging & Social Policy Vol. 12, (2), 93-111.

Pervaiz Ahmad Parrey “Socio Cultural Values and their Effect on Development- A Study of Muslim Women in Bhopal City” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.294-298 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/294-298.pdf

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Impediments against Peer Counselling Strategy for Alleviating Drug Abuse in Zimbabwean Rural Learning Ecologies

Munyaradzi Chidarikire – February 2019 Page No.: 299-305

There is high drug abuse in Zimbabwe rural learning ecologies, many learners are failing academically, and have behavioural and other social problems. To mitigate the drug abuse problems in Zimbabwean rural learning ecologies, peer counselling strategy has been mooted as one of the key methods of dealing with drug abuse. This study used qualitative approach and used Participatory Action Research as methodology and Critical Emancipatory Research as theoretical framework and focus group discussions to generate data. Critical discourse analysis was used to analyse data after transcribing, verified and put it in themes.However, some of the impediments generated from the research empirical data were: inadequate knowledge and lack of understanding of what a peer counselling strategy entails, the fact that the Guidance and Counselling subject is not examinable; Some recommendations: more training workshops to enhance peer counselling knowledge; examining Guidance and Counselling and giving teacher counsellors and peer counsellors incentives.

Page(s): 299-305                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 March 2019

 Munyaradzi Chidarikire
School of Education, Educational Psychology, Student Bachelor of Honours in Educational Psychology – Great Zimbabwe University, Zimbabwe

[1]. Beaulieu, T. 2011. Exploring Indeginous and Western therapeauticIntergration: Pespectives and experiences of Indeginous Elders. (Published Master Of Arts Degree). University of Toronto.
[2]. Bett, J.C. 2013.Importance of Promoting the Value and Role of Peer Counselling Among Students in Secondary Schools.International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences, 3(10):45-67.
[3]. Chidarikire, M. 2017. Peer Counselling strategy to alleviate drug abuse in Zimbabwe rural learning ecologies. (Unpublished doctoral research), Bloemfontein :University of Free State
[4]. Charema, J. &Shizha. 2008. Counselling Indigenous Shona People in Zimbabwe: Traditional Practices verse Western Eurocentric Perspectives Alternatives. An International Journal of Indigenous People, 4(2):123-176.
[5]. Chimonyo, L., Mapuranga, B. &Runganye, S. 2015. The Effectiveness of Guidance and Counselling Programmes in Secondary Schools in Marondera, Zimbabwe. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 5 (20):143-151.
[6]. Cooper, R.G. 2009. Alcohol and tobacco abuse in Zimbabwe adolescents. Journal of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Research, 3(2):89-123.
[7]. Department of Basic Education. 2013. National Strategy for the Prevention and Management of Alcohol and Drug Use Amongst Learners in Schools. Pretoria: Government Printers.
[8]. Dube, B. 2016.A Socio-Religious Hybridity Strategy to Respond to the Problems of Religious Studies in Zimbabwe.(Unpublished doctoral thesis). Bloemfontein: University of the Free State.
[9]. Dufour, R. & Marzano, R.J. 2011. Leaders of Learning: How district, school, and classroom leaders improve student achievement. Calando: Solution Tree Press.
[10]. eDynamic Learning. 2016. Peer Counselling. www.edynamiclearning.com/course/highhttp://www.edynamiclearning.com/course/high-school-peer-counsellingschool-peer-counselling.Accessed on 01 February 2019.
[11]. Haider, R. &Saha, K.K. 2016. Breastfeeding and infant growth outcomes in the context of peer counselling support in two communities in Bangladesh. International Breastfeeding Journal, 11(26):34-45.
[12]. Harare Institute of Technology Newsletter. 2016. Innovation and Technoparanoia University. www.ac.zw/news/basic-community-and-systematic-peerhttp://www.ac.zw/news/basic-community-and-systematic-peer-counsellingskillscounsellingskills.html Accessed on 14 January 2019.
[13]. Kuyayama-Tumbare, A. 2004.Toddlers’ Expression of Autonomy in the Zimbabwe Preschool Environment: Harare: University of Zimbabwe
[14]. Lephoto, M.L. 2016. Designing A Strategy to Enhance Biology Performance at a High School in Lesotho (abstract). Paper presented at an International Conference for Sustainable Rural Learning Ecologies Colloquium.(SuRLEc).University of the Free State, Qwa-Qwa Campus.5-6 October.
[15]. Mahoso, T. & Kuyayama-Tumbare, A. 2014.Curriculum Issues in Early Childhood Development. Harare: University of Zimbabwe.
[16]. Maseko, M.M., Ngwenya, F. &Maunganidze, L. 2014. Substance Use Among Adolescence in Gweru, Zimbabwe: Perceived Predictive and Protective Factors. The Dyke Journal, 3:10-45.
[17]. Mucheke School Newsletter. 2016. Headmasters Report. 4 December: 2.
[18]. Mutsvanga, T. 2011. Alcohol, drug abuse rampant. The Mail, Issue 021 – Saturday 7 May: 3.
[19]. United Nations Office Of Drug and Crime (UNODC). 2004. World Drug Report. www. Unodc.org/pdf.WDR-2004-presentation. Accessed on 2nd February 2019.
[20]. Oliha, J.A. 2014. Adolescent and drug abuse in tertiary institution implication for counselling.European Centre for Research Training and Development. International Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 6(2):100-116
[21]. Shizha, E. 2005. Reclaiming our memories: The education dilemma in postcolonial in Africans school curricula. (In A. Abdi & A. Cleghorn., eds. Issues in African Education: Sociological Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
[22]. Stewart, S. 2007. Indigenous helping and healing in counsellor training. Centre for Native Policy and Research Monitor, 2(1), 53-62.

Munyaradzi Chidarikire “Impediments against Peer Counselling Strategy for Alleviating Drug Abuse in Zimbabwean Rural Learning Ecologies” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.299-305 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/299-305.pdf

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Unveiling the Urban Transition Characteristics from the Dar es Salaam City Centre Outwards: A Perception of Street Vendors of Tanzania

Michael John Haule – February 2019 Page No.: 306-314

Urbanization is a process of expansion of cities to areas which were previously rural. Street vending is a type of small business practiced by petty traders who are either static or mobile within and/or along streets. This particular type of business dominates many of the developing world cities Dar es Salaam inclusive, where statistics indicate the presence of about 700,000 street vendors. Since Dar es Salaam is among the fastest growing cities of Africa, it is of interest investigating and unveiling the perceptions of street vendors on the city regarding its urbanization, a phenomenon concomitant with expansion of petty businesses. At this juncture, it is of significance to underpin the critical need to establish the street vendor’s perceptions on the urbanization of Dar es Salaam. The major findings of the study indicated that urbanization is characterized by rapid spatial expansion coupled with expansion of street vending business into urban fringes. Moreover, urbanization was not commensurate with expansion of social services delivered by Local Government Authorities (LGAs), i.e. social service delivery tended to lag behind the pace of urbanization. The influence of LGAs on street vendors was observed fading with increasing distance away from the city centre and vice versa; while the same pattern was observed for typology of industrial and agricultural products offered for sale by street vendors.. Thus the findings provide an insight indicating the way the city expands, while transforming urban fringe areas into urban, this needs to be appreciated by the inhabitants of respective areas, the actual key players and beneficiaries of the observed spatial change and development. We, therefore, recommend that respective LGAs be pro-active in the planning and executing of the urban development agenda. Social service delivery and administration of urban areas be uniformly applied while addressing issues in the entire areas of jurisdiction.

Page(s): 306-314                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 March 2019

 Michael John Haule
Institute of Accountancy Arusha, Dar es Salaam Campus, P.O Box 69007, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

[1]. Adhikari, D. (2011) Income Generation in Informal Sector: A Case Study of the Street Vendors of Kathmandu Metropolitan City. Economic Journal of Development. Vol. 13.and 14 No. 1&2 Combined Issue. Retrieved fromhttps://www.nepjol.info/index.php/EJDI/article/view/7193
[2]. Begari, P. (2017) Education Level of Street vendors and Its Impact on Performance of the Activity: A Case of Hyderabad, Telangana. International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences. Vol. 7. Issue 7. Retrieved from http://euroasiapub.org
[3]. Briggs, J. and Mwamfupe, D. (1999) The Changing Nature of Urban Zone in Africa: Evidence from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Scottish Geographical Journal, 115, 269-282.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00369229918737070
[4]. Bromley, R. (2000) ‘Street Vending and Public Policy: A Global Review. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy20 (1/2) 1-28. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235275868_Street_Vending_and_Public_Po.
[5]. Chen, M. and Skinner, C. (2014) The Urban Information Economy: Enhanced Knowledge, Appropriate Policies and Effective Organization in S. Parnell and S. Oldfield (Eds), Routledge Handbook of Cities of Global South, pp. 219-235, New York, Routledge
[6]. Collier, P. and Jones, P. (2016) Transforming Dar es Salaam into a City that Work. Oxford University Paper for Global Research Program on Spatial Development of Cities.
[7]. Graaff, K. and Ha, N. (2015) Street Vending in the Neoliberal City: A Global Perspective on the Practices and Policies of a Marginalized Economy. Retrieved fromhttps://www.berghahnbooks.com/downloads/intros/GraaffStreet_intro.pdf
[8]. Lyons, M. and Msoka, C. (2008) Micro-trading in urban mainland Tanzania: The way forward. Final report, Dar es Salaam, Development Partners’ Group on Private Sector (DPG-PSD/Trade) Development Consulting Services. Dar es Salaam Consulting Services.
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[10]. Magufuli, J. (2018) Rais Magufuli “Msiwasumbue Machinga, Mama Lishe”. Translated “Do not Bother Small Scale Traders and Women Food Vendors” www.your=tube.com/watch?v=OGNNdhVo9180 10th December 2018.
[11]. Malefakis, A. (2015). Beyond Informal Economy: Street Vending a Cultural Creative Practice in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Paper presented at the international RC21 Conference. Retrieved fromhttps://www.rc21.org/en/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/E6-Malefakis.pdf
[12]. Raich, U. (2009) The Urban Transition in Tanzania. Retrieved from www.siteresources.worldbank.org/INTURBANPOVERTY/Resources/340040…/RAICH.pdf
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[14]. Reddy, M., Reddy P., Subbaiah, G. and Subbaiah, V. (2004) Effect of Plastic Pollution on Environment. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Special Issue. 2014. Retrieved from www.jsph.com
[15]. Tanzaniatoday. (2016) President Magufuli’s Order for Petty traders and small Scale Miners issued at Shinyanga on Dewji Blog 01/12/2016. www.tanzaniatoday.com
[16]. Wenban-Smith, H. (2014) Population Growth, Internal Migration and Urbanization in Tanzania 1967-2012: A Census-Based Regional Analysis. http://www.theigc.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Wenban-Smith-2014-Working-Paper.pdf.

