Volume II Issue IX

Publication for Volume-2 Issue-9, September 2018 is in-process ..

Outcome Based Education: A Conceptual Framework

Dr. Romi Sainy – September 2018 Page No.: 01-03

The need for outcome based education has been there for decades. Outcome based education is a practical approach to develop the curriculum with inclusion of learning practices and focus on the students rather than teacher. Outcome-based education has many intrinsic benefits which must make it an attractive model for educationalist involved in curriculum planning, curriculum developers, teachers, employers, students. The paper attempts to describe the concept of outcome based education and also highlights the relationship of OBE and students centric learning which is imperative to achieve the desired outcome.

Page(s): 01-03                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 September 2018

 Dr. Romi Sainy
PhD, MBA, Associate Professor, Marketing, Jaipuria Institute of Management, Opposite C21 Mall, AB Road Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

[1]. Davis, M. H. (2003). Outcome-based education. Journal of veterinary medical education, 30(3), 258-263.
[2]. Barr, R. B., & Tagg, J. (1995). From teaching to learning—A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change: The magazine of higher learning, 27(6), 12-26.
[3]. Fay, P. (1988). Open and student centred learning: Evangelism and Heresy. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 12(1), 3-19.
[4]. Harden, JR Crosby, MH Davis, M. Friedman, R. M. (1999). AMEE Guide No. 14: Outcome-based education: Part 5-From competency to meta-competency: a model for the specification of learning outcomes. Medical teacher, 21(6), 546-552.
[5]. Ingleton, C., Kiley, M. M., Cannon, R. A., & Rogers, T. (2000). Leap into… Student-centred learning.
[6]. Lobst, W. F., Sherbino, J., Cate, O. T., Richardson, D. L., Dath, D., Swing, S. R., … & International CBME Collaborators. (2010). Competency-based medical education in postgraduate medical education. Medical teacher, 32(8), 651-656.
[7]. Newble, D., & Cannon, R. (2013). Handbook for teachers in universities and colleges. Routledge.
[8]. Spady, W.G. (1988). Organising for results: the basis of authentic restructuring and reform, Educational Leadership, October, pp. 4-8.
[9]. Spady, W. G. (1994). Outcome-Based Education: Critical Issues and Answers. American Association of School Administrators, 1801 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209.
[10]. Stinson, J. E., & Milter, R. G. (1996). Problem‐based learning in business education: Curriculum design and implementation issues. New directions for teaching and learning, 1996(68), 33-42.
[11]. Wright, G. B. (2011). Student-centered learning in higher education. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 23(1), 92-97.
[12]. Zitterkopf, R. (1994). A Fundamentalist’s Defense of OBE. Educational Leadership, 51(6), 76-78.

Dr. Romi Sainy “Outcome Based Education: A Conceptual Framework” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.01-03 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/01-03.pdf

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Situations of Al-Majiri School, Gagi, Sokoto: Its Achievements and Challenges from Inception to Date

Dr. Sirajo Muhammad Sokoto, Mukhtar Sarkin-Kebbi, Abubakar Ibrahim Usman, Dr. Umar Ubandawaki, Dr. Attahiru Ahmad Sifawa – September 2018 Page No.: 04-08


Al-mjiri Education Programme is a programme designed to cater for the Almajirai who are out-of-school in Northern Nigerian states, the programme is aimed at integrating traditional Qur’anic schools and western education under Universal Basic Education Commission. The establishment of Al-majiri Integrated Education is one of the current issues that required special intervention from the governments at all levels to take measures to curtail the menace of street begging, drug abuse, child trafficking, of children and youth in the name of pursuing Qur’anic Education. The Al-majiri (ItinerantQur’anic School Pupils) constitutes the largest group of out-of-school children in Nigeria numbering over nine (9) million children. This segment of Nigerian population poses tremendous challenges to attainment of Education For All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Page(s): 04-08                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 September 2018

 Dr. Sirajo Muhammad Sokoto

Department of Arabic and Islamic Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Sokoto State University Sokoto – Nigeria

 Mukhtar Sarkin-Kebbi

Department of Educational Foundation, Faculty of Education, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Abubakar Ibrahim Usman

Department of Arabic and Islamic Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Sokoto State University Sokoto – Nigeria

 Dr. Umar Ubandawaki

Department of Political Science, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Sokoto State University Sokoto – Nigeria

 Dr. Attahiru Ahmad Sifawa

Department of History, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Sokoto State University, Sokoto – Nigeria

[1]. Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC), Implementation of Al-majiri Education Programme by Federal Government. Almajiri Education Unit: Universal Basic Education Commission, Nigeria. 2010.
[2]. Ibid
[3]. U. A. Nasarawa, Integrating almajiri education for social security. A paper presented at the 36th Annual International Conference of the Counseling Association of Nigeria held at International Conference Centre Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Osun State, 2012.
[4]. F. J. Taiwo, Transforming the almajiri education for the benefit of the Nigerian society. Journal of Education and Social Research. V 3(9), 2013, Pp. 67-72.
[5]. A.Alkali, Rescuing child beggars by reforming the Qur’anic education system. News Nigeria. 2001, 4th October.
[6]. U. A. Nasarawa, Attitudes of almajiri schools’ proprietors/teachers towards the integration of almajiri education in Sokoto North and South Local Governments Areas of Sokoto State. A paper presented at the 38th Annual International Conference of the Counseling Association of Nigeria held at Ibom Hall IBB Uyo, 2013.
[7]. K. Sulaiman, The almajiri phenomenon study of the youth in traditional Qur’anic scholarship in Northern Nigeria. The Humanities Journal 1(1), 2000,Pp. 27-47.
[8]. M. Adam, Sirajo, M. S., Abubakar U. i., Mukhtar S., and Attahiru A. S., Tradition versus modernity: The origin and development of Islamiyya Schools in Sokoto State. An IBR TETFUND Research Seminar Paper. Presented at University Lecture Theatre, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria. On 21st January, 2006.
[9]. Ibid
[10]. T. O. Isiaka, A pilot study of the challenges of infusing almajirieducational system into the Universal Basic Education in Sokoto, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice V 6(16), 2015, Pp. 10 -16.
[11]. Oral interview Hussaini Abdullah. 45 years Principal Al-majiri School, Gagi, Sokoto, 28, July, 2017.
[12]. Ibid Pp 3.
[13]. G.A. Mahuta EDU 713: Administration of Primary and Secondary Schools. Unpublished Manuscript. Faculty of Education and Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto. P. 13, 2013.
[14]. M. Adam, S. Muhammad, A. I. Usman., M. Sarkin-Kebbi., & A. A. Sifawa. Contribution of Islamiyya Schools toward the development of Arabic language in Sokoto State. 2016. Pp. 17 – 22
[15]. Ibid Pp. 3
[16]. Ibid Pp. 5
[17]. Ibid. Pp. 5
[18]. C.Kumolu, Al-majiri education: Modern gang up against ancient tradition. Vanguard News Nigeria. 2012, 26th April. Elect.
[19]. Ibid Pp. 11

Dr. Sirajo Muhammad Sokoto, Mukhtar Sarkin-Kebbi, Abubakar Ibrahim Usman, Dr. Umar Ubandawaki, Dr. Attahiru Ahmad Sifawa “Situations of Al-Majiri School, Gagi, Sokoto: Its Achievements and Challenges from Inception to Date” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.04-08 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/04-08.pdf

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Methods to be Emphasised in Physics Teacher Education for Acquisition of Pedagogic Skills Needed for Inclusive Instruction
Stellah M. Mukekhe, Francis C. Indoshi and Joseph A. Rabari – September 2018 – Page No.: 09-14

A variety of teaching methods are used in teacher education in public universities and they are discussed in relation pedagogy in secondary schools. Existing literature indicates a high likelihood that teachers will replicate these teaching methods in secondary school instruction; yet little is known about the methods that should be emphasised for acquisition of pedagogic skills by physics student teachers. As much as calls are made for more effective secondary school physics instruction, it is critical that such instruction use methods that address varied learning needs. In this study, questionnaires and document analysis guide were used to collect quantitative data which was them analysed by use of frequencies and percentages and also, qualitative data which was analysed by creating thematic categories and reported as verbatim excerpts. The study revealed that methods of teaching that should be emphasised in physics teacher education for acquisition of pedagogic skills are interactive lecture, experimentation, use of information technology, project work and use of models that cater for students with learning disabilities. The findings may be useful to public universities in Kenya to enhance the use of teaching methods that should be emphasised for acquisition of pedagogic skills needed for inclusive secondary school physics instruction.

