An Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume III, Issue II, February 2019 | ISSN 2454–6186

An Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking

Ayedero Taiwo Martins

Ekiti State University, Nigeria

Abstract:-Our main objective in this paper is to improve our logical thinking skills and to expose us to basic pitfalls in human reasoning. The most important critical thinking skill is the skill of making judgments, not spontaneous judgment that occurs in the twinkle of an eye, but those that require careful and deliberate reasoning. The purpose of studying Logic and Philosophy at this level of academic tutelage is to facilitate students’ thinking ability in tackling herculean tasks, addressing recalcitrant and intractable issues and been able to easily confront problem areas in their respective field of study. Good thinking therefore, is a necessary factor to securing excellent academic performance. Logic provides rigorous ground for whatsoever belief, position or opinion we are holding. It enables us to develop critical attitude in us to query and investigate some assumptions and presuppositions in our various disciplines that we often take for granted. It also enables us to identify common errors (fallacies) in human reasoning. As matter of fact, we need logic for good business plan and to manage personal, corporate or public affairs.

Keywords: Logic, Reasoning, Arguments, Reasoning, and Fallacies


Nature and Meaning of Logic

Reasoning is a kind of thinking in which problems are solved, inferences take place, and conclusions are drawn. All reasoning involves thinking but all thinking does not necessarily imply reasoning. What then is reasoning and how can we identify good reasoning? Reasoning could be defined as a systematized or organized chain-process of thought. Reasoning is a transition in thought, where some beliefs (or thoughts) provide the ground or reason for coming to another. High quality of reasoning is called logical reasoning or critical thinking. Logical reasoning can be learned or improved. It is not a question whether you are naturally good at it or you’re not. Rather, every student or learner has the ability to reason well, and everyone is capable of improvement. The usefulness of logical reasoning as a means to making more effective decisions about your own life lies in decision about what to believe, accept and decision about what to do and when to do it.

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