Michael John Haule “Unveiling the Urban Transition Characteristics from the Dar es Salaam City Centre Outwards: A Perception of Street Vendors of Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.306-314 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/306-314.pdf

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Marital Satisfaction and Stability: Efficacy of Counselling

ADEJARE, Toosin Adeyinka, OKOLIE, Benedicta Onuegbu, MUSA, Tabitha, SHEHU, Nasir, DALHATU, Hafsatu – February 2019 Page No.: 315-321

This paper discussed the efficacy of counselling in marital satisfaction and stability in marriages. The paper covers some aspect of marriage, marital satisfaction, marital stability as a firm, steady well balance and healthy marital relationship between couple; as each member fulfills his/her role in the relationship, premarital counselling and marital counselling. Studies have shown that marriage has been a traditional component of family socialization, supported by religious and social guidance on mate selection and marital roles performance. The paper defined marital satisfaction as a mental state that reflects the perceived benefits and cost of marriage to a particular person and the important qualities of a relationship or marriages such as responsibilities of each person in the marriage, provision of food, procreation and support for each other opening up to new experience among others. The paper also discussed some factors that tend to influence marital stability and satisfaction such as attitudes, in-laws, communication, roles, family background, personalities traits among others. Many marriages today, end in divorce due to lack of marital satisfaction and stability. In spite of the couple’s attitude toward religiosity or the secular basis for their relationship and the efforts of psychologists, the divorce rates have continued to rise. Trends show an increase in the number of couples seeking assistance prior to marriage. Efficacy of marital counselling including helping couples understand expectations of marriage, the task of parenthood, understand the value of premarital laboratory testing (e.g. genotype), to distinguish between marriage and friendship and, understanding the realistic qualities of a good partner (e.g. loving, patience, dedication, caring and understanding). Marriage preparation strategies documented in professional literature advocate this as well. Effort couples put into their relationship is associated with satisfaction. Furthermore, counselling professionals, in growing numbers, suggested there are benefits to learning more about marriage stability and satisfaction.

Page(s): 315-321                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 March 2019

 ADEJARE, Toosin Adeyinka
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education & Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 OKOLIE, Benedicta Onuegbu
Department of Educational Foundations, School of Education, Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria

 MUSA, Tabitha
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education & Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 SHEHU, Nasir
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education & Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 DALHATU, Hafsatu
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education & Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

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ADEJARE, Toosin Adeyinka, OKOLIE, Benedicta Onuegbu, MUSA, Tabitha, SHEHU, Nasir, DALHATU, Hafsatu “Marital Satisfaction and Stability: Efficacy of Counselling” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.315-321 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/315-321.pdf

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Drought Perceptions and Coping Strategies among the Marginalized and Resource Poor Households in the Sudan Savanna Zone: A Case Study of Babura Community, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Ahmed Abubakar, Musbahu Abubakar Jibrin, Najib Abdullahi, Aminu Hussaini, Khalifa Mukhatar Usman – February 2019 Page No.: 322-329

This research examines drought perceptions and coping strategies to drought among small holder’s farmers in Babura and its environs. The objective of the study is to examine the awareness of farmers on drought issues as well as to assess the socio economic effects of drought in the study area, and identify the farmer’s adaptation strategies within the farming system in the area. A total of 150 questionnaires were administered to farmers whom were purposively selected. The study findings revealed that farmers are well aware and have much experience on drought. It affects the yield out-put, soil degradation and infestation of pests and diseases. The study conclude by recommending some adaptive and mitigation measures such as irrigation, planting drought resistant variety and afforestation among others.

Page(s): 322-329                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 March 2019

 Ahmed Abubakar
Sule Lamido University, Kafin-Hausa, Nigeria

 Musbahu Abubakar Jibrin
Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

 Najib Abdullahi
Sule Lamido University, Kafin-Hausa, Nigeria

 Aminu Hussaini
Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

 Khalifa Mukhatar Usman
Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto, Nigeria

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[7]. Ati, O. F. (2006). Rainfall Characteristic in Drought -Prone Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Dissertation. Department of Geography, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
[8]. Bacanli, U.G., Dikbas, F., and Baran, T. (2008).Drought Analysis and a Sample Study of Aegean Region.E thics and Climate Change. Scenarios for Justice and Sustainability . Sixth International Conference on Ethics and Environmental Policies, Padova, 23-25 October 2008. Available from http://www.webethics.net/padova2008/papers/3.pdf (accessed: 7 August 2009).
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[15]. Gashua, M. A. (1991) an Evaluation of Indigenous Techniques of Coping with Drought in Bade Local Government Area, Borno State. Unpublished M.Sc Thesis Submitted to the Post Graduate School, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria.
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[17]. Ishaya, S. and Abaje, A.B. (2008).Indigenous People’s Perception on Climate Change andAdaptation Strategies in Jema’ a Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria.Journal of Geography and Regional Planning. 1(8) 138-143. Academic Journal.
[18]. Jajere, A. A. (2006) Adaptation to Drought and Desertification among Rural Farmers in Northern Borno. An Unpublished B. Sc Project Submitted to the Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences University of Maiduguri.
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Ahmed Abubakar, Musbahu Abubakar Jibrin, Najib Abdullahi, Aminu Hussaini, Khalifa Mukhatar Usman “Drought Perceptions and Coping Strategies among the Marginalized and Resource Poor Households in the Sudan Savanna Zone: A Case Study of Babura Community, Jigawa State, Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.322-329 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/322-329.pdf

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The Effectiveness of Illegal Subsidized Fertilizer Eradication in Ngawi Regency

Tri Boy Siahaan, Hartiwiningsih, Hari Purwadi – February 2019 Page No.: 330-334

Agriculture is a leading sector in Ngawi Regency. Ngawi residents still rely on agriculture as livelihood. There are serious obstacles that hinder the development of agriculture such as the scarcity of subsidized fertilizer and the rampant illegal subsidized fertilizer sold at high prices to farmers. This study analyzes the effectiveness of eradicating illegal subsidized fertilizer in Ngawi Regency. The results of the study show that the eradication of illegal subsidized fertilizer in Ngawi Regency has not been effective. The case of illegal subsidized fertilizer trade has increased along with the high demand for fertilizer and limited supply to meet farmers’ needs. Efforts that can be made in eradicating illegal subsidized fertilizer in Ngawi to support the improvement of farmers’ welfare are: (1) Following up on all reports of illegal subsidized fertilizer circulation, (2) Taking firm action against illegal subsidized economic criminals in collaboration with agencies that is Agriculture Office of Ngawi Regency related to expert witness in the trial process of the defendant. (3) Increasing the participation of the community, especially farmers, in reporting economic crime of illegal subsidized fertilizer; (4) Ngawi Regency Agriculture Service is urged to inform about HRP subsidized fertilizer and available quota of fertilizer periodically to farmers and farmer groups..

Page(s): 330-334                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 March 2019

 Tri Boy Siahaan
Post Graduade Program of Law Studies, Sebelas Maret University Surakarta, Indonesia

 Hartiwiningsih
Post Graduade Program of Law Studies, Sebelas Maret University Surakarta, Indonesia

 Hari Purwadi
Post Graduade Program of Law Studies, Sebelas Maret University Surakarta, Indonesia

[1]. Abul Barkat, et.al.,A Quantitative Analysis of Fertilizer Demand and Subsidy Policy in Bangladesh, National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme, Final Report PR #9/08
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[5]. David O. Yawson, Frederick A. Armah, Ernest K.A. Afrifa, and Samuel K.N. Dadzie, “Ghana’s Fertilizer Subsidy Policy: Early Field Lessons From Farmers In The Central Region”, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, Volume 12, No.3, 2010
[6]. Detiknews, PupukLangka, Petani di 19 KecamatanNgawiResah, Online pada https://news.detik.com/berita-jawa-timur/867749/pupuk-langka-petani-di-19-kecamatan-ngawi-resah, diakses 10 Agustus 2018 Jam 16: 47 WIB.
[7]. DitaLina KudratidanAti Kusmiati, “Faktor-Faktor Yang Berperan Dalam Kelangkaan Pupuk Bersubsidi”, J-SEP, Vol. 4 No. 1 Maret 2010
[8]. FebriYuliani, “Efektivitas Implementasi Kebijakan Pupuk SubsidiPada Tanaman Pangan Di Kabupaten Rokan Hilir”, Spirit Publik, ISSN. 1907-0489, Volume 10, Nomor 1 April 2015
[9]. HB Sutopo, Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif, Dasar Teoridan Terapannyadalam Penelitian, Sebelas Maret University Press, Surakarta, 2002
[10]. M. Umar Burhan, AgusSuman, M. Pudjiharjo, dan Noer Soetjipto, “Analisis Ekonomi Terhadap Struktur, Perilaku, Dan Kinerja Pasar Pupuk Di JawaTimur (Kasus di Kabupaten Lumajangdan Kabupaten Ngawi)”, Journal of Indonesian Applied Economics, Vol. 5 No. 1 Mei 2011
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[14]. Soerjono Soekanto, Pengantar Penelitian Hukum, Universitas Indonesia Press, Jakarta, 1986

Tri Boy Siahaan, Hartiwiningsih, Hari Purwadi “The Effectiveness of Illegal Subsidized Fertilizer Eradication in Ngawi Regency” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.330-334 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/330-334.pdf

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Technology, Innovation and Performance Perspectives of Small to Medium Enterprises in the Manufacturing Sector of Zimbabwe

Dr. Faitira Manuere, Nelia Eta Marima, Taurai Manyadze – February 2019 Page No.: 335-339

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of innovation (technological, product and process) on the performance of small to medium enterprises in the manufacturing sector of Zimbabwe. The concept of innovation was quantified in terms of three variables, such as technological innovation, product innovation and process innovation. The survey design was used in this study. Therefore, a sample of 20 SMES in the greater Harare were chosen using the purposive sampling method. Only those SMEs that have been in operation for more than five years were chosen to participate in this study. The questionnaire approach was used to collect primary data which was subsequently analysed using the ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation matrix. The results of the study showed that there is a positive relationship between innovation (technological, product and process) and the performance of SMEs in the manufacturing sector of Zimbabwe.

Page(s): 335-339                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 March 2019

 Dr. Faitira Manuere
Department of Entrepreneurship and Business Management, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Zimbabwe

 Nelia Eta Marima
Department of Entrepreneurship and Business Management, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Zimbabwe

 Taurai Manyadze
Department of Entrepreneurship and Business Management, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Zimbabwe

[1]. Schumpeter, J.A. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
[2]. Muriithi, S. M. (2017). The relationship between leadership and organizational effectiveness. Unpublished Doctoral thesis. Grahams town: Rhodes University.
[3]. Katua, N. T. (2014). The role of SMEs in employment creation and economic growth in selected countries. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(12), 461-472.
[4]. Kauffmann, C. (2006). Financing SMEs in Africa. Paris: OECD Development Centre, Policy Insight nr.
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[11]. Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, B., and McCormick, D. (2007). Industrial Clusters and Innovation Systems in Africa: Industrial Markets and Policy Tokyo. UN University Press.
[12]. Susman G, A., and Warren.D. (2006). Product and Service Innovation in Small and Medium sized Enterprises. US Department of Commerce, USA.
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[14]. Becheikh, N., Landry,R., and Amara, N.(2006). “Lessons from Innovation Empirical Studies in the Manufacturing Sector: A Systematic Review of the Literature from 1993-2003”, Technovation, 26( 5), pp 644-664.
[15]. Coad, A., and Rao,R. (2008). ‘Innovation and Firm Growth in High-Tech Sectors: A Quantile Regression Approach’. Research Policy, 37 (4): 633–48.
[16]. Ruttan, V. W. ( 1997). ‘Induced Innovation, Evolutionary Theory and Path Dependence: Sources of Technical Change’, Economic Journal 107(8), 1520–1529.
[17]. Cooke, R,A., and Rousseau, D.M. (1981). Problems of complex systems: A model of system problem solving applied to schools. Educational Administration Quarterly, 17(7), 15-41.
[18]. Robbins, S. P. (1996). Organisational Behaviour. 7th edn. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
[19]. Agrawal,S., Ashwini,A.(2012) “Corporate Governance Objectives of Labor Union Shareholders,” Review of Financial Studies, 25(1), 187-226.
[20]. Mwangi, R., and Namusonge,S. (2014) Influence of Innovation on Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) Growth- A Case of Garment Manufacturing Industries in Nakuru County. International Journal for innovation education and research,(2)(6), 102 -112.
[21]. Bowen, D. J., Kreuter, M., Spring, B., Cofta-Woerpel, L., Linnan, L., Weiner, D.,and Fernandez, M. (2009). How we design feasibility studies. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(7), 452-457.
[22]. Choi, I. (2005). Culture and judgement of causal relevance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(1), 46-59.
[23]. Hatega,L.(2007).SMEs Development in Uganda. Kampala. Private Sector Foundation.
[24]. Transparency international corruptions perceptions index 2007.