Page(s): 09-14                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 September 2018

 Stellah M. Mukekhe
Department of Educational Communications, Technology and Curriculum Studies; Maseno University, Kenya

 Francis C. Indoshi
Department of Educational Communications, Technology and Curriculum Studies; Maseno University, Kenya

 Joseph A. Rabari
Department of Educational Communications, Technology and Curriculum Studies; Maseno University, Kenya

[1]. Amunga, J. K., Musasia, M.A. & Musera, G. (2011). Disparities in the Physics Achievement and Enrolment in Secondary Schools in Western Province: Implications for Strategy and renewal, Problems of Education in the 21st Century. Journal of Social Sciences, 31 (31): 18- 32.
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[4]. Cains, R.A. & Brown, C.R. (2006). Newly Qualified Teachers: A Comparative Analysis of the Perceptions held by B.Ed and PGCE Trained Primary Teachers of their Training Routes. Educational Psychology, 16(2): 257 – 270.
[5]. Caruso, J. B. & Kvarik, R. B.(2005). Students and Information Technology: Convenience, connection, control and learning. Educause Centre for Applied Research.
[6]. Collins, A., Brown, J. & Newman, S. (1989). Cognitive Apprenticeship:Teaching the Crafts of writing and Mathematics in L. Resnic (Ed), Knowing, Learning and Instruction: Essays in honour of Robert Glaser. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
[7]. CEMASTEA (2013). A comparative study on supervision and practice of ASEI-PDSI approach in secondary schools in Kenya. Unpublished lesson observation report.
[8]. Colburn, A. (2008). Making Inquiry Successful. The Journal of the Science Teacher, 75(7):12-38.
[9]. Etkina, E. (2011). Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Preparation of High School Teachers. Journal of Physics Education Research, 6 (6): 20-27.
[10]. Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R. & Gall, J. P. (2007). Educational Research an Introduction. London: Longman.
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[14]. Inter University Council of East Africa (2014). Report on External Peer Review of the Bachelor of Education Program Offered at Maseno University. Maseno: Maseno University.
[15]. Kasomo, D. (2007). Research Methods Made Simple for University Students. Retrieved August 14, 2012, from https://www.infibeam.com/Books/researh- methods-made-
[16]. Marcelo, A. B. & Marina, V. B. (2014). Interactive Methodology in Physics Teacher Training in a Context of Curriculum Innovation: The Peer Instruction Method.
[17]. McCawley, P. (2009). Methods of Conducting an Educational Needs Assessment. University of Idaho Extension. University of Idaho.
[18]. Neerusha, B. & Anilaa, A. (2014). Using Universal Design for Learning to Construct Inclusive Science Classrooms for Diverse Learners. Learning Landscapes, 7(2): 59 – 80.
[19]. Niess, M. L.(2005). Preparang Teachers to Teach Science and Mathematics with Technology. Journal of Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(2): 509 – 523.
[20]. Nkpa, N. (1997). Educational Research for modern scholars. Lagos. Fourth Dimension Publishers.
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[22]. Nurshamshida, S. Nabilah, A. & Nurlatifar, Y. (2013). Strategies of Teaching Science using Inquiry Based Science Technology. Journal of Procedural-Science and Behavioral Sciences, 1(90): 582-592.
[23]. O`leary C. (2008). Teachers as Instructional Designers. The journal of the lrish Science Teachers Association, 44(1): 39-67.
[24]. Otero, V., Johnson, A. & Goldberg, F. (1999). How does Computers Facilitate the Development of Physics Knowledge by Prospective Elementary Teachers? Journal of Education, 181(2): 57-89.
[25]. Rios, J. & Madhavan, S. (2002). Guide to Adopting Technology in Physics Classroom. The Physics Teacher, 2(38): 94-97.
[26]. Simmons, P. E., Emory, A., Carter, T., Coker, T., Finnegan, B., Crockett, D. (1999). Beginning Teachers: Beliefs and Classroom Actions. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(4): 930 – 954.
[27]. Sonza, S. & Elia, M. (2013). Physics Teachers Attitudes: How Do Theory Affect the Reality of Classroom and Models for Change. Brazil: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.
[28]. Taylor, J. A.& Dana, T. M. (2003). Improving Physics Teacher Preparation. Retrieved August 10, 2014, from phy.ilstu.edu/jpteo/issues/jpteo1(4)mar03.pdt.
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[30]. The Teaching council. (2007).Code of Professional Conduct for Teachers. Retrieved February 15, 2018 from www. education. ie
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[32]. Zahra, H. & Ali,H. (2014). The Effect of Information Technology in Teaching Physics Courses. Eurasian Proceeding of Educational and Social Sciences,1(1): 391-396.

Stellah M. Mukekhe, Francis C. Indoshi and Joseph A. Rabari “Methods to be Emphasised in Physics Teacher Education for Acquisition of Pedagogic Skills Needed for Inclusive Instruction” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.09-14 September 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/09-14.pdf

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Female Genital Mutilation of Secondary School Students in Kapchorwa District, Uganda

Dr. Kayindu Vincent, Kamulegeya Siraje – September 2018 Page No.: 15-20

Carried out in Kapchorwa district of Uganda in the year 2017, the study investigated among other things, the extent to which Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) was practiced in Kapchorwa District of Uganda by the year 2017. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design with both quantitative and qualitative approaches, with a sample of 970 respondents all of whom were female students of S.4, S5 and S.6. They were chosen because circumcision among the Sabiny (Sebei) ethnic group who dominate Kapchorwa district is usually carried out to girls in the age group of 16-20 years. The respondents were got from 20 secondary schools which were classified as rural (nine schools) and urban (11 schools). The finding was that female genital mutilation was being practiced to a small extent; it had declined though not yet totally wiped out. Based on the above, it was recommended that there is need for the Government to continue sensitizing the masses about the dangers of that practice so that it can be wiped out completely.

Page(s): 15-20                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 September 2018

 Dr. Kayindu Vincent
Kampala International University, Uganda, East Africa

 Kamulegeya Siraje
Kampala International University, Uganda, East Africa


[1]. Abdallah, R.(2008).Sisters in Affiliation: Circumcision and Infubilations of women in Africa. NewYork: Penguin Publishers Limited.
[2]. Geveva. P. H. and Rushwan. (1997). FGC management during pregnancy, childbirth and post-partum period.. Background paper for WHO Consultation
[3]. Kaggwa, A. (1985). Empisa za Abaganda. Kampala; Crane Publishers.
[4]. Kayindu, V. (2017). Religious and social perspectives of contemporary ethical issues. Kampala
[5]. Mbiti, J. (1975). Introduction to African religion. Nairobi: Heinemann.
[6]. Munyagwa, E. (2015). Pulling of the labia ritual among female Baganda in Masaka district. Unpublished M.A Disseratation, Religious Studies, Makerere University, Uganda.
[7]. Oguttu, P. (2005). Causes of the persistence of female circumcision among the Sebei of Uganda. Unpublished BED dissertation, Kampala International University.
[8]. Okurut, P. (2014). The role of culture in children’s Education: The case of Eastern Uganda. Unpublished M.A Dissertation (Religious Studies), Makerere University, Uganda.
[9]. Serbin et al (1993). Handbook of the Psychology of Women and Gender. New York: Rhoda Unger.

Dr. Kayindu Vincent, Kamulegeya Siraje “Female Genital Mutilation of Secondary School Students in Kapchorwa District, Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.15-20 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/15-20.pdf

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Gender and Management in Uganda: The Case of Private Universities

Dr. Kayindu Vincent – September 2018 Page No.: 21-24

The current study was guided by the null hypothesis that the dominant usage of particular methods of management, hereinafter referred to as the managerial techniques, in private universities in Uganda is not related to gender differences. The study was restricted to the academic officials within the universities, selected using universal sampling. At 0.05 level of significance, the relationship between the variables of the study was found to be insignificant (sig 0.601), hence the null hypothesis was accepted

Page(s): 21-24                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 September 2018

 Dr. Kayindu Vincent
Kampala International University, Uganda, East Africa

[1]. Alcock, J.E., Carment, D.W. and Sadava, W. (1988). A text book of social psychology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
[2]. Byaruhanga-Akiiki, A.B.T (1991). African world religion: A grassroots perspective. Kampala: Makerere University Printery.
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[12]. Nabawanuka, R. (2004). Leadership styles and their effects on leader – member relationship in women religious congregations in Uganda. Unpublished MED dissertation, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
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[14]. Ndagigye, P. (2016). Determinants of students’ discipline in private secondary schools, Ssembabule district, Uganda. Unpublished MED dissertation, Makerere University,Uganda.
[15]. Okello, S. (2010). Sexual harassment in secondary schools in Mbale district, Uganda. Unpublished BED Dissertation, Muteesa 1 Royal University, Uganda.
[16]. Onen, J. (2004).The students’ experience of post – graduate studies at Makerere University: A humanity perspective. In Maicibi and Kaahwa (Eds.). Graduate studies supervision at Makerere University: A book of readings. Kampala: Net media.
[17]. The universities and other tertiary institutions act, 2001. Kampala: Republic of Uganda.
[18]. Government white paper report on the visitation committee to public universities in Uganda (2008). Kampala: Ministry of Education and Sports.