Dr. Faitira Manuere, Nelia Eta Marima, Taurai Manyadze “Technology, Innovation and Performance Perspectives of Small to Medium Enterprises in the Manufacturing Sector of Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.335-339 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/335-339.pdf

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Utility of Educational Resources on Access and Equity of Subsidized Secondary Education in Kenya

Dr. Bomett Emily Jepchirchir (Ph.D.) – February 2019 Page No.: 340-343

The Kenya Government announced the release of 2.9 billion for subsidized secondary education and allocated Ksh. 10,265 to every child to cater for tuition and operational costs annually. The purpose of this study is to assess the determinants of access and equity to subsidized secondary education in Eldoret West, Uasin Gishu County. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of educational resources on access and equity to subsidized secondary education in public secondary schools in Eldoret West. The target population comprised of the Sub-County Education Officer, 16 Head Teachers and 227 class teachers was used. Purposive and stratified simple random samplings were employed. Questionnaires and Interview schedules were the main data collection instruments. The Quantitative data was analyzed using both inferential and descriptive statistics such as frequency tables and measures of central tendency while qualitative data were reported thematically. The study results revealed that there was a significant relationship between educational resources and access and equity to subsidized secondary education (p=0.001). The study concluded that the government should allocate more funds to schools to enable them expand their educational facilities to accommodate the high number of students seeking secondary education.

Page(s): 340-343                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 March 2019

 Dr. Bomett Emily Jepchirchir (Ph.D.)
Department of Educational Management and Policy Studies, School of Education, Moi University, P.O Box 3900, Eldoret, Kenya

[1]. Cheboi, L. J. (2011). Influence Of Tuition Free Secondary Educational Subsidy On Students’participation Rates In Public Secondary Schools InKasarani, Nairobi County, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
[2]. IERA (2011). Education financing in Kenya: Secondary school bursary scheme implementation and challenges. Institute of Policy Analysis & Research.
[3]. Kogo, W. K. (2012). Effectiveness of bursary funds in financing education for orphans: a case of secondary schools in Eldoret West sub-County in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, Moi University).
[4]. Kothari, C. R., (2008). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. (2nd Ed).Age, New Delhi, International publishers.
[5]. LockheadM. P. (2008). High-tuition, high-loan financing: Economic segregation in postsecondary education. Journal of Education Finance, 34(1), 15–30.
[6]. Mantz, M. (2011).The impact of the bursary scheme on participation rates at the secondary school level in Migori Sub-County. Unpublished MED thesis, School of Nairobi, Kenya.
[7]. Mbiti, D. M. (2007).Foundations of School Administration.Nairobi: Oxford School Press.
[8]. Mwiria, K., Ng’ethe, N., Ngome, C., Ouma O. D., Wawire, V. &Wesonga, D. (2007). Public and private universities in Kenya: New challenges, issues and achievements, Nairobi: East African publishers.
[9]. Nthnguraia, B.M. (2013). Effects of Delayed Fees Payments on the Teaching and Learning Process in Public Secondary Schools in Mbeere Sub-County, Kenya; Unpublished Med Thesis, Nairobi: Kenyatta School.
[10]. Oketch, M. &Ngware, M. W. (2012). Urbanization and Education in East n Africa: African Population and Health Research Center. ISBN 978-9966-21-175-0.
[11]. Orodho, A. J., Waweru, P.N., Getange. K. N. (2013). Progress towards attainment of Education For All (EFA) among nomadic pastoralists:International Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR) Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (IOSR-JHSS). 19, (2), 106-117.
[12]. Okwakol Y.M. (2014). Public Expenditure Tracking of Secondary Bursary fund in Nairobi province, IPAR Discussion Paper No. 107/2008: Nairobi: IPAR.
[13]. World Bank (2010).Gender Equity and Development.World Development Reports.

Dr. Bomett Emily Jepchirchir (Ph.D.) “Utility of Educational Resources on Access and Equity of Subsidized Secondary Education in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.340-343 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/340-343.pdf

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The Amounts of Bursary Allocation: Focus on Kenyan Secondary Schools Internal Efficiency

Prof. J.S.K Achoka & Namachanja Edwin Wafula – February 2019 Page No.: 344-348

Secondary school education is very critical in any education system because of the crucial role it plays in catalyzing national development. Consequently, maintaining a high student enrolment at this level should be a priority for all countries. The Constituency Bursary Fund (CBF) was established by the government of Kenya through an Act of Parliament in 2003. The study was guided by classical liberal theory of equality of opportunities. The study was designed to determine equity implications in bursary awards on the internal efficiency of secondary schools. The objective of the study was to establish the relationship between the amounts of bursary allocated and the internal efficiency in secondary schools; to investigate the relationship between bursary allocation and the internal efficiency in secondary schools. This study employed a mixed methods design. Data was collected through questionnaire and interview schedule. Qualitative data were analyzed through themes, while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The study established that there was a positive and significant relationship between amount of bursary allocated and school fees balance of the recipients in bursary allocation to students which indicates that with a unit increase in bursary contribution there is an increase in school fees charged in secondary schools. The findings of the study will provide useful information to educational stakeholders in the management of secondary schools that will be useful in improving the management of secondary schools.

Page(s): 344-348                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 March 2019

 Prof. J.S.K Achoka
Department of Education Planning and Management, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

 Namachanja Edwin Wafula
Department of Education Planning and Management, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

[1]. Bhutta, Z. (2010). Education of health professionals for the 21st century: a global independent Commission. The Lancet, 375(9721), 1137-1138.
[2]. Chambers, J.G. (2018). Educational cost differentials and the allocation of state aid for elementary/secondary education. Journal of Human Resources.44: 459-481.
[3]. Creswell, J. W. (2009). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions (2nd Ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[4]. Creswell, J. W. (2011). Research Design, Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed methods Approaches; London, SAGE
[5]. De Bruyn, M., (2017). Inhibition of gelatinase B/MMP-9 does not attenuate colitis in murine models of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature communications, 8, 15384.
[6]. GoK.(1996). Educational Management in Kenyan Situation. Government Printers: Nairobi, Kenya.
[7]. Johnstone, D. B. (2009). Worldwide trends in financing higher education: A conceptual framework. Financing access and equity in higher education, 1-18.
[8]. Johnstone, D. B., &Marcucci, P. N. (2010). Financing higher education worldwide: Who pays? Who should pay?.JHU Press.
[9]. Kinuthia, W. (2009).Educational Development in Kenya and the Role of Information and Communication Technology. International Journal of Education and Development using ICT.5(2): 33-41.
[10]. Kosgei, Z. K. (2012). Beyond school inputs and resources: an assessment of the effects of subsidies on educational outputs in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, Moi University).
[11]. Kwiek, M. (2009). The two decades of privatization in polish higher education. Cost-sharing, equity, and access.
[12]. Lawson, H. A. (2005). Empowering people, facilitating community development, and contributing to sustainable development: The social work of sport, exercise, and physical education programs. Sport, education and society, 10(1), 135-160.
[13]. Levin, H. (2018). Privatizing education: Can the school marketplace deliver freedom of choice, efficiency, equity, and social cohesion?.Routledge.
[14]. Lewin, K., &Caillods, F. (2001). Financing secondary education in developing countries: Strategies for sustainable growth.UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning.
[15]. Malenya L.F, (2008). The Free Secondary Education Agenda, Development of Educational Foundations Kenyatta University, KIE, Kenya.
[16]. Mertens, D. M. (2003).Mixed methods and the politics of human research: The transformative-emancipatory perspective. In A.Tashakkori and C.Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 135–164). Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage.
[17]. Mingat, A. and Psacharopoulos, G. (1985).Financing education in sub-Saharan Africa. Finance and Development. 22: 35-43.
[18]. MoEST (2008).Education and Manpower Training for the next decade and beyond (Kamunge Report). Nairobi: Government Printer.
[19]. Mugenda. O.M. and Mugenda, A. G. (2009). Research Methods, Qualitative and Qualitative approaches. Nairobi. Acts press.
[20]. Murray, S.E., Evans, W.N. and Schwab, R.M. (2016).Education-finance reform and the distribution of education resources. American Economic Review.45: 789-812.
[21]. Mwenda, E.E. (2009). Influence of Free Primary Education on the Quality of Teaching and Learning in Public Primary Schools in Meru South District, Kenya; Unpublished M.Ed Thesis, Chuka; Chuka University College.
[22]. Njeru, E. and Orodho, J.A. (2003). Access and Participation in Secondary School Education in Kenya: Emerging Issues and Policy Implications, IPAR DP 037/2003, Regal Press Kenya Ltd., Nairobi.
[23]. Oketch, M.O. (2003). Affording the unaffordable: Cost sharing in higher education in sub-Saharan Africa. Peabody Journal of Education. 78: 88-106.
[24]. Onyango, G. A. (2001). Competencies Needed by Secondary School Head teachers and Implications on Pre-service Education. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Nairobi: Kenyatta University.
[25]. Psacharopoulos, G. (1985). Returns to Education: A Further International Update and Implications. Journal of Human Resources. 20(4): 583-604.
[26]. Teddlie, H. (2003). Assessment as learning. How the use of explicit learning objectives, assessment criteria and feedback in post-secondary education and training can come to dominate learning. Assessment in Education. 14: 281-294.
[27]. UNESCO (2010) Sustainable Development Goal 4 and its targets. https://en.unesco.org/education2030-sdg4/targets.
[28]. Woodhall, M. & Psachoropoulua, C.E. (1985). Cost-benefit analysis in educational planning.Unesco, International Institute for Educational Planning

Prof. J.S.K Achoka & Namachanja Edwin Wafula “The Amounts of Bursary Allocation: Focus on Kenyan Secondary Schools Internal Efficiency” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.344-348 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/344-348.pdf

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Dynamic of Gross Enrolment Rates: Access and Equity of Subsidized Secondary Education in Kenya

Dr. Bomett Emily Jepchirchir (Ph.D.) – February 2019 Page No.: 349-352

The subsidized secondary education was introduced as a result of Kenya’s effort to attain Education for All (EFA) as indicated in the Sessional Paper no. 1 of 2012. The subsidized secondary education was implemented in February, 2008 by the Coalition Government. This was to reduce the cost of education for parents, increase access to education and to increase transition rates from primary to secondary transition rates in coping with the United Nations aim to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of gross enrolment rates, on access and equity to subsidized secondary education in public secondary schools in Eldoret West. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The target population comprised of the Sub-County Education Officer, 16 Head Teachers and 227 class teachers was used. Purposive and stratified simple random samplings were employed. Questionnaires and Interview schedules were the main data collection instruments. The collected data was analyzed using both inferential and descriptive statistics such as frequency tables and measures of central tendency. The study results revealed that there was a significant relationship between gross enrolment rates and access and equity to subsidized secondary education (p=0.005). The study concluded that subsidized secondary education has enabled more students to access secondary education. The average number of students per class has been increasing over the years. However, measures should be put in place to ensure school resources are used well.

Page(s): 349-352                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 February 2019

 Dr. Bomett Emily Jepchirchir (Ph.D.)
Department of Educational Management and Policy Studies, School of Education, Moi University, P.O Box 3900, Eldoret, Kenya

[1]. Chimombo, N.J. (2007). Access to Basic Education in Kenya Inherent concerns. Educational Research and Review Vol.2 (10) Pp 275-284.
[2]. Gachukia, E. (2007). Affordable Secondary Education: Report of The Task Force. Nairobi: Government Printer.
[3]. Kothari, C. R., (2008). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. (2nd Ed).Age, New Delhi, International publishers.
[4]. Lewin, K. M. (2008). Financing Education in Mauritius: An Analysis of Cost and Internal Efficiency.Ministry of Education, Port Louis, Mauritius.
[5]. Mathoki, K. (2015, November 15). Girls missing out on constituency kitty. The Standard Newspaper, East African standard, Nairobi p31.
[6]. Nasongo, W.J. (2010). Access to secondary school education through the constituency bursary fund in Kanduyi Constituency, Kenya.Educational Research and Reviews Vol. 5(5), pp. 224-236.
[7]. Ngwili,E. M. (2014). Factors Influencing Student’s Completion Rate in Public Day and Boarding Secondary Schools in Kibwezi Sub-County, Makueni County- Kenya.Unpublished Med Thesis, School of Nairobi. Nairobi.
[8]. Odebero, O.S, Bosire, N.J, Sang, A.K, Ngala, B..J. &Ngware, M.W (2007). Equity in Access to School Education in Kenya through HELB Loans in Relation to Demand, Supply and Effectiveness in Loan Recovery.Unpublished PhD Thesis, submitted to Egerton School, Kenya.
[9]. UNESCO (2007).Teacher Education Policy Forum for Sub-Saharan Africa Report. Paris: UNESCO Headquarters. 6-9 November 2007.
[10]. Wachiye, J. H., &Nasongo, W. J. (2010).Access to secondary school education through the constituency bursary fund in kanduyi constituency, Kenya. Educational Research and Reviews, 5(5), 224-236.

Dr. Bomett Emily Jepchirchir (Ph.D.) “Dynamic of Gross Enrolment Rates: Access and Equity of Subsidized Secondary Education in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.349-352 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/349-352.pdf

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Academic Anxiety among Women in Academic Environment in Sokoto State: Implications for Counselling

ADEJARE Toosin Adeyinka, DALHATU, Hafsatu, OKOLIE Benedicta Onuegbu, SHEHU, Nasir – February 2019 Page No.: 353-360

The paper discussed the issue of academic anxiety among women in academic environment by looking at the concept of anxiety and academic anxiety. The paper also focused on the cause of academic anxiety such as environmental factors, genetic factors, Medical factors amongst others. The paper also identified how academic anxiety can be diagnosed through the help of school counsellor, clinical psychologist and mental health professionals. The paper stated how to handle academic anxiety by getting enough sleep, study smarter, visualize success amongst others. For academic anxiety to be controlled and reduces, the paper advocates the use of therapeutic approach in handling the issue through the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as a counselling approach of assisting women suffering from academic anxiety. The paper concluded that academic anxiety is fast becoming on the increase among women because of the family and society challenges the encounter on their day to day activities and there recommends that developing healthy eating pattern, exercising regularly, keep their eyes on issues or things that pressurize them, reduce cattier, kola and chocolate consumptions amongst others.

Page(s): 353-360                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 March 2019

 ADEJARE Toosin Adeyinka
Department of Educational Foundations, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 DALHATU, Hafsatu
Department of Educational Foundations, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 OKOLIE Benedicta Onuegbu
Department of Educational Foundations, School of Education, Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria

 SHEHU, Nasir
Department of Educational Foundations, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

[1]. American College Health Association’s (2014).
[2]. Ahmad, A.A. (2002). Causes and Effect of Stress and Anxiety among Undergraduate Students of UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto. An M.ed Dissertation Submitted to the Educational Foundation, UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto.
[3]. Asuquo, N.P. & Peter, S.J. (2008).Work Role Attachment and Retirement Intentions of Public School Teachers in Calabar, Student Home comm. Sci. 2 (1), 1-7.
[4]. Dalhatu, H. (2017). Retirement anxiety, stress management strategies and counselling needs of secondary school teachers.An M.Ed Dissertation Submitted to the Educational Foundation, UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto.
[5]. Denscombe, M. C. (2000).Social conditions for Anxiety.British Educational Research Journal, 26 (3) 259-374.
[6]. Derakshan, S, C. (2007). Anxiety and Cognitive Performance: Attention Control Theory. Emotion, 7 (2) 336–353.
[7]. Elliot, A. J. & McGregor, H. A. (2004). Test Anxiety and the Hierarchical Model of Approach and Avoidance Achievement Motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(4), 628-644.
[8]. Elliot, A.J. & McGregor, H. A. (2004).Examination Anxiety.School Psychology Int. 26, 617-635.
[9]. Goldman, W.T. (2003). Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety.Retrieved from http://www.keepkidshealthy.com welcome/condition/anxietydisorder html, on 16th June, 2013.
[10]. Lunt, P. (2003). The Histories of Social Psychology.Social Psychological Review, 5(1), 3-19.
[11]. Lowe, L, W. (2008). The Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA).Journal of Psycho-educational Assessment, 26(3), 215-230.
[12]. Machima, H.M. (2012). Relationship Among Anxiety, Stress Factors and Counselling Needs of Retired Secondary School Teachers in Niger state M.ed Dissertation Submitted to UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto.
[13]. Mathews, H. C. (1999). Metacognition &Maladaptive Coping as Components of Academic Anxiety. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 6(2), 111–125.
[14]. McGregor, H, A. (2001). A 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80 (3), 501-519.
[15]. Oladele, J.O. (2004). Fundamental of Educational Psychology, Handbook Education Students Laos.JohnS-Lad Publishers Ltd.
[16]. Oniye, A.O. &Abdulkadir, O.R. (2005). Introduction to Concepts and Techniques in Behavior Modification, Ilorin: Integrity publication.
[17]. Orbach, G, L. (2007). A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial of a Self-Help Internet-Based Intervention for Test Anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(3), 483–496.
[18]. Putwain, D.W. (2007). Do Different Measures of Assessment Performance Bias or Exaggerate Relationships? Paper Presented at the BERA Institute of Education Annual Conference 2007, 5–8,
[19]. Putwain, D.W. (2008). Deconstructing Test Anxiety:Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties. 13, 141-155.
[20]. Rapee, S., & Hudson, A (2009).Anxiety Among College Students. Uk.
[21]. Saavedre, L. M. (2001). Cognitive Errors in Youth with Anxiety Disorders.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25(5).
[22]. Tambawal, A.B. (2013). Locus of Control and Attitude to School as Correlates of Academic Performance of Secondary School Students of Sokoto State.Unpublished M.ed dissertation, UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto.
[23]. Torrance, H. (2004). Using Action Research to Generate Knowledge About Educational Practice.In G. Thomas & R. Pring (Eds.) Evidence-Based Practice in Education.Maidenhead: Open University Press.
[24]. Tymms, P. & Merrell, C. (2007).Standards and Quality in English Primary Schools Over Time. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Faculty of Education.
[25]. Zeidner, M. & Mathews, G. (2005).Evaluation Anxiety. Handbook of Competence and Motivation. London: Guilford Press

ADEJARE Toosin Adeyinka, DALHATU, Hafsatu, OKOLIE Benedicta Onuegbu, SHEHU, Nasir “Academic Anxiety among Women in Academic Environment in Sokoto State: Implications for Counselling” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.353-360 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/353-360.pdf

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Rajeev Gandhi Gramin Vidyutikaran Yojana: An Analysis in 12th Five Year Plan

Dr. Sangeeta Srivastava – February 2019 Page No.: 361-365

I. INTRODUCTION
India has emerged as a the fastest growing major economy in the world as per the central Statistics Organisation (CSO) and international Monetary Fund (IMF) and it is expected to be one of the top three economic power of the world over the next 10-15 years. India GDP is estimated to have increased 6.6 per cent in 2017-18 and expected 7.3 per cent in 2018-19to but India, one among the leading economies of the world is predominantly rural, Almost 70% its population is in rural area, as per the census 2011 near about 120 cr population is living in rural area & their economic & social development is the only key indicator of growth & development of Indian economy to achieve this fully it is important that rural population of India have to access modern facilities mainly adequate supply of electricity.

Page(s): 361-365                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 March 2019

 Dr. Sangeeta Srivastava
Assistant Professor, Vanita Vishram Women’s College of Commerce Surat, Gujarat
(Affiliated with VNSGU, Surat, Gujarat)

[1]. Improving electricity services in rural India – Vijaymodi working paper series,\centre on globalization and sustainable development-planning commission,
[2]. Impact of power sector reform on poor – a case study of south and south eastasia – nehamishra and viveksharma, teri, india. http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-common/censusdata2011.html
[3]. http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/peoreport/peo/peo_rggvy3107.pdf
[4]. https://data.gov.in
[5]. http://www.energy4humandevelopment.com/2014/10/mini-grids-versus-other-rural.html
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[7]. http://mnre.gov.in/
[8]. http://powermin.nic.in/

Dr. Sangeeta Srivastava “Rajeev Gandhi Gramin Vidyutikaran Yojana: An Analysis in 12th Five Year Plan” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.361-365 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/361-365.pdf

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Understanding of the Batik Laweyan Solo Creator for Copyright (Study of Law Number 28 of 2014 Concerning Copyright)

Chandra Adi Mauli – February 2019 Page No.: 366-371

The focus of the discussion in this study is the First Copyright Law as an embodiment of penetration of the legal culture of Western (capitalist) countries with individualistic nuances as positive law. Secondly, the culture of the laws of the local community where the Copyright Law is applied as a living law in society (Living law).The purpose of this paper is to know and explain not the implementation of the law as a positive law (positive law) in this case what is meant is the Copyright Act, in an Indonesian society and the Batik Laweyan craftsmen in particular, so that it is expected to explain why Copyright Law cannot function optimally in Indonesia which is marked by the many violations or piracy of a copyrighted work. The method in this writing is a qualitative method with the Sociological Research approach, while the paradigm used as the basis is the Paradigm of Social Definition with the aim of understanding social behavior through interpretation by explaining the path of development and its consequences according to its causes. Based on the social definition paradigm, the theory used is interactionism theory, which mainly emphasizes sociopsychological perspectives, the main goal of which is the individual in his personal personality and the interaction between internal opinion and one’s emotions with social behavior. With the Symbolic Interaction Theory approach, in this study will be able to further reveal the behavior of certain community groups by interacting with existing social behavior. And also with the Phenomenology Theory is that human action becomes a social relationship if humans give a certain meaning or meaning to their actions, and other human beings also understand their actions as appropriate which means that humans are social beings, so that the awareness of daily life is an absolute magnification.
As for the study findings it turns out, the Copyright Act in the application in the Laweyan Batik Craftsman community is in conflict with the Javanese legal culture that promotes harmony between neighbors, ewuhpekeweuh, tepasliro, mutual cooperation. If the law of copyright is strictly enforced, it will result in disturbance of neighborly living conditions. Because most Batik Laweyan craftsmen live next to each other even there is still a kinship, so that when it comes to demanding or monopolizing a work, it will lead to neighboring reluctance. They assume that even the art of batik is their property from the property of their ancestors so that anyone can imitate and make it.