Dr. Kayindu Vincent “Gender and Management in Uganda: The Case of Private Universities” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.21-24 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/21-24.pdf

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Cultural Tourism – A Tool for Community Development: Case-Study of “Boabo” Festival in Igbobini Community, Ondo State, Nigeria

ARUNA, Justina Olufunke (PhD) – September 2018 Page No.: 25-30

Cultural tourism is the social activity that enables one to experience cultural diversity in its practical manifestation while being the basis of gaining, at first-hand contact, an impressionable understanding of other people’s cultures that have endured over time. Also, it is an important contemporary approach in community-development discourse, especially recognized as capable of stabilizing ‘tottering’ economies and, inherently, integrating members with their communities for sustainable development. As a process promoting socio-economic development, community development allows community-members to plan together, generate necessary solutions, and take concerted action towards ensuring progress and safety for all in their respective communities. This study examines cultural tourism as a vital change-agent, through exploiting the “Boabo” festival in Igbobini’s rural community. Twenty five in-depth interviews were conducted with randomly selected residents and some strategic community-elders of Igbobini community. The study’s major findings are that: the “Boabo” festival, celebrated annually in December, constitutes a potentially attractive communal activity for cultural tourism in Ondo State and Nigeria; it can be a vital source of economic survival for the community, including creating more jobs; reinforcing community-identity; and, promoting indigenous cultural practices in globalisation. And, the study recommends that any self-help approach to “Boabo” festival for cultural tourism must necessarily be in partnership with external change-agents, such as intervention agencies – e.g., the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and advocacy groups for community development – especially, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) for sustainability.

Page(s): 25-30                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 September 2018

 ARUNA, Justina Olufunke (PhD)
Department of Sociology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

[1]. An intelligent report on Apoi of Ondo State, Nigeria. (Unpublished)
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ARUNA, Justina Olufunke (PhD) “Cultural Tourism – A Tool for Community Development: Case-Study of “Boabo” Festival in Igbobini Community, Ondo State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.25-30 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/25-30.pdf

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Focusing Quality Teaching in the 21st Century: Perspective of Teachers on Student-Teacher Ratings as Evaluation Tools in Nigerian Secondary Schools

Saleh Garba, Dr. Jacob Itse Dabo Itse, Bushira Abdullahi (Mrs) – September 2018 Page No.: 31-35

Student Perception Surveys are being used for feedback and evaluation of teacher effectiveness in places like United Kingdom and United States of America. In 2009 the Federal Ministry of Education of Nigeria included students in the school self-evaluation committees of secondary schools. This is an innovation. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude of secondary schools teachers in Bauchi state towards inclusion of student- teacher ratings as potential tools for teacher evaluation and feedback in secondary schools. Two research questions and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted the survey research design. A sample of 230 teachers was selected as respondents through proportionate stratified random sampling technique from 23 secondary schools in Bauchi metropolis. Researcher-developed structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Two Measurement and Evaluation experts validated the instrument. A test retest procedure was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire, while Pearson product correlation coefficient was adopted to find the correlation between the two results which yielded 0.78.The data analysis was done by frequency count and simple percentages. Chi-square test was conducted to determine whether there were no significant differences in the views of novice and veteran teachers regarding their opinions on student-teacher ratings in secondary schools. Findings of the study portrays that secondary school teachers in Bauchi state have positive attitude towards student-teacher ratings as potential tool for teacher evaluation and feedback. However, the study revealed that school self-evaluation committees in which students are represented were either absent or not functioning properly in most schools. Results of chi-square test showed there was no significant difference in the response of novice and veteran teachers regarding their opinions on student-teacher ratings in secondary schools.

Page(s): 31-35                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 September 2018

 Saleh Garba
School of Vocational and Technical Education, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria

 Dr. Jacob Itse Dabo Itse
Education Department, Bauchi State University Gadau, Nigeria

 Bushira Abdullahi (Mrs)
School of Vocational and Technical Education, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria

[1]. Appling, S. E., Naumann, P. L., & Berk, R. A. (2001). Using a faculty evaluation triad toachieve evidence-based teaching. Nursing and HealthCare Perspectives, 22, 247–51.
[2]. Balch, R. (2012) The Validation of a student survey on teacher practice.” Vanderbilt University. https://mystudentsurvey.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Balch- Student-Surveys
[3]. British Columbia Ministry of Education. (2016a). Becoming a teacher in BC. Retrieved from https://www.bcteacherregulation.ca/Teacher/BecomingATeacherOverview.aspx (May 23 2017)
[4]. Burniske, J. and Meibaum, D., (2012) The Use of student perceptual data as a measure of teaching effectiveness.” Texas Comprehensive Center https://txcc.sedl.org/resources/briefs/number
[5]. California Department of Education. (2016). Educator Evaluation Systems. Retrieved from https://www.cde.ca.gov/pd/ps/evaluationsystems.asp (May 28, 2017)
[6]. Clinton, J. M., Anderson, M., Dawson, G., Dawson, A., & Bolton, S., & Mason, R, (2016). Systems,frameworks and measures of teacher effectiveness, Centre for Program Evaluation, Melbourne, Australia.
[7]. District of Columbia Public Schools. (2016a). IMPACT: An Overview. (Retrieved 15th April, (2017) from https://dcps.dc.gov/page/impact-overview
[8]. Education Bureau. (2016a). Hong Kong: The Facts – Education. (Retrieved 15th April, 2017) from https://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/about-edb/publications
[9]. Ferguson, R. F., (2010) Student Perceptions of Teaching Effectiveness. National Center for Teacher Effectiveness and the Achievement Gap Institute, Harvard University.
[10]. https://www.gse.harvard.edu
[11]. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013) National policy on education. Nigeria; Abuja
[12]. Federal Ministry of Education (2015) National Education Quality Assurance Handbook for Basic and Secondary Education in Nigeria
[13]. Goe, L., Bell, C., and Little, O. (2008) Approaches to Evaluating Teacher Effectiveness: A Research Synthesis. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality https://www.tqsource.org/publications/EvaluatingTeachEffectiveness
[14]. Goe, et al. (2005) cites Kyriakides, L. Drawing from Teacher Effectiveness Research and Research into Teacher Interpersonal Behaviour to Establish a Teacher Evaluation System: A Study on the Use of Student Ratings to Evaluate Teacher Behaviour.” Journal of Classroom Interaction, 40:2, 2005, pp. 44-66
[15]. Hanover Research (2013) Student Perception Surveys and Teacher Assessments 1750 H Street NW, 2nd Floor Washington, DC 20006 P.756.2971 F 866.808.6585. Retrieve from. www.hanoverresearch.com
[16]. Measures of Effective Teaching, (2012) Asking Students About Teaching: Student Perception Surveys and Their Implementation. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundations. https://www.metproject.org (Retrieved 6/7/2017)
[17]. McKeachie, W. J. (1997). Student ratings: The validity of use. American Psychologist 52,1218–1225.
[18]. Nahed, S. (2012) Teacher evaluation: a qualitative Study. Unpublished Masters Thesis. The American University, Cairo Graduate School of Education
[19]. Njogu, C., N., (2016).Headteacher’s instructional supervision and its impact on performance of K.C.P.E: a case of Kiritiri division, Mbeere south district, Embu county, Kenya. Unpublished M.Ed Project. Kenyatta University
[20]. Peterson, K., Wahlquist, C., and Bone, K.(200) Student surveys for school teacher evaluation. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education
[21]. Ronald A. Berk (2005) Survey of 12 Strategies to Measure Teaching Effectiveness International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 2005, Volume 17, number 1, 48-62https://www.isetl.org/ijtlhe/ ISSN 1812- 912 Johns Hopkins University, USA
[22]. Virginia Department of Education. (2016a). Board of education eeacher performance standards & valuation criteria. https://www.doe.virginia.gov/teaching/performance
[23]. Wanzare, Z., (2012) Instructional Supervision in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya.Educational Management Administration & Leadership. sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermission
[24]. Wilkerson, D.J., Manatt, R. P., Rogers, M. A., and Maughanm R. (2000) Validation of student, principal, and Self-atings in 360° feedback (registered) for teacher evaluation.” Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education

Saleh Garba, Dr. Jacob Itse Dabo Itse, Bushira Abdullahi (Mrs) “Focusing Quality Teaching in the 21st Century: Perspective of Teachers on Student-Teacher Ratings as Evaluation Tools in Nigerian Secondary Schools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.31-35 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/31-35.pdf

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Factor Identification and Usage of Pocket Money among Students: A Case Study

Iqra Mukhtar, Anam Javaid – September 2018 Page No.: 36-39

Pocket Money is an important factor in student’s life style because it matters a lot on their life style among friends in the institution. The current study is about the daily pocket money amount of the students and identification of different factors effecting on their pocket money. Different factors like age, family income, qualification, expenditure on transportation, shopping, having meal on restaurant, amount spend on their food, basic necessities and luxuries from their pocket money has been used. Average pocket money of students has been analyzed as 149.304 rupee per day by taking 500 observations from different institutions by using questionnaire survey through purposive sampling from district Multan. Frequency distribution is constructed and Chi square is used to find association of different factors of pocket money.