Page(s): 366-371                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 March 2019

 Chandra Adi Mauli
Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia

[1]. Desah Putuh Dewi Kasih. 1992. Laporan Penelitian Pelaksanaan Peregangan Statik 29 UU No. 7 Tahun 1987 sebagaipelindung Hak Cipta Benda-Benda Seni di Desa Kemanuk Kecamatan Sukowat iGiayar. UniversitasUdayana.
[2]. Esmi Warassih Pudjirahaju. 1994. Metode Penelitian Bidangilmu Humanoria Metodologi Penelitian Ilmu Sosial Orientasi Penelitian Bidang Hukum. Semarang: FH UNDIP.
[3]. Friendmen, Lawrence M. 1995.Legal Culture and The Welfare State, dalam Gunter Teubner, Dilemmas of Low in The Welfare Sate, Walter de Guyter-Berlin-New York.
[4]. HB Sutopo. 1988. Pengantar Penelitian Kualitatif :Dasar-DasarTeoritisdanPraktisPusatPenelitian UNS. Surakarta.
[5]. I Ketut Wirawan. 2000. Tesis, Budaya Hukumdan Disfungsi Undang-UndangHak Cipta :Kasus Masyarakat Seniman Bali. Semarang Program Pasca Sarjana Ilmu Hukum UNDIP.
[6]. Lexy J, Moleong. 1997. Metode Penelitian Kualitatif, Bandung : PT. RemajaRosdakary.
[7]. Ronny Hanitijo Soemitro. 1993. Metodologi Penelitian Ilmu Sosialdengan Oreientasi Penelitian Bidang Hukum. Semarang FH UNDIP.
[8]. Rona Rositawati, 2001. “Perlindungan Hukum Terhadap Pemegang Hak Cipta Program Komputer Menurut Undang-undang HakCipta”, Skripsi, FH UNS.
[9]. Sophar Maru Hutagalung, 1996. Hak Cipta, Kedudukandan Peranannyadalam Pembangunan, Jakarta. Akademika Pressindo.

Chandra Adi Mauli “Understanding of the Batik Laweyan Solo Creator for Copyright (Study of Law Number 28 of 2014 Concerning Copyright)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.366-371 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/366-371.pdf

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A Survey of the Proleferation of Small Arms and Cattle Rusttling in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area of Kaduna State and Its Implication to National Security

Suleiman Amali, Ilim Moses Msughter, Lawal, O. YA – February 2019 Page No.: 372-384

This study investigates the security implication of cattle rustling in Birnin Gwari local government area of Kaduna state. The major objective of the study was thus to assess the connection between proliferation of small arms and cattle rustling and then examine the security implication on the society. To achieve this grand objective, specific objectives were outlined as thus: to highlights the factors that influence the proliferation of small arms and light weapons in Birnin Gwari local government, highlight the factors that facilitates and sustain catte rustling in Birnin Gwari local government area. The study was also interested in enumerating the obstacle that affects eradication of the phenomenon and to suggest what can be done to eradicate the phenomenon in the society. The study utilised both the primary and secondary data for its analyses. A multi stage sampling techniques was used to collect data from the respondents. The total number of respondents that participated in the study was 375. The study also used the in-depth Interview method to interview police officers who were considered as key informants for the study. The data obtained from the respondents were quantitatively and qualitatively analysed. The study found out that the proliferation of small arms and light weapons is very high in Birnin Gwari local government area. The major factor identified as facilitating the proliferation of small arms in Birnin Gwari was political thuggery, and thick vegetation of the Birnin Gwari communities was discovered to provide hide out for armed bandit hence facilitating the phenomenon of cattle rustling. It is therefore the recommendation of this study that political offices in Nigeria be made less attractive to discourage the use of thugs for election. Also s stiffer penalties and effective enforcement of laws should be embarked on. The study also suggests that the borders need to be closely monitored for what goes in and pout of the state and country. Finally the study suggests that employment opportunities be created to engage the youths who are the major perpetrators armed conflict and violence.

Page(s): 372-384                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 March 2019

 Suleiman Amali
Department of Sociology Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Nigeria

 Ilim Moses Msughter
Department of Sociology Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Nigeria

 Lawal, O. YA
Registry Department Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Nigeria

[1]. Adetiba, T. C (2012) Socio-Political and Economic Development under Threat: The Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons in Nigeria; Greener Journal of Social Sciences: 2 (5), Pp. 179-189, November 2012.
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[4]. Ajibola, A (2017) Birnin Gwari Local government Area of Kaduna State: a hot spot for armed bandits. Channels new online.
[5]. Aver, T. T; Nnorom, K. C, Ilim M. M (2014) The Proliferation of Arms and its Effect on the Development of Democracy in Nigeria;American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences; USA; International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR) Pp 223-238.
[6]. Bah, A. (2004), “Implementing the ECOWAS Moratorium in Post-war Sierra Leone. Prepared for the working group of the Peace building coordination committee in support of the Peace Building and Human security: Development of Policy Capacity of the Voluntary Sector Project; Canada; Canadian Peace building Coordinating Committee, May 2004
[7]. David, O (2016). Daily Independent Online, (30 July, 2010) Report of the Roundtable on Harmonisation of National Gun Control Laws with ECOWAS SALW Convention facilitated by PANAAFSTRAG and NANSA was held in Abuja on 28th October, 2006. See also “Task Force Vows to Stamp out Proliferation of Arms”, the Chairman of the National Task Force set up to combat illegal importation of goods, small arms, ammunition and light weapons (NATFORCE), at: http://allafrica.com/stories/201008020322.html
[8]. Ebo, A. (2003) Small Arms Control in West Africa; West African Series, No. 1. London: International Alert.
[9]. Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (2010) IDP News Alert, 15 July 2010.
[10]. Nte, N.D. (2011) “The Changing Patterns of Small and Light Weapons (SALW) Proliferation and the Challenges of National Security in Nigeria”, Global Journal of Africa Studies 1 (1): 5-23.
[11]. Odekunle, F (2013) Nigerians Must Tackle Causes of Insecurity, The Punch, June 1, 2013, www.punchng.com
[12]. Onuoha, F. C (2011) Porous Borders and Boko Haram’s Arms Smuggling Operations in Nigeria; AlJazeeraReports, Sunday 08 September 2013 14:02 Mecca
[13]. Usang, E. E; Ugwumba, N. F. C and Abang, E. O (2014) Effect of Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons on the Development of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria; Developing Country Studies www.iiste.org 4, (10) Pp 60-72
[14]. Whataretheissues/SmallArms/tabid/1199/language/en-US/Default.aspx 2011.
[15]. Wokocha, D. A. (2012) Proliferation of Illegal Weapons Blamed on our Porous Borders; African Journal of Culture, Philosophy and Society; AworomAnnang,2 (1) (Sept. 2012) http://www.aworomannang.com/new/?q=content/arms-proliferation-and-conflict-niger-delta#sthash.8Mizyk6f.dpuf;
[16]. Yakubu, J.G. (2005). Cooperation among armed forces and security forces in combating the proliferation small arms in Combating the proliferation of small arms and light weapons in West Africa: A Handbook for the Training of Armed and Security Forces, Ayisi, A and Sall, I. (Eds) United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 55-69.
[17]. Yecho, J. I (2006) An Overview of the Tiv-Jukun Crises, Gyuse T.T and Ajene O (Ed) Conflicts in the Benue Valley, Centre for Peace and Development Studies, Makurdi, Birnin Gwari localgovenment area, Nigeria, Selfers Books.

Suleiman Amali, Ilim Moses Msughter, Lawal, O. YA “A Survey of the Proleferation of Small Arms and Cattle Rusttling in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area of Kaduna State and Its Implication to National Security” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.372-384 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/372-384.pdf

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Progressive Legal Approach in the Settlement of the Case of Hazardous and Toxic Waste (B3) by a Judge in the District Court

Gineng Pratidina, Hartiwiningsih, Al. Sentot Sudarwanto – February 2019 Page No.: 385-390

The direction of the long-term development in Indonesia is economic development based on industrial development. The development of the industry does not only producebeneficial products to the community, but also has a negative impact on the surrounding environment. One of these impacts is the production of waste. In Law Number 32 of 2009 concerning the Protection and Management of the Environment, it provides environmental management regulations including regulating environmental pollution issues. The important issues in this caseare related to positive legal arrangements in Indonesia regarding Hazardous and Toxic Materials and a progressive legal approach in resolving waste disposal disputes.The method used in this study was qualitative socio-legal approach based on the literature data. The analysis was qualitative. The techniques of collecting legal entities in this study were interviewing the environmental certified judges and conducting the literature study as a secondary data. The research results showed that the Government has issued Government Regulation No. 101 of 2014 concerning Management of Hazardous and Toxic Waste (B3 Waste), in which there have been significant changes from Government Regulation No. 18 and 85 of 1999, in which B3 Waste management must be carried out in an integrated manner because it can cause harm to human health, other living organisms, and the environment. Judges in the judicial process must pay attention to environmental conditions by being able to place criminal law as premium remedium, and use the principle of strict liability in decisions related to Hazardous and Toxic Waste. Judges who handle environmental dispute issues must have more understanding, knowledge and skills in the field of the environment. This is where integrity and joint commitment by all law enforcement officials are needed in carrying out the mandate of the constitution and the laws and regulations in the field of the environment.