Page(s): 36-39                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 September 2018

 Iqra Mukhtar
The Women University Multan, Pakistan

 Anam Javaid
The Women University Multan, Pakistan

[1]. Furnham, A. (1999). “Economic socialization: A study of adults’ perceptions and uses of allowances (pocket money) to educate children.” British Journal of Developmental Psychology 17(4): 585-604.
[2]. Lewis, A. and A. J. Scott (2000). “The economic awareness, knowledge and pocket money practices of a sample of UK adolescents: A study of economic socialisation and economic psychology.” Citizenship, Social and Economics Education 4(1): 34-46.
[3]. Barnet-Verzat, C. and F.-C. Wolff (2002). “Motives for pocket money allowance and family incentives.” Journal of economic psychology 23(3): 339-366.
[4]. Kirkcaldy, B., A. Furnham, et al. (2003). “Parental attitudes towards pocket money, trait competitiveness and occupational stress.” Journal of Managerial Psychology 18(4): 305-323.
[5]. Pinto, M. B., D. H. Parente, et al. (2005). “Information learned from socialization agents: Its relationship to credit card use.” Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal 33(4): 357-367.
[6]. Shigekawa,J.(2009) from Saitama University. “Variables determining pocket money for junior-high school students”. The journal of consumer Affairs 55, 29:219-241.
[7]. Pillai, R., R, Carlo et al (2010) “Financial predence among youth” Munich personal RePEcArchieve 22. Retrieved from https:// mpra.Ub.Uni-muenchen.
[8]. Mahreen, F., A. Basit, et al. (2010). “Food Sold In And Around The School: Is It Worth The Students’ Pocket Money?” International Journal of Business and Social Science 1(3).
[9]. A., Z. F. Syeda, et al. (2012). “Pocket Money as a proxy for Family Income.” International Journal of Social Sciences & Education 2(4).
[10]. Saravanan, D. and V. Devakinandini (2015). “A study on perception of college students about spending of pocket money with reference to students studying in arts & science colleges in coimbatore.” International Journal of Marketing, Financial Services and Management Research3(3).

Iqra Mukhtar, Anam Javaid “Factor Identification and Usage of Pocket Money among Students: A Case Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.36-39 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/36-39.pdf

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Factors Influencing Implementation of Safety Policies in Secondary Schools in Kenya

Jane Kemunto Nyabuti – September 2018 Page No.: 40-44

Safety in learning institutions is increasingly becoming an issue of great concern in Kenya and globally. However, implementation of safety policies is being hampered by a variety of factors. This study looked into the factors that influence the implementation of safety policies in secondary schools in Kenya. A mixed design was used in this study. Eighteen National schools were purposively selected to participate in the study. Stratified random sampling was used to select 6 schools. The total sample was 436 respondents including 6 head teachers, 120 class teachers, 300 students, 6 watchmen, and 4 Quality Assurance and Standards Officers (QASOs). Questionnaires, Interview and observation schedules were used for data collection. Quantitative data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics while Qualitative as themes emerged. The findings indicated that implementation of safety measures in National Secondary Schools has affected by a variety of factors.

Page(s): 40-44                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 September 2018

 Jane Kemunto Nyabuti
Department of Educational Administration, Curriculum and Teaching, School of Education University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, PO BOX 2500, Eldoret, Kenya.

[1]. Ministry of Education (2008).Safety Standards Manual: For Schools in Kenya. Schools as Safe Zones: Church World , Nairobi.
[2]. The Kenya Sector of the International Commission of Jurists.(2010). Constitution of Kenya: Nairobi, Kenya.
[3]. O’Toole, L., &Montjoy, R. (1984). Inter-organizational licy Implementation: A Theoretical Perspective Public Administration Review
[4]. Allison, M. & Leah, B. (2012). Active implementation frameworks for program success: How touse implementation science to improve outcomes for children,Research Network, Frank Porter Graham.
[5]. Fritz, G.K. (2006). Creating a safe, caring and respectful environment at home and in school Brown University: Wiley Company.
[6]. Katie, B., Kate, M, & Leona, M. (2012).An Introductory Guide to Implementation: Terms, Concepts and Frameworks.
[7]. Mugenda, O. M., Mugenda, A. L. (2003). Research methods: Quantitative and Qualitative [8]
[8]. Kothari, C.R. (2011). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques (2nded).New Age International Publishers: New Delhi, India.
[9]. Ohba, A. (2011).The abolition of secondary schools fees in Kenya: Responses by poor. International Journal of Educational Development (31) Pp. 402- 408.
[10]. Lunenburg, F. C. & Ornstein, A. C. (2012). Educational administration: Concepts and practices (6thed.). Wadsworth, Belmont, CA
[11]. Thomas, W. M. (2008). School Violence and Primary Prevention: Springer Science and Business Media, Spring Street, New York, USA.
[12]. Mbithi, D.M. (2007). Foundations of School Administration: Revised Edition Oxford University
[13]. 3Tanner, K. C. &Lackney, J. A.(2006). Educational Facilities Planning: Leadership, Architecture, and Management. Pearson Education, Inc. USA.
[14]. Michael, J. F. (2013). Crisis Management and Emergency Planning: Preparing for Today’s Challenges. CRC Press, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, USA.
[15]. Sprague, J. R. & Walker, H. M. (2005). Safe and healthy schools: practical prevention strategies. The Guilford press New York, London.
[16]. Omolo, D. O. &Simatwa, E. M. (2010).An Assessment of the Implementation of Safety Policies in Public Secondary Schools in Kisumu East and West Districts, Kenya: M.Ed Thesis, Maseno University.
[17]. Okeno, J. O. (2011). The Influence of School Infrastructure on Students’ Performance Achievement in Public Secondary Schools in Rachuonyo North District, Nyanza Province, Kenya: M.ED Thesis, University of Nairobi.
[18]. Nyaga, R. (2004). Challenges Facing Head Teachers in Enhancing Pupil Discipline in Primary Schools in Kibera Slum: M.Ed Thesis, University of Nairobi
[19]. Murithi, W. E. (2010). Challenges Principals face in enhancing student discipline in secondary schools in Tigania District, Kenya: Unpublished Thesis, Chuka University.
[20]. Kirui, R., Mbugua, Z. & Sang, A. (2011). Challenges facing head teachers in security management in public secondary schools in Kisii County in Kenya: International Journal of Humanities and Social Science (1) 15 [Special Issue – October 2011]
[21]. Ngesu, L., Ndiku J., &Masese, A. (2008). Drug Dependence and Abuse in Kenyan Secondary Schools: strategies for Intervention. Education Research and Review3 (10): 304 – 308.
[22]. Otieno, J. (2014, April 19). Why your child could be unsafe in school, what should be done: Standard newspaper, pp.10-11 and 14.
[23]. Fixen, D. L., Naom, S.F., Blasé, K. A., Friedman, R.A. & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation Research: A synthesis of the Literature. University of South Florida, Florida.
[24]. Edwards, D., Hunt, M., Meyers, J., Grogg, K.,& Jaret, O. (2005). Acceptability and Student Outcomes of a Violence Prevention Curriculum: The Journal of Primary Prevention, (26), 401- 418).
[25]. Blum, R. W. (2005). A case for school connectedness: Educational Leadership, 62(7), 16-20.

Jane Kemunto Nyabuti “Factors Influencing Implementation of Safety Policies in Secondary Schools in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.40-44 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/40-44.pdf

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A Review of ‘An Introduction to Philosophy of Education’ by J. A. Akinpelu

Elvis Omondi Kauka – September 2018 Page No.: 45-47

The late Professor Emeritus Jones Adelayo Akinpelu(1936-2010) was an enthusiastic Philosopher of Education who earned his Bachelor of Arts Degree in Classics from the University of Ibadan in 1961, Master of Arts Degree in 1963 from the University of London and Doctor of Philosophy Degree in 1970 from Columbia University (Aboraside, 2010). It is further indicated by Aboraside (2010) that Akinpelu spent his entire life as “University Teacher”; at the University of Ibadan between 1963 and1967 and between 1972 and 1992. He also lectured at the University of Ife, 1967-1972. He had unique curiosity towards “Philosophy of Education and as a result he had a significant breakthrough as one of the leading Philosophers of Education in Africa. At the University of Ibadan, he served as Head of Department of Adult Education, Director of Extra-Mural Studies, Dean, Faculty of Education, Pioneer Coordinator General Studies, Professor and Pioneer Provost, College of Education. Professor Akinpelu was also the Foundation Professor/ Director, Center for Continuing Education, University of Botswana, Gaborone, 1994-1999.He was an astute member of the American based Philosophy of Education Society. In 2013 the late professor was posthumously honored for having been the best student of Bachelor of Education by the University of Ibadan (University of Ibadan, 2013). In 1981, Macmillan Publishers (London) published his “An introduction to Philosophy of Education. The book was reprinted in 1984. Its second edition appeared in 1987 followed by another reprint in 1988.

Page(s): 45-47                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 September 2018

 Elvis Omondi Kauka
Department of Educational Foundations, University of Kabianga, Kenya

[1]. Aboraside, O. (2010). USA Africa Dialogue Series: Professor Jones Adelayo Akinpelu… Retrieved August 20, 2018, from https://groups.google.com/group/USA Africa Dialogue
[2]. Ibadan, U. o. (2013). University Bulletin. Ibadan: University of Ibadan(Nigeria).
[3]. Jacquette, D. (2002). Ontology. Bucks: Acumen Publishers.
[4]. Mattei, L. (1995). Introduction to Philosophy. Nairobi: Consolata Institute of Philosophy Press.
[5]. Paul, R. &. Elder, L. (2012). Critical Thinking. New York: Pearson Publishers.
[6]. Sartre, J. P. (1978). L’Imaginaire: Psychologie phenomenologique de l’Imagination. Saint Amand: Gallimard.

Elvis Omondi Kauka “A Review of ‘An Introduction to Philosophy of Education’ by J. A. Akinpelu” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.45-47 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/45-47.pdf

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A Qualitative Analysis of Universal Basic Education Policy Implementation Strategies in Nigeria: Effective Management for Goals Realization

Arop Festus Obun, Owan Valentine Joseph, Ekpang Martin Akan – September 2018 Page No.: 48-54

The study assessed qualitatively, the implementation strategies of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Policy in Nigeria. In order to provide insights into the topic, terms were clarified accordingly. The Universal Basic Education goals were stated as contained in the policy statement of the National Policy on Education. The proposed strategies for the realization of the goals of UBE were stated and analysed accordingly. Relevant literatures were cited to provide understanding of the issues involved. A critique was carried out on the implementation of the stated strategies in order to x-ray the strengths and weaknesses underlying the implementation of UBE policy. It was discovered that the formulated policy of the UBE was very good including the strategies documented to attain stated objectives of the programme. It was also observed that the programme has witness some setback at its implementation phase. Based on these problems, five critical questions were asked to serve as a blueprint for judging whether the UBE programme has achieved its objectives or not. Based on these, recommendations and conclusion were made for policy implementation reform.

Page(s): 48-54                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 September 2018

 Arop Festus Obun
Ph.D, Department of Educational Administration and Planning, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

 , Owan Valentine Joseph
Department of Educational Administration and Planning, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

 Ekpang Martin Akan
Ph.D, Department of Educational Administration and Planning, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

[1]. Adeosun, O. (2010). Quality basic education development in Nigeria: Imperative use of ICT. Journal of International Cooperation in Education, 13(2), 193 – 211.
[2]. Adeyemi, T.O. (2007). Teacher preparation and availability for achieving Basic Education in Ondo State, Nigeria. Humanity and Social Sciences Journal, 2(2), 159 – 168.
[3]. Ajayi, H. O. (2008). Early childhood education in Nigeria: a reality or a mirage? Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 9(4), 375 – 380.
[4]. Bolaji, S. D; Gray J. R. & Campbell-Evans G. (2015). Why do policies fail in Nigeria? Journal of Education & Social Policy, 2(5), 57 – 66.
[5]. Bolaji, S. D. (2014). Intent to action: overcoming the barriers to universal basic education policy implementation in Nigeria. A doctoral thesis submitted to the graduate research school of Edith Cowan University, Western Australia.
[6]. Eddy, E. N; & Akpan, M. E. (2009). The prospect of UBE program in Akwa Ibom State, South-South Nigeria. International NGO Journal, 4(2), 46 – 49.
[7]. Etuk, G. R; Ering, S. O. & Ajake, U. E. (2012). Nigeria’s universal basic education (UBE.) policy: A sociological analysis. American International Journal of Contemporary Research; 2(7), 179 – 183.
[8]. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National policy on education (4th Ed.). Abuja: NERDC Publishers
[9]. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2008). National policy on education (5th Ed.). Abuja: NERDC Publishers
[10]. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013). National policy on education (6th Ed.). Abuja: NERDC Publishers.
[11]. Jaiyeoba, A. O. (2007). Perceived impact of universal basic education on national development in Nigeria. International Journal of African and African-American Studies, 6(1), 48 – 58.
[12]. Lennon, S. (2009). Educational policy. Retrieved on 13th Aug. from https://www.lennonportal. net/index file/policy
[13]. Moja, T. (2010). Nigeria education sector analysis: An analytical synthesis of performance and main issues. New York: New York University.
[14]. Muftahu J. S. & Hazri, J. (2015). Policy of universal basic education in Nigeria: An examination of its effectiveness on implementation and management. American International Journal of Contemporary Research; 5(6), 147 –155.
[15]. Odukoya, D. (2009). Formulation and implementation of educational policies in Nigeria. Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa (ERNCAWA). Retrieved on November 2, 2015. Available at https://www.slideshare.net/ernwaca/formulation-and-implementation-of educational-policies-in-nigeria
[16]. Okiy, R. B. (2004). The universal basic education (UBE) programme and the development of school libraries in Nigeria: A catalyst for greater female participation in national development. Information Development,20(1), 43 – 50.
[17]. Olaniyi A. (2017). 2018 budget: 7.04 per cent allocation to education unacceptable – ERC tells FG. Retrieved on 23rd Aug. 2018 from https://dailypost.ng/2017/11/23/2018-budget-7-04-per-cent-allocation-education-unacceptable-erc-tells-fg/
[18]. Oloko, B. A. (1990). Evolution for prevention of child labour and for working children (28-31). International Child Labour Seminar. Amsterdam.
[19]. Plank, D. N; Sykes, G. & Schneider, B. (2009). Handbook on educational policy research. Hoboken, N. J: Routledge.
[20]. Ugwuanyi, B. I. & Chukwuemeka, E. O. (2013). The obstacles to effective policy implementation by the public bureaucracy in developing nations: the case of Nigeria. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review; 2(7), 59 – 68.
[21]. Viennet, R. & Pont, B. (2017). Education policy implementation: A literature review and proposed framework. OECD Education Working Paper No. 162.

Arop Festus Obun, Owan Valentine Joseph, Ekpang Martin Akan “A Qualitative Analysis of Universal Basic Education Policy Implementation Strategies in Nigeria: Effective Management for Goals Realization” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.48-54 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/48-54.pdf

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Impact of Agricultural Subsidy on Agricultural Output

Michael Chukwunaekwu Nwafor – September 2018 Page No.: 55-62

This research work explored the impact of agricultural subsidy on agricultural output. A data span of a decade (2007 to 2016) was sourced and analysed using two-staged least squares regression method. Findings revealed however at a statistical significance that agricultural subsidy has significant impact on agricultural output. The need for government to put in place policies to kindle agricultural commercialization through cooperative system was recommended.

Page(s): 55-62                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 September 2018

 Michael Chukwunaekwu Nwafor
Department of Accounting and Finance, Godfrey Okoye University, Enugu, Nigeria.