Page(s): 385-390                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 March 2019

 Gineng Pratidina
Student of Graduate Program, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta

 Hartiwiningsih
Lecturer of Graduate Program, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta

 Al. Sentot Sudarwanto
Lecturer of Graduate Program, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta

[1]. Absori. (2014). Hukum Penyelesaian Sengketa Lingkungan Hidup Sebuah Model Penyelesaian Sengketa Lingkungan Hidupdengan Pendekata Partisipatif. Surakarta: Muhammadiyah University Press.
[2]. Absori. (2004). Peran Serta Masyarakatdalam Penegakan AMDAL. Jurnal Yurisprudence, Vol.1, No.2.
[3]. Chaban, M.A. (2001). Hazardous Waste Source Reduction in Materials and Processing Technologies. Journal of materials processing technology.
[4]. Circular Letter No: MA/Kumdil/197.A/K/2000.
[5]. Decision Number 20/Pid.B/2005/PN.Kray.
[6]. Friedman, L.M. (2009). Sistem Hukum: Perspektif Ilmu Sosial (The Legal System: A Social Science Perspective).Bandung:Nusa Media.
[7]. Greaga, M.D.La, et al. (2001). “Hazardous Waste Management”. Mc.Graw-Hill International Edition.
[8]. Hamzah. (2005).Penegakan HukumLingkungan. Jakarta: Arikha Media Cipta.
[9]. Hardjosumantri, K. (2000). Hukum Tata Lingkungan Edisi 17. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada Press.
[10]. Kusuma, M. (2009). Menyelami Semangat Hukum Progresif: Terapi Paradigmatikbagi Lemahnya Hukum Indonesia .Yogyakarta: Antonylib.
[11]. Law No. 32 of 2009 concerning the Protection and Management of the Environment.
[12]. Rahardjo, S. (2004). Formal dan Non Formal dalam Ketatanegaraan. Kompas, 25 Oktober 2004.
[13]. Rahardjo, S. (2004). “Hukum Progresifsebagai Dasar Bangunan Ilmu Hukum Nasional”. Semarang: Makalah Seminar Nasional Menggagas Ilmu Hukum Progresif Indonesia, Kerjasama IAIN Walisongodengan IKA Program Doktor Ilmu Hukum UNDIP.
[14]. Rahardjo, S. (2002). “Menjalankan Hukumdengan Kecerdasan Spiritual”. Kompas, 30 Desember 2002.
[15]. Rifa’i, A. (2012).Penemuan Hukumoleh Hakim dalam Perspektif Hukum Progresif. Jakarta: Sinar Grafika.
[16]. Rochmani. (2016). “Budaya Hukum Hakim dalam Penyelesaian Perkara Lingkungan Hidup di Pengadilan”.Prosiding Seminar Nasional Multi DisiplinIlmu & Call For Papers Unisbank Ke-2 Kajian Multi Disiplin Ilmudalam Pengembangan Ipteksuntuk Mewujudkan Pembangunan Nasional Semesta Berencana (Pnsb) sebagai Upaya Meningkatkan Daya Saing Global.
[17]. Setiyono. (2001). Dasar Hukum Pengelolaan Limbah B3. Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan. Vol.2, No. 1.
[18]. Sudarwanto, A.Sentot. (2018).AMDAL dan Proses Penyusunan (Berdasarkan Peraturan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup Nomor 16 Tahun 2012 tentang Pedoman Penyusunan Dokumen Lingkungan Hidup). Surakarta: UNS Press.
[19]. http://industri.bisnis.com/read/20180523/99/798817/klhk-dan-ky-pantau-bersama-kasus-lingkungan-dan-kehutanan, di akses 8 November 2018, pukul 20.35
[20]. http://www.menlhk.go.id/berita-10515-klhk-tegas-tangani-kasus-pencemaran-lingkungan.html, di akses 14 Februari 2019, Pukul 21.30 WIB

Gineng Pratidina, Hartiwiningsih, Al. Sentot Sudarwanto “Progressive Legal Approach in the Settlement of the Case of Hazardous and Toxic Waste (B3) by a Judge in the District Court” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.385-390 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/385-390.pdf

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The 1904-5 Kom- German- War: Dimensioning the Power and Leadership Horizons opened and closed by the War

Confidence Chia Ngam – February 2019 Page No.: 391-402

The Germans intention to subdue the Cameroon traditional ethnic entities (states) to implant their colonial project resulted in a number of resistances (wars). The Kom German War of 1904-5 was one of a kind which brought about drastic transformation and reconfiguration both to the way of life and the power ownership plus distribution patterns that existed here prior to foreign incursion. This paper moves away from the known general impacts of the War of resistances in Africa to situate the particularities of the short but severely eventful War between the Kom and the Germans. Based on evidence from primary and secondary sources, this paper argues that this war negotiated special horizons of power sharing and leadership equations between the Germans and the Kom traditional state thereby, opening the flood gates for the penetration of so many alien elements into the Kom traditional fabric. This discourse is consonant to the entire ramifications that shape the fortunes of African economies and political life styles elsewhere.

Page(s): 391-402                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 March 2019

 Confidence Chia Ngam
Lecturer/Researcher, Department of History /Archaeology, The University of Bamenda, The Republic of Cameroon

[1]. Chilver,E.M.,Zintgraff exploration in the Bamenda Adamawa and the Benue lands 1889-1992, Buea, Government Printers 1966 ,p.19

[2]. Fortes., M. S., Pritchards, E(eds) Introduction to African political Systems , London: oxford University press, for International African Institute, 1964.
[3]. Ngam, C.C., in his thesis ‘’ Kom Leadership in its regional Sub Setting Ca. 1865-2005: A study in Power Diplomacy with a traditional state of the Cameroon Grasslands’’ PhD.thesis University of Yaounde I, 2014.
[4]. Fanso., V. G., ChemLanghee., B., “NsoMlitary organization and Warfare in the 19th and 20th Century ‘’in African Crossroads, Intersections between History and Anthropology (eds) Ian Fowler and David Zeitlyn, Oxford: Baghain Books,19960.
[5]. Kiawa,P.T., “The Kom-German War 1904-5 p.57. It was confusing to see YuhFukuin who had been priding himself as a War tyrant and a great man behave this way.It is likely that the crushing defeat of Mankon, Bafut and Nso by the German-Bafut Wars brought the two vassals of stateMejang and Bueuini closer to Kom.
[6]. Rao, M.K., “South West Under German Occupation 1884-1914, in Africana,collected Research papers on Africa special Namibia Independence issue vol. III..
[7]. Kiawi, P. T., ‘’ TheKom German War.1904-5: The Kom War Tactics,’’ M A. Dissertation, University of Buea.2001.
[8]. Mfombang, W. C., “Bamenda Division under British Administration, 1916-1961. From Native Administration to the local Government” M.A thesis, University of Yaounde, 1980.
[9]. File No sd 1921/1, resident to D.0. 10th April 1922. N.A.B.
[10]. File No ab 2a23 of 1929,N.A.B.

Confidence Chia Ngam “The 1904-5 Kom- German- War: Dimensioning the Power and Leadership Horizons opened and closed by the War” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.391-402 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/391-402.pdf

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Rural Resilience: The Role of Cooperatives in Achieving Sustainable Rural Development

NDAGIJIMANA Ibrahim – February 2019 Page No.: 403-413

In his vision 2020, Rwanda consider cooperative as one of the best tools to speed up achievements in various national programs. Cooperative governance is most important in the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals in one hand and in other hand considered as arm to achieve sustainable development.
Cooperative is a strong vehicle for development and economic empowerment especially among the disadvantaged groups like women, youth and PWDs whom involved in cooperatives in same way, as members either clients or beneficiaries. Cooperative in Rwanda contributes now to the economic wellbeing of more than 2 million people (members), most of them living in rural areas and agricultural cooperatives legally registered in RCA are more than five thousand (Rwanda Cooperative Agency: 2016)
According to RCA home page (2019), agriculture in Rwanda accounts for a third of Rwanda’s GDP; constitutes the main economic activity for the rural households (especially women) and remains their main source of income. Today, the agricultural population is estimated to be a little less than 80% of the total population. The sector meets 90% of the national food needs and generates more than 50% of the country’s export revenues.
However, due to the aforementioned challenges, many cooperatives still struggling to stay operational. In fact, cooperative sector in Rwanda employ a big percentage of people and large and diverse if not mistaken, consisting of agricultural, value chain, arts and handicraft as well as savings and credit groups.
The above brief, highlights the contribution of agricultural cooperatives in Rwanda towards achieving rural sustainable development and for justify why Rwanda consider it as an important instrument to promote sustainable development due to its role in poverty reduction.
Thus, agricultural cooperatives facilitate their members’ access to financial capital, farmers (members) access the inputs required to grow crops and keep livestock and help them process, transport and market their products.
Despites the highlighted impact of agricultural cooperatives in Rwanda, still face huge challenges including but not limited to lack of skills and knowledge on cooperative management, poor internal regulations, lack of practical skills in planning, lack of skills in financial management.
This paper focuses on agricultural cooperatives governance challenges that hinder achievement of sustainable development.

Page(s): 403-413                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 March 2019

 NDAGIJIMANA Ibrahim
PhD Student, Governance and Leadership, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kigali-Rwanda

[1]. Chambo, A.S (2009) Agricultural Co-operatives: Role in food security and Rural
[2]. Development, Moshi University College of co-operative and Business Studies, Moshi, Tanzania
[3]. FAO. Agricultural Cooperatives are Key to reduce hunger and poverty. 2011
[4]. Fortune of Africa, Agricultural Sector Profile Rwanda, 2014
[5]. Government of Rwanda (2012) Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy 2013
[6]. IFAD (2010) Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty: New realities, new challenges, new opportunities for tomorrow’s generation, Rome, Italy.
[7]. International cooperatives alliance, cooperatives and the sustainable development goals, 2015
[8]. IPAR, Rwanda agriculture sector situational analysis, August, 2009
[9]. MINAGRI, Annual report, 2014-2015, Kigali Rwanda
[10]. MINAGRI, Strategic plan for the transformation of agricultural in Rwanda, phase III, July 2013
[11]. MINECOFIN, Shaping our Development, 2018, Kigali, Rwanda
[12]. MUKAMUTESI Odile, The profitability of rural Agricultural Cooperatives in Rwanda. A comparative study of two selected cooperatives, November 2014
[13]. NISR, Comprehensive food security and vulnerability analysis, March 2016
[14]. NISR, Seasonal agricultural survey report, season B, 2017
[15]. NUREDIN MOHAMMED1, BYEONG WAN LEE, Role of Cooperatives in Rural Development, the Case of South Nations Nationalities and People Region, Ethiopia, 2015
[16]. RCA, National policy on promotion of cooperatives, march, 2006
[17]. RCA, statistics on Cooperatives in Rwanda, March 2018
[18]. RCA, statistics on Cooperatives in Rwanda, 2019
[19]. REMA, Rwanda state of environment and outlook report, January 2013
[20]. ROR (2008). Strategic Plan for the Transformation of Agriculture in Rwanda – Phase II (PSTA II). Final Report. Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources, Republic of Rwanda (ROR), Kigali.
[21]. Trading economics, Rwanda GDP from agriculture, 2018
[22]. USAID, agriculture and food security, January 2018
[23]. World Bank, agriculture development in Rwanda, January, 2013

NDAGIJIMANA Ibrahim “Rural Resilience: The Role of Cooperatives in Achieving Sustainable Rural Development” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.403-413 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/403-413.pdf

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The Fallacies of the Professional Educators (Philosophical & Psychological Perspectives)

Janet Surum, Elvis Omondi Kauka – February 2019 Page No.: 414-416

This Essay sought to examine the three cardinal sins of Professional Educators. These sins of omission and commission are herein referred to as Educational Fallacies of the positivistic nature, the evaluation policy fallacy and the fallacy of the Romantic nature. These fallacies tend to lay undue emphasis on either the Cognitive dimensions of Learning or Affective domain of learning, yet Education is not a disjunctive activity, it is a conjunctive activity(a both-and kind of process). Real Education is not an exclusive discriminatory activity as propounded by the fallacies; instead it is an inclusive liberal process

Page(s): 414-416                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 March 2019

 Janet Surum
EAPM Department, University of Kabianga, Kenya

 Elvis Omondi Kauka
Department of Educational Foundations, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

[1].Arkansan R, L and Atkinson R.C. (1990): Introduction to Psychology, Toronto: Harcourt brace Jovanovich college publishers.
[2]. Cothran, M. (2013). Educational Fallacies.. https://www.memoriapress.com/articles/two-educational-fallacies. Retrieved on 21 /02/ 2019.
[3]. Gage, D. C and Berliner, ( 1991). Education Psychology, Toronto: Houghton Mifflin Company.
[4]. Njoroge, J. R. & Benaars, G. A.( 1986.). Philosophy and Education in Africa. Nairobi: TransAfrica Press.