[1]. Abula. M , & Mohammed S. (2013). The Impact of Fertilizers Subsidy on Cassava Production in Nigeria (1986-2010). International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences, 5(11), 43-50.
[2]. Adetiloye, K. A. (2012). Agricultural Financing in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) For Food Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) For Food. J Economics, 3(1): 39-48.
[3]. Agunuwa, Ekokotu Vincent; Inaya, Lucky; and Proso, Timothy (2015). Impact of Commercial Banks’ Credit on Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria (Time Series Analysis 1980 – 2013). International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 5(11), 23-34.
[4]. Awe, A. A. (2012). Mobilisation of financial domestic resources for agricultual productivity in Nigeria. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 2(12), 1-7.
[5]. Ayoola, G. V. (2002). Toward a Fertilizer Regulatory Policy for Nigeria: An Inventorization of Fertilizer Sector. Agricultural Economics, 13, 51-61.
[6]. Celia, D. (2007, March 11). Constraints to Increasing Agricultural Productivity in Africa. Annual Brief Journal of International Food Policy Research, pp. 34-56.
[7]. Egwu, P. N. (2016). Impact of Agricultural Financing on Agricultural Output, Economic Growth and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 6(2), 36-42.
[8]. Ellis, F. (1992). Agricultural policies in developing countries. Cambrige: Cambridge University Press.
[9]. Gregory, I. (2006, June 9-13). The Role of Input Vouchers in Pro-Poor Growth. Background Paper Prepared for the African Fertilizer Summit, p. 33.
[10]. Idris, O. B. (2010). Review of Small Farmer Access to Agricultural Credit in Nigeria. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), pp. 2-11.
[11]. Iganiga, B. O., & Unemhilin, D. O. (2013). The impact of federal government agricultural expenditure on agricultural output in Nigeria. Journal of Economics, 2(2), 78-88.
[12]. Kareem, K. O., Bakare, H. A., Olagumela, S. E., Alawode, O. O., & Ademoyega, G. R. (2013). Analysis of factors influencing agricultural output in Nigeria: macro-economic perspectives. American Journal of Business, Economics and Management,, 1(1), 9-15.
[13]. Minde, I., Jayne, T. S., Crawford, E., Ariga, J., & Govereh, J. (2008). Promoting Fertilizer Use in Africa: Current Issues and Empirical Evidence from Malawi, Zambia, and Kenya.Paper prepared for the Regional Strategic Agricultural Knowledge Support System (ReSAKSS) for Southern Africa, Working Paper No.13,. Michigan: Food Security Group, Michigan State University.
[14]. Muftaudeen, O. O., & Hussainatu, A. (2014). Macroeconomic policy and agricultural output in Nigeria:Implications for food security. American Journal of Economics, 4(2), 99-113.
[15]. Ranjula, B. (2001). Demand, Segmentation and Rationing in the Rural Markets. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 34(2), 105- 108.
[16]. Swinnen, J. F., & Gow, H. R. (1999). Agricultural Credit Problems and Policies During the Transition to a market Economy in Central and Eastern Europe”. Food Policy, 24, 21-27.
[17]. Tandon, H. S., & Narayan, P. (2003). Fertilizer in Indian Agriculture: Past, Present and Future. New Delhi Fertilizer Development and Consultation, p. 100.
[18]. Tiba, Z. (2009). The role of input subsidies: Operational guidelines on implementation. Policies for Good Economic Management of Food Price Swings in African Countries. Rome: FAO Trade and Markets.
[19]. Umoh, G. S. (2003). Nigeria macroeconomic environment and the perennial crop. . Global Journal of Agriculture Sciences, 2(1), 53 – 61.

Michael Chukwunaekwu Nwafor “Impact of Agricultural Subsidy on Agricultural Output” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.55-62 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/55-62.pdf

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State and Conflict Management: Evaluating Nigeria’s Response to Boko Haram Insurgency

Yahaya Yakubu – September 2018 Page No.: 63-68

Adopting a historical and content analytical method of inquiry, this study interrogates the evolution and geneses of the Boko-Haram (BH) insurgency. It claims Nigeria’s inability to comprehend and accurately define the nature and precepts of the insurgency coupled with hybrid tactics of warfare employed by the sect, de-motivated security outlets. It also identifies the challenges of inequitable fire power as a major hindrance to curbing the set activities. In furtherance the study classified the insurgency into three major phases and is of the opinion that while Nigeria may have recorded certain propensity of triumph in addressing the insurgency, the inability to unravel the sponsors of the group in terms of manpower training in guerrilla warfare tactics, supply of moderns and sophisticated weapons, access to healthcare in Sambisa and other logistics. May have dire consequences on the war against insurgency in the North East, conclusively the study opines the need to address the inherent instabilities brought about by ethnic and religious antagonism, if the war against insurgency is to be put to bed.

Page(s): 63-68                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 September 2018

 Yahaya Yakubu
Department of Political Science & International Relations, Nile University of Nigeria

[1]. Akinbi, J. O. (2015), “Examining the Boko Haram Insurgency in Northern Nigeria and the Quest for a Permanent Resolution of the Crisis” Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, 3 (8), p. 32-45.
[2]. Best, S. G. (1999), “Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa” Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited.
[3]. Byman, D. (2005), “Deadly Connections: State and Sponsored Terrorism” New York: Harper Perennial.
[4]. Coser, L. (1986), “The Functions of Social Conflict” New York: Cambridge University Press.
[5]. Collier, P. “Policy for Post Conflict Societies: Reducing the Risk of Renewed Conflict” Economics of Political Violence Conference, March 18-19, 2002, Princeton University Centre for International Studies.
[6]. European Centre for Research Training and Development UK, Retrieved on December 16, 2017. www.eurojournals.org
[7]. Gurr, T. R. (1970), “Why Men Rebel” Princeton: Princeton University Press.
[8]. Hoffman, F. (2012), “Counter-Terrorism in Nigeria: Responding to Boko Haram” RSUI Journal, 157 (4), p. 6-11.
[9]. Irinnews, Timeline of Boko Haram Attacks and Related Violence, Retrieved December 18, 2017, www.irinnews.org/report/94691/nigeria-timeline-of-boko-haram-and-related-violence
[10]. Lugga, S. A. (2007), “Conflict and Security Management” Katsina State Nigeria: Lugga Press.
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Yahaya Yakubu “State and Conflict Management: Evaluating Nigeria’s Response to Boko Haram Insurgency” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.63-68 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/63-68.pdf

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CPEC Impact on Balochistan Economy

Muhammad Kamran Taj, Zhang Liang, Umbreen Zafar – September 2018 Page No.: 69-70

CPEC was a collection of infrastructure projects that are currently under construction throughout Pakistan. Originally valued at $46 billion, the value of CPEC projects is now worth $62 billion. That connected Xinjiang Province to the Gwadar Port city in Pakistan (Ali, 2016). CPEC was intended to rapidly modernize Pakistani infrastructure and strengthen its economy by the construction of modern transportation networks, numerous energy projects, and special economic zones (Hussain & Tom 2015; Kiani & Khaleeq 2016).

Page(s): 69-70                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 September 2018

 Muhammad Kamran Taj
Center for Advance Studies in Vaccinology and Biotechnology, University of Balochistan, Quetta.

 Zhang Liang
Embassy of the Peoples Republic of China in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

 Umbreen Zafar
Center for Advance Studies in Vaccinology and Biotechnology, University of Balochistan, Quetta.

[1]. A. Ali, China Pakistan Economic Corridor : Prospects and Challenges for Regional Integration. Arts and Social Sci Journal 2016.
[2]. Hussain, & Tom. China’s Xi in Pakistan to cement huge infrastructure projects, submarine sales”. McClatchy News. Islamabad 2015.
[3]. Kiani, & Khaleeq. With a new Chinese loan, CPEC is now worth $62bn”. Dawn. 2016.
[4]. G. Capital, The potential of one belt, one road. The Global Capital 2015.
[5]. R. Special, China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) Islamabad, Beijing continue with CPEC despite numerous security, political threats in volatile Balochistan Province 2016.

Muhammad Kamran Taj, Zhang Liang, Umbreen Zafar “CPEC Impact on Balochistan Economy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.69-70 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/69-70.pdf

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Exploring Perceptions of M.A Ed. Students in UiTM towards the Usage of E-portfolio as an Assessment Method

Ahmad Zahir Wali, Mohammad Naeem Saad, Mohammad Tahir Haand – September 2018 Page No.: 71-79

This study explores the perceptions of M.Ed students of University Teknologi Mara (UiTM) towards E-portfolio as an assessment method. The study also investigated the perceptions of the students towards benefits of E-portfolio and the challenges they face while developing one. The study employed a quantitative research design and used a questionnaire to collect data from the sample of 30 students of Master degree studies in the Faculty of Education, UiTM. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The findings of the study show that the students’ hold an overall positive perception on using E-portfolio as an assessment method. The findings further indicated that the students’ perceive E-portfolio to be beneficial in improving their knowledge and skills. Lastly, the results identified challenges that the students’ face while developing E-portfolio.

Page(s): 71-79                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2018

 Ahmad Zahir Wali
Department of English Language and Literature, Kandahar University, Afghanistan

 Mohammad Naeem Saad
Department of English Language and Literature, Nangarhar University, Afghanistan

 Mohammad Tahir Haand
Department of English Language and Literature, Kandahar University, Afghanistan

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[11]. Reese, M., & Levy, R. (2009). Assessing the future: E-portfolio trends, uses, and options in higher education.

Ahmad Zahir Wali, Mohammad Naeem Saad, Mohammad Tahir Haand “Exploring Perceptions of M.A Ed. Students in UiTM towards the Usage of E-portfolio as an Assessment Method” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.71-79 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/71-79.pdf

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Impact of Compensation on Employee Engagement: (Evidence from Telecom Sector of Pakistan)

Asma Inayat – September 2018 Page No.: 80-85

Purpose – Employees are getting disengaged with their work that is causing the waste of human capital as well as a great loss of cost and low performance; hence there is a need to engage them in work by changing work environment and their perception about work. The current study has focused on the importance of compensation in changing employee perception about their work.
Design/methodology/approach –Descriptive study was conducted to check the impact of compensation on employee engagement. A survey questionnaire was adopted and validated through pilot data (α = .821). Convenience sampling was used to select the employees from middle and upper managerial levels of telecom sector of South Punjab, Pakistan. Overall 300 questionnaires were distributed, out of which 234 return back with 78% response rate. A simple regression analysis was done to predict the relationship between the concerned variables.
Findings – After the analysis has been done it was found that compensation is the determinant of employee engagement (r2 = .087), thus having a significant positive impact on employee engagement.
Practical implications – Special attention and effort is required to improve the policies about remuneration system. In addition, the reward and compensation system of the organization should be organized in such a way that the employees working under the same rank and performing the same work duties should get the same remuneration and promotional opportunities.
Originality/value – The research highlights the increasing importance of compensation in engaging employees and the need for creating such reward system which make employees fully devoted, engaged and efficient.

Page(s): 80-85                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2018

 Asma Inayat
Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

Anitha, J. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International journal of productivity and performance management, 63(3), 308.
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Asma Inayat “Impact of Compensation on Employee Engagement: (Evidence from Telecom Sector of Pakistan)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.80-85 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/80-85.pdf

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Capability of Internet in Reducing Child Sexual Abuse in Sri Lanka

Gunasekara, H.D.E. – September 2018 Page No.: 86-88

Internet, which is rapidly spreading throughout the world, at present has become an essential item for the public in Sri Lanka. The majority is considering internet as something which has unnecessary influences. But what is discussed in this research is the virtuous usage of internet. The main research question of the research is, “Can internet be used to reduce child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka? If so, how can it be used?” Accordingly, the main goal of the study is to seek the possibility of using internet to reduce child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka. The prologue of the research became that internet can be used as a productive mass media to reduce child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka. Also four research methods have been mainly used to collect data related to the research. Those are questionnaire method, interview method, case study method and having connection through internet. Data collected through those methods were analysed through SPSS database. Accordingly, proving the prologue of the research, the major decision taken was that, “Internet can be used as a productive mass media to reduce child abuse in Sri Lanka”. Here it is adequately proved that information related to awareness of children how to get protected from child sexual abusers and awareness of adults to protect the children from them can be socialized using sources such as news websites and other popular websites, Facebook, Tweeter, YouTube, ‘popup’ notifications, web radio, web television, Skype, Viber, blog, FTP, electronic mail etc. It can be mentioned very clearly that general public as well as the responsible state mechanism should act to reduce child sexual abuses in Sri Lanka using technical methods mentioned above. In an era where the entire social opinion is built up regarding the misuse of internet, this research, which logically sought its good abilities, is a very important research done in the field of the said subject.

Page(s): 86-88                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2018

 Gunasekara, H.D.E.

Volker Media (Pvt) Ltd, Sri Lanka

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Gunasekara, H.D.E. “Capability of Internet in Reducing Child Sexual Abuse in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.86-88 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/86-88.pdf

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The Role of Faith in Fighting Corruption and Indiscipline in Society: A Study from Islamic Perspective

Dr. Vaffi Foday Sheriff – September 2018 Page No.: 89-92

Corruption is among the greatest constraints to economic and social progress; it harms economic growth and distort moral aspect of human being. Though many researches and recommendations have been made to curtail corruption in society but, it is still apparent in people’s attitude. The paper in this respect attempts to discuss concept of corruption, its causes, types and impact. Then the researcher will proffer solutions from Islamic point of view of faith regarding corruption. In writing and discussing the segments of the paper the researcher will adopt critical and analytical method to achieve the goal of the research.

Page(s): 89-92                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2018

 Dr. Vaffi Foday Sheriff
Department of Islamic Studies, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto-Nigeria

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Dr. Vaffi Foday Sheriff “The Role of Faith in Fighting Corruption and Indiscipline in Society: A Study from Islamic Perspective” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.89-92 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/89-92.pdf

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Information Literacy Programming, Students Skills and Utilization of E-Resources at Maseno University, Kenya

Ezra Bobdalton Momanyi, Paul Toroitich and Peter Onderi – September 2018 Page No.: 93-108

The study was conducted in Maseno University Kenya. The study objectives were to examine the existing infrastructure that supports the delivery of IL program at Maseno University; to determine the extent of use and the relevance of e-resources to students need at Maseno University and to identify ways of improving utilization of e-resources in Maseno University. Descriptive research design was used in this study and the target population was 100 respondents. Research instruments included questionnaires and an interview schedule. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics for analysis purpose. Quantitative data was presented in form of frequency distribution tables, pie charts, percentages, and graphs. The Findings indicated that the program was not effective due to the reason that the program covered only orientation and was very short, the number of students was too big for induction during orientation, the orientation schedule is too overloaded to allow time for IL Program, time allocated for e-resource training is not enough and time allocated for IL Program training is not adequate. The findings also revealed that there was underutilization of electronic information resources in Maseno university library as students lacked information literacy skills required despite going through the IL training program offered to them by librarians. The study recommended that IL program should emphasize more training on user instructions, computer information literacy, online databases and information searching and that the program be offered to students after registration not during registration. Also an effective information literacy program be integrated into education curriculum to enable students acquire information literacy skills that will enhance their utilization of electronic information resources.

Page(s): 93-108                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2018

 Ezra Bobdalton Momanyi
Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya

 Paul Toroitich
Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya

 Peter Onderi
Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya

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Ezra Bobdalton Momanyi, Paul Toroitich and Peter Onderi “Information Literacy Programming, Students Skills and Utilization of E-Resources at Maseno University, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.93-108 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/93-108.pdf

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Brain Drain and Output Performance of West African Countries

Samuel, B. Adewumi, Chinedu, J. Ogbodo, Ngozi B. Enebe – September 2018 Page No.: 109-115

The current study focused on the examination of the impact of brain drain on output performance of West African countries. Data were obtained from 11 countries of the region which are Nigeria, Ghana, Senegal, Mali, Benin, Niger, Cote devoir, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Burkina Faso and Sierra Leone, and from 1977-2016. The result shows that brain drain has a negative relationship on economic growth. This shows that the government of this region must undertake measures to reduce brain drain through increase in salary and creating good working condition for the people. Also, labour force shows insignificant relationship with economic growth of this region. This is due to the fact that large proportion of these countries labour force is unemployed; hence, they don’t contribute to economic growth. The result suggests that policy needs to be put in place that will encourage productivity and improve employment rate in these countries.

Page(s): 109-115                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2018

 Samuel, B. Adewumi
Department of Economics, University of Nigeria

 Chinedu, J. Ogbodo
Department of Economics, University of Nigeria

 Ngozi B. Enebe
Department of Economics, University of Nigeria

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Samuel, B. Adewumi, Chinedu, J. Ogbodo, Ngozi B. Enebe “Brain Drain and Output Performance of West African Countries” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.109-115 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/109-115.pdf

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Automating Library Services, Users Access and Management System in Maseno University Library

Paul Toroitich and Ezra Bobdalton Momanyi – September 2018 Page No.: 116-121

The study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of Automating Library Services, Users Access and Management System in Maseno University Library. The connectivity, self-efficacy, Technology Acceptance Model theories guided the study. Descriptive research design was chosen and data and information was collected from 51 respondents was adopted using stratified simple random sampling techniques. The methods mainly used in data collections included questionnaire, interview guide, observation and direct interviews with concerned people. The study showed that the capabilities and functionality of the library automation, role of automation in revolutionizing the library, level of automation in Maseno university library and the extent of automated circulation system operation, relationship between automated cataloguing and circulation system operation had some challenges of automation in the provision of information needs of users.

Page(s): 116-121                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2018

 Paul Toroitich
Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya

 Ezra Bobdalton Momanyi
Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya

[1]. Andromeda, T.(2007 – 2010) annotated bibliography in the title librarian’s assessment of Automation Survey Result.
[2]. Apalachian State University, (2005). Theories used in research: Self-Efficacy theory.
[3]. Chowdhury, G.G. & Chowdhury, S.(2003). Introduction to digital libraries. Facet Publishing, London,
[4]. De Smet, E. (2009), “ABCD: a new FOSS library automation solution based on ISIS”, Information Development, Vol. 25, no.1, p6167.
[5]. Marchionini, G. & Maurer, H.(1995) The role of digital libraries in teaching and learning. Monthly, (2004) activities of the library as a routine in nature.

Paul Toroitich and Ezra Bobdalton Momanyi “Automating Library Services, Users Access and Management System in Maseno University Library” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.116-121 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/116-121.pdf

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An Empirical Study on Determinants of Brand Loyalty among Apparel Consumers in India

Er Amit Kumar Sen, Dr Manjusmita Dash – September 2018 Page No.: 122-127

The present overall revenues of such retail marks are observed to be considerably high and over the long haul these private level brands are required to upgrade the brand value of the set up retailers. In this way, retailers’ aim of holding comes in the incipient stage with the all around obeyed passage into the clothing retailing, by and by the market of which is assessed at around $13 billion and representing about 20% of the nation’s aggregate fare. The piece of clothing fabricating division’s shows up as the most encouraging fragment in the material chain after 2005 making a huge interest for completed items. In this manner, buyers purchasing conduct has drawn an impressive consideration of the prior specialists. Its effect on planning promoting methodologies likewise turned into the piece of a sizeable number of studies. In any case, while checking on the writing on purchaser conduct and in addition retail promoting, just minute number of studies has been discovered accessible that examines how shopper conduct works in retail advertise. The motivation behind this investigation was to decide the components impacting brand unwaveringness among clothing shoppers and additionally the connection between mark steadfastness and its determinants and is proposed to keep kept just to the sorted out attire retailing in India.

Page(s): 122-127                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2018

 Er Amit Kumar Sen
Department of Business Administration, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar-751004, Orissa, India

 Dr Manjusmita Dash
Department of Business Administration, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar-751004, Orissa, India

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Er Amit Kumar Sen, Dr Manjusmita Dash “An Empirical Study on Determinants of Brand Loyalty among Apparel Consumers in India” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.122-127 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/122-127.pdf

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The Impact of Science of Hadith on Some Jurisprudence Matters: A Case Study of Purity and Sallah

Abdulmalik Sani – September 2018 Page No.: 128-131

Taharah (purification) in Islam is an important subject which dominates various books of jurisprudence. It is so important that it occupies an independent subject in Hadith collections. Taharah it refers to both hidden/spiritual and outer/physical purification. Spiritual purification is the purification of the soul and minds while physical purification has to do with the purification of the body, garments and the environment. In addition, physical purification is done with water which must be free from any impurities and can also be done with pure sand in case of al-Tayammum (dry ablution). The two forms of purification are necessary for the acceptance and validity of Islamic acts of worship.Then the Prayer which was one of the most important things which he (the Prophet peace be upon him) explained to the people, verbally and practically, even praying on the pulpit once – standing, bowing and prostrating, and then saying to them, I have done this so that you may follow me and learn my prayer. The method used in this research is analytical method.Therefore, this paper attempts to disclose some important areas explained by the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) in the different Ahadith about Taharah (Purification) where there are different views among the Jurists such as Ablution with Sunny water, Purifying a container licked by a dog, and also some important aspect about prayer was explained where the opinion of some scholars have differed such as the Concept of Reciting Al-Tashahud after Sah’wu (forgetting something in the prayer) and Saying of Al-Tashahud and Salam in Sallah: Obligatory or not encouraging among others. And finally the paper highlights the different views of some prominent Jurists such as Imam Shafi’, Abu Hanifah and lastly concluded.

Page(s): 128-131                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 October 2018

 Abdulmalik Sani
Postgraduate Student, Department of Fiqh al-Sunnah (Sunnah Jurisprudence) Faculty of Hadith and Islamic Studies, Islamic University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia

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Abdulmalik Sani “The Impact of Science of Hadith on Some Jurisprudence Matters: A Case Study of Purity and Sallah” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.128-131 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/128-131.pdf

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Faith Behind Bars; Rekindling a Hope for the Earthly Convicts

Rev. Dr. Manya Wandefu Stephen – September 2018 Page No.: 132-136

Throughout the history of humanity, faith has been used as a rehabilitation tool as well as tool of hope. Particularly for a troubled and stressed population psychologists have commended the use of faith convictions as part of the remedies of such situations.The use of prison religious programs presents a unique opportunity to channel inmates into the straight and narrow. In this regard, faith is being used as a tool for the rehabilitation of inmates in prison owing to the restrictive and restorative qualities faith has had in the course of history. This paper explores the use of faith and the role of faith providers in the process of rehabilitating inmates in Kenyan prisons.

Page(s): 132-136                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 October 2018

 Rev. Dr. Manya Wandefu Stephen
Alupe University College, Kenya

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Rev. Dr. Manya Wandefu Stephen “Faith Behind Bars; Rekindling a Hope for the Earthly Convicts” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.132-136 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/132-136.pdf

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Discourse Analysis of Taiwan’s Presidential Press Releases in Response to the Sunflower Movement

Pei-ling Yang – September 2018 Page No.: 137-142

Language is a type of social practice and a kind of communication with intentions. Critical Discourse Analysis is to examine and analyze written and spoken language in order to unfold the sources of power, dominance, and inequality. The major goals of Critical Discourse Analysis are to examine the people who have power and chances to deal with social problems. Language use of a country’s president serves as a good example of the examination of language and power and linguistic strategies. However, there is little research analyzing presidential discourse by van Dijk’s model. Therefore, the discourse in this study was analyzed by using van Dijk’s model in order to describe, interpret, and explain the discourse from Taiwan President Ying-jeou Ma’s press releases released and broadcasted by Taiwan Government. The selected releases were delivered from March 23rd, 2014 to April 7th, 2014, targeting at explaining Taiwan Government’s intentions on signing the Cross-Strait Agreement on Trade in Services with PRC and soothing the anger of the protesting students. The data of the presidential releases based on van Dijk’s socio-cognitive model was categorized into the following three themes: discourse representing US versus THEM, persuasive strategies, and from the rational to the emotional. The study is, thus, to reveal the message hidden in the discourse and linguistic strategies applied by a country’s leader.

Page(s): 137-142                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 October 2018

 Pei-ling Yang
Oriental Institute of Technology, Taiwan

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Pei-ling Yang “Discourse Analysis of Taiwan’s Presidential Press Releases in Response to the Sunflower Movement” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.137-142 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/137-142.pdf

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Play Activities for Enhancing Social Interactions of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Public Primary Schools in Migori County – Kenya

Joyce A. Ogogo, Geoffrey K. Karugu, Joel M. C. Wa Munyi – September 2018 Page No.: 143-150

A fundamental feature of social life is social interaction, or the ways in which people act with other people and react to how other people are acting, which is a deficit in learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The study sought to establish play activities for enhancing social interactions of children with Autism in Migori County. This study used Observational Learning Theory, which states that children with special needs can learn desired behaviors from their peers through observation and social interactions. The study adopted a descriptive survey design to establish play activities in enhancing social interactions of children with Autism. The study was carried out in public primary schools attended by children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Migori County, Kenya. The sampling techniques used in this study were stratified random sampling and purposive sampling. The sample size constituted 30% of 37 schools, 10 head teachers, and 37 assistant teachers. Thirty-four children with Autism and 64 typically developing peers also participated in this study. Five Educational Assessment and Resource Centre coordinators from each Sub-County education office in Migori County and 5 parents of children with Autism also participated in the study. Mixed method was used to gather data. Both primary and secondary data was collected through semi- structured questionnaires and review of literature, respectively. The research instruments used were questionnaires, interview schedule, Focus Group Discussion, and observation checklists. The data collected was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The main techniques used to analyze the data were Predictive Analysis Software (PASW) formerly Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 22, Chi-Square and regression model. The major findings of this study were that play activities enhanced social interactions of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study recommended that: Ministry of Education should develop programmes to ensure retention of children with Autism in public primary schools and initiate a competence-based curriculum that allows children with Autism to learn at their own pace and interest; parents of