Janet Surum, Elvis Omondi Kauka “The Fallacies of the Professional Educators (Philosophical & Psychological Perspectives)
” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.414-416 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/414-416.pdf

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Actions of Violence in Arresting Suspected Terrorists based on Human Rights Perspective

Kiky Erlani, Widodo Tresno Novianto, Hari Purwadi – February 2019 Page No.: 417-422

Terrorism is categorized as extra ordinary crime so that the Police needs extra ordinary actions to overcome it. The actions carried out by the police are still limited by the applicable legal regulations and human rights although it is possible to carry out the discretionary actions. In some cases of arresting terrorists, it has led to actions of violence carried out by the Police so that it leaves the issue of the use of authority, especially involving discretion. This important issue is related to the discretionary boundaries, namely arbitrariness, abuse of power, and necessity of the needed action. To analyze this issue, a legal research with black-letter law paradigm was conducted. The technique of collecting legal materials in this study used library research. The legal materials were analyzed deductively and used interpretation method (hermeneutics). The research results showed that actions of violence carried out by the police in arresting suspected terrorists were allowed if they fulfilled the elements that have existed in the provisions of the laws and regulations. In the context of human rights, practices of violence in arrests are still problematic.

Page(s): 417-422                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 March 2019

 Kiky Erlani
Student of Graduate School, Sebelas Maret Universiy, Surakarta, Indonesia

 Widodo Tresno Novianto
Lecturer of Law Faculty, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia

 Hari Purwadi
Lecturer of Law Faculty, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia

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[5]. Black, H. C.(1990).Black’s Law Dictionary, Sixth Edition, West Publishing Co, St. Paul, Minn.
[6]. Goldstein, J.(1960). Police Discretion No To Invoke The Criminal Process: Law Visibility Decisions In The Adminitration Of Justice, Yale Law Journal Vol. 69 No. 4, March 1960. New Haven: Yale Law School.
[7]. Joseph, H. T.(1971). Police Diskrestion and Discriminatory Enforcement, Duke Law Journal Vol. 1972:717. United States: Duke University School of law.
[8]. Kamil, S.(2007). Syariah Islam dan HAM Dampak Perda Syariah Terhadap Kebebasan Sipil, Hak-Hak Perempuan, dan Non-Muslim. Jakarta: CSRC.
[9]. Komisi Kepolisian Indonesia.(2012).Diskresi Kepolisian dalam Tinjauan Hukum dan Implementasinya di Lapangan. Jakarta.
[10]. KOMPAS.com, Sabtu, 26 Maret 2016, Pukul 15:18 WIB: Kontras duga Densus 88 lakukan pelanggaran HAM terhadap Siyono dalam http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2016/03/26/1518371/kontras.duga,densus.88.lakukan.pelanggaran.HAM.terhadap.Siyono, diakses pada tanggal 18 April 2018 Pukul 23:04.
[11]. Kunarto & Kuswaryono, H. (ed), “Polisi dan Masyarakat”, Makalah, Hasil Seminar Kepala Polisi Asia Pasifik ke VI Taipei, 14 Januari 1998.
[12]. Law Number 2 of 2002 concerning the National Police of the Republic of Indonesia.
[13]. Law Number 5 of 2018 concerning the Eradication of Terrorism Crimes.
[14]. Law Number 12 of 2005 concerning Civil and Political Rights.
[15]. Law Number 39 of 1999 concerning Human Rights.
[16]. Liputan6.com, 20 April 2016, 16:48 WIB: Kronologi Kematian Terduga Teroris Siyono Versi Kapolri, dalam http://m.liputan6.com/news/read/kronologi-kematian-terduga-teroris-siyono-versi-kapolri, diakses Selasa ,15 Januari2019 Pukul 22:00 WIB.
[17]. Mardenis.(2011).Pemberantasan Terorisme Politik Internasional dan Politik Hukum Nasional Indonesia. Jakarta: Rajawali Press.
[18]. Nickel, J. W.(1996). Hak Asasi Manusia. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
[19]. Nuh, M.(2011).Etika Profesi Hukum. Pustaka Setia Offset.
[20]. Pepinsky, H. E. (1984) “Better Living through Police Discretion”, Law & Contemporary Problems, Vol.47, No.4, p.249.diaksesdarihttps://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3785&context=lcp, 12 Februari 2019, pk.05:16 WIB.
[21]. Prasetyo, D.(2014).Diskresi Kepolisian pada Tahap Penangkapan Tersangka Terorisme. Malang: Universitas Brawijaya Press.
[22]. Rahardjo, S.(2002).Polisi Sipil dalam Perubahan Sosial di Indonesia. Jakarta: penerbit Buku Kompas.
[23]. Rahardjo, S.(2009).Penegakan Hukum (Suatu Tinjauan Sosiologis).Yogyakarta: Genta.
[24]. Raharjo, A. (2006). “Hukum dan Dilema Pencitraannya (Transisi Paradigmatis Ilmu Hukum dalam Teori dan Praktik”, Jurnal Hukum Pro Justitia, Vol. 24, No. 1, Januari 2006.
[25]. Runturambi, S., Josias, A., &Pujiastuti, A. S. (2015). Senjata Api dan Penanganan Tindak Kriminal. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.
[26]. Setiardja, A. G.(1993).Hak-Hak Asasi Manusia berdasarkan Ideologi Pancasila.Yogyakarta: Kanisius.
[27]. The Regulation of the Chief of the National Police of the Republic of IndonesiaNumber 1 of 2009 concerning the Use of Force in Actions of the Police.
[28]. The Regulation of the Chief of the National Police of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 2006 concerning the Professional Code of Ethics of the National Police of the Republic of Indonesia.
[29]. Witanto, D. Y. & K, A. P. N.(2013).Diskresi Hakim sebuah Instrumen Menegakkan Keadilan Subtantif dalam Perkara-Perkara Pidana.Bandung: Alfabeta.
[30]. Wijaya, A. L.(2002).Carok, Konflik Kekerasan dan Harga Diri Orang Madura.Yogyakarta: LKIS.

Kiky Erlani, Widodo Tresno Novianto, Hari Purwadi “Actions of Violence in Arresting Suspected Terrorists based on Human Rights Perspective” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.417-422 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/417-422.pdf

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A Philosophical Perspective on ‘The Parent -Learner- Teacher Triad’

Elvis Omondi Kauka, Janet Surum – February 2019 Page No.: 423-425

This essay re-emphasises the necessity and the significance of what can be considered as the ‘holy alliance’ in an Educational set up. A disjointed Education is one in which the symphony, the synchrony and the harmony are undesirably missing. The worst disjunction that can ever happen in pedagogy is the disconnect among the Teacher, the Learner and the Parent. This essay uses basic analysis to reaffirm the necessity of the relationships among the teacher, the learner and the parent for Educational ends, and that such relationships are not only Philosophically founded but practically justifiable.

Page(s): 423-425                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 March 2019

 Elvis Omondi Kauka
Department of Educational Foundations, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

 Janet Surum
EAPM Department, University of Kabianga, Kenya

[1]. Arkansan R, L and Atkinson R.C. (1990): Introduction to Psychology, Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich college publishers.
[2]. Gage, D. C and Berliner, ( 1991). Education Psychology, Toronto: Houghton Mifflin Company.
[3]. Njoroge, J. R. & Benaars, G. A.( 1986.). Philosophy and Education in Africa. Nairobi: TransAfrica Press.

Elvis Omondi Kauka, Janet Surum “A Philosophical Perspective on ‘The Parent -Learner- Teacher Triad'” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.423-425 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/423-425.pdf

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Factors Influencing Honey Production in Marigat, Baringo County – Kenya

Chemwok C. K, Tuitoek D. K, Nganai S. K. – February 2019 Page No.: 426-434

Beekeeping is the maintenance of honey bee colonies in hives. Beekeeping is a viable business that contributes income significantly to many rural households in Marigat, Baringo County. It provides a means of supplementary business and self employment opportunities. Over the years, demand for honey continued to increase while quantity of honey produced declined. The study analyzed the effects of technological, economic, social and institutional factors that influenced quantity of honey produced. The theory of the firm was the theoretical framework of the study. The study adopted a survey design. The research was conducted in Marigat, Baringo County with various regions being sampled to obtain reliable data. Target population of the study was 1,500 bee farmers in the region and a sample size of 134 bee farmers were selected from three divisions. Data was collected using structured interview schedule, group discussion, key informant discussion and observations, analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression. Multiple regression model was estimated by Ordinary Least Squares technique. Results indicated technological, economic, social and institutional factors significantly determined honey production (p – values ranged between from 0.000 – 0.0203 < 0.05). It was concluded that technological, social, economic and institutional factors affected honey production in Marigat, Baringo County. It is important to encourage beekeepers to diversify income in the farm to include other complimentary activities such as beekeeping and agro-forestry. Farmer to farmer advisory services is strengthened in response for services and collaboration with other partners in promoting beekeeping. Enhance development of the subsector through strong extension, research, conservation and rehabilitation of vegetation with integration of beekeeping. Organize beekeepers for efficient marketing of bee products, establishment of colony multiplication center, distribution and conservation of indigenous honeybee race. Women and youths are encouraged to take up beekeeping enterprise. Develop beekeepers skills and extension agents on bee management. Utilize beeswax through intensive trainings, enhance bee forage production and integrate beekeeping with water harvesting. Modify traditional log hive to include queen excluder - section for improved honey quality.

Page(s): 426-434                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 March 2019

 Chemwok C. K
University of Eldoret, Kenya

 Tuitoek D. K
Moi University, Kenya

 Nganai S. K.
Moi University, Kenya

[1]. Abebe W., Puskur R., & Karippai R.S., (2008). Adopting improved box hive in Atsbi Wemberta district of Eastern Zone, Tigray Region: Determinants and financial benefits ILRI, Working paper No. 10.
[2]. Adjare, O. S. (1990). Beekeeping in Africa FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 68/6. FAO, Rome, Italy.
[3]. Bradbear, N., Fisher, E. & Jackson, H. (2002). Strengthening livelihoods: exploring the role of bee keeping in development. Bees for Development, Monmouth, UK
[4]. FAO (1990). Beekeeping in Africa. Agricultural Services Bulletin 68/6 Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Rome.
[5]. FAO. (2011). Socio-Economic and Gender Analysis Programme. Field Level Hand Book.
[6]. Friedman, M. (2007). “Israeli archaeologists find 3,000-year-old beehives” in USA Today, Retrieved 2010-01-04.
[7]. GoK (2008; 2012; 2013). Economic Survey (various issues). Nairobi: Government Printer.
[8]. GoK, (2001). Second Report on Poverty in Kenya, Vol. ii. Poverty and social indicators. Nairobi.
[9]. GOK, (2009). National Census reports that employment levels in Baringo have remained … 47%). Poverty levels are high in the district…
[10]. Hussein M. H. (2001). Beekeeping In Africa: I- North, East, North-East And West African countries Proceedings of the 37th International Apicultural Congress, 28 October – 1 November 2001, Durban, South Africa
[11]. KNBS (2009). Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Kenya Population Census.
[12]. Kigatiira, K.I, & R. A. Morse (1979). The construction, Dimensions and sittings of log hives
[13]. Najma, D. (2002). Field guide to common trees and shrubs of East Africa. Struik publishers, Cape town, South Africa
[14]. Qaiser, T., Ali, M., Taj S. & Akmal N., (2013). Impact Assessment of Beekeeping in Sustainable Rural Livelihood. Journal of Social Sciences, COES&RJ-JSS.
[15]. Vural, H (2008). Honey Production and Marketing in Turkey. The First International Muğla Beekeeping and Pine Honey Congress. 25-27 November 2008. Muğla University. Muğla. Turkey.
[16]. Vural, H., & S. Karaman (2010). Socio-Economic Analysis of Beekeeping and the Effects of Beehive Types on Honey Production. African J. Agr. Res. 5(22):3003-3008.

Chemwok C. K, Tuitoek D. K, Nganai S. K. “Factors Influencing Honey Production in Marigat, Baringo County – Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.426-434 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/426-434.pdf

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Capital Market Performance Indicators and Economic Growth in Nigeria

Kenneth Ogbeide ENORUWA, Moyotole Daniel EZUEM, Onyemaechi Christopher NWANI – February 2019 Page No.: 435-444

This work examines the impact of the capital market on the economic growth of Nigeria. Data sample of 31years from 1985 to 2015 was extracted from the Central Bank of Nigeria Bulletin and the linear regression method of econometric analysis was used for the study. To capture the capital market, we employed market capitalization, all share index, trade volume and trade value while GDP at current basic price was used as proxy for the Nigerian economy. The major findings of the research reveal that all predictors exhibit a significant relationship with economic growth in Nigeria at 5% level of significance and show a high degree of correlation with the dependent variable except number of deals and value of deals which displayed a fair correlation with the dependent variable. The study suggests that the capital market will need to embrace innovation and adopt fairness in information management in other to attract investors and the confidence of the investing public.

Page(s): 435-444                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 March 2019

 Kenneth Ogbeide ENORUWA
Department of Banking & Finance, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Moyotole Daniel EZUEM
Department of Banking and Finance, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

 Onyemaechi Christopher NWANI
Department of Banking and Finance, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

[1]. Abu, N (2009). Does stock market development raise economic growth? Evidence from Nigeria. The Review of Finance and Banking. 1(1), 15-26.
[2]. Ake, B. & Dehuan, J. (2010). The Role of Stock Market Development in Economic Growth: Evidence from Some Euronext Countries. International Journal of Financial Research. 1(1), 14-20.
[3]. Araoye, F., Ajayi, E., & Aruwaji, A (2018). The impact of stock market development on economic growth in Nigeria . Journal of Business and African Economy. 4(1), 2545-5281.
[4]. Ariyo, A., & Adelegan, O. (2005). Assessing the impact of capital market reforms in Nigeria: An incremental approach. Paper Presented at 46th Annual Conference of the Nigeria Economic Society in Lagos in August 2005.
[5]. Atoyebi, A.O., Ishola, S. A., Kadiri, K.I., Adekunjo, F.O., & Ogundeji, M.O. (2013). Capital market and economic growth in Nigeria an empirical analysis. Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 6(6), 60-68.
[6]. Basu, S. (1977). Investment performance of common stocks in relation to their price-earning ratios: A test of the efficient market hypothesis. The Journal of Finance. XXXIL(3). 663-682.
[7]. Chen, J. (2018). Efficient Market Hypothesis. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/e/efficientmarkethypothesis.asp
[8]. Donwa, P. & Odia, J. (2010). An empirical analysis of the impact of the Nigerian capital market on her socio-economic development. Journal of Social Sciences, 24(2), 135-142.
[9]. Ewah, S.O., Esang, A.E, & Bassey, J.U. (2009). Appraisal of capital market efficiency on economic growth in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Management. 4(12), 219-228.
[10]. Greenwood, J; Smith B.D. (1997). Financial markets in development, and the development of financial markets. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control. 21, 145-181.
[11]. Idenyi, O.S., Anoke, C. I., Onyeisi, O.S & Chukwu, C (2017). Capital market indicators and economic growth in Nigeria. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting. 2(3), 1-16.
[12]. Ihendinihu J.U, & Onwuchekwa, J.C. (2012). Stock Market Performance And Economic Growth In Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences. 3(6), 971-977.
[13]. Noko, E. (2018). Impact of capital market on economic growth in Nigeria. https://educacinfo.com/capital-market-nigeria.
[14]. Nyong, M. O. (1997). Capital market development and long-run economic growth: Theory, evidence and analysis. First Bank Review. 13-38
[15]. Okereke, O. N. (2000). Stock market financing options for public projects in Nigeria. The Nigerian Stock Exchange Fact Book, 41 – 49.
[16]. Okonkwo, O.N., Ogwuru, H.O., & Ajudua, E.I. (2014). Stock market performance and economic growth in Nigeria: An empirical appraisal. European Journal of Business Management. 6, 33–42.
[17]. Olokoyo, F. O & Ogunnaike, O.O. (2011). An empirical analysis of the Effect of Stock market crisis on economic growth: The Nigerian case. ACTA UNIVERSITATIS DANUBIUS. 7(4), 172-186.
[18]. Olusegun, O., Oluwatoyin, M., & Fagbeminiyi, F. (2011). Nigerian stock exchange and economic Development. Knowledge Management, Information Management, Learning Management. 14, 14-38.
[19]. Onwumere, J.U.J., Onudugo, V., & Imo, G.I (2013), Financial structure and economic Growth: An empirical evidence from Nigeria. Global Journal of Management and Business Research Finance. 13(5). 18-26.
[20]. Onyekachi E, & Odi, N (2013). Impact of Nigerian capital market instability on the growth of the economy. Journal of Economics. 4(1), 29-30.
[21]. Onyema, O.N. (2012). Nigerian capital market: Modernization, reforms, trends, & outlook for the future. A Paper presented at Nigeria economic & financial markets conference. Boomberg auditorium, London, UK March 23, 2012.
[22]. Osaze, B. E. (2000).The Nigeria capital market in the African and global financial system. Benin City: Bofic Consults Group Limited.
[23]. Osinubi, T. S., & Amaghionyeodiwe, L.A. (2003). Stock market development and long-run growth in Nigeria. Journal of African Business, 4(3),103-129.
[24]. Owusu, E.L. (2016). Stock Market and Sustainable Economic Growth in Nigeria. Economies. 4(25). 1-13.
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[27]. Taiwo, J.N., Alaka, A., & Afieroho, E. (2016). Capital Market and Economic Growth in Nigeria. Account and Financial Management. 1(8), 497-525.
[28]. Yadirichukwu, E., & Chigbu, E.E. (2014), The impact of capital market on economic growth: the Nigerian perspective. International Journal of Development and Sustainability. 3(4), 838-864.

Kenneth Ogbeide ENORUWA, Moyotole Daniel EZUEM, Onyemaechi Christopher NWANI “Capital Market Performance Indicators and Economic Growth in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.435-444 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/435-444.pdf

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Effects of Marketing Strategies on the Performance of Small and Medium-Scale Enterprises in Kogi State

Momoh I. Yalo, Dare Joseph Enimola, Akeem Tunde Nafiu – February 2019 Page No.: 445-451

This study focused on the effects of marketing mix strategies on the performance of SMEs in Kogi State. To achieve the study’s objectives, a survey research design was adopted. A purposive sampling was used, and 300 respondents were selected. Findings show that promotion strategy relates negatively and significantly with sales and profitability performance of SMEs in Kogi State. Findings further show that distribution strategy significantly and positively relates with sales performance; while pricing strategy significantly and positively relates with the profitability performance of enterprises in Kogi State. The study concluded that marketing mix strategies have significant effects on sales and profitability performance of SMEs in Kogi State. The study recommends that SME owners should adopt less of promotion strategy to achieve high sales and profitability performance in the business environment of Kogi State, and that more aggressive distribution strategy and pricing strategy should be adopted to sustain sales and the profitability performance of their enterprises in Kogi State.

Page(s): 445-451                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 March 2019

 Momoh I. Yalo
Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Nigeria

 Dare Joseph Enimola
Department of Business Administration, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria

 Akeem Tunde Nafiu
Department of Business Administration, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria

[1]. Aaker, D. (2008). Strategic Market Management. New York. John Willey
[2]. Adewale, G., Adesola, M.A. and Oyewale, I. (2013). Impact of Marketing Strategy on Business Performance A Study of Selected Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-IBM). 11(4): 59-66. Accessed from http://www.iosrjoumals.org/iosrjbm/papers/Vol11-issue4/101145966.pdf
[3]. Ameh, AA. (2010). Elements of Marketing.Revised Edition. Abuja: Precious Treasures LTD
[4]. Barney, J.B. (1991). Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, 17: 99-120.
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[7]. Dzisi, S. and Ofosu, D. (2014).Marketing Strategies and the Performance of SMEs in Ghana.European Journal of Business and Management, 6(5): 102-111
[8]. Ebitu, ET. (2015). Market management and strategy.Calabar: University of Calabar Printing Press.
[9]. Ebitu, ET. (2016). Marketing Strategies And The Performance Of Small And Medium Enterprises in AkwaIbom State, Nigeria. British Journal of Marketing Studies. 4(5): 51-62. Accessed from www.eajournals.org
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Momoh I. Yalo, Dare Joseph Enimola, Akeem Tunde Nafiu “Effects of Marketing Strategies on the Performance of Small and Medium-Scale Enterprises in Kogi State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.445-451 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/445-451.pdf

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Assessment of Public Knowledge on Performance of the 2004 Population Policy in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria

DOGO, D.M., Mundi, R. & Dakyes, P.S – February 2019 Page No.: 452-464

The abysmal performance of the 1988 and 2004 population policies has called to question population policy implementation in Nigeria. This study assessed public knowledge of the 2004 population policy in the Federal Capital Territory; identified socio-economic factors that influenced public knowledge of the policy and impact on policy performance. Questionnaire was administered on 1062 household heads to generate required primary data. Findings revealed that although 88% of respondents were exposed to general information, only 49.7% had knowledge of the existence of the policy. Out of this, only 37% had knowledge of policy goals, while 59% had knowledge of policy targets. Education, income and occupation significantly influenced public knowledge of the policy. The limited knowledge of the policy was largely responsible for the disconnection between the policy and people, which impacted negatively on its implementation. The study thus recommended a strategic communication plan for population policy that is people-centred, community-driven and broad-based to elicit wider stakeholders’ participation during the formulation and implementation of future population policy.

Page(s): 452-464                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 March 2019

 DOGO, D.M.
Department of Geography, University of Abuja, Nigeria

 Mundi, R.
Department of Geography, University of Abuja, Nigeria

 Dakyes, P.S
Department of Geography, University of Abuja, Nigeria

[1]. Adegbola, O (2008). Population policy implementation in Nigeria: 1988-2003. Population Review, Vol. 47, No 1, 2008, 56-110.
[2]. Adeyemi, A; Olubenga, B; Adeoye, O; Salawu, M; Aderinoye, A and Agbaye, M (2015). Contraceptives prevalence and determinants among women of reproductive age group in Ogbomoso, Oyo state, Nigeria. Open Access Journal of Contraception, Vol.7:33-41.
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DOGO, D.M., Mundi, R. & Dakyes, P.S “Assessment of Public Knowledge on Performance of the 2004 Population Policy in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 2, pp.452-464 February 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-2/452-464.pdf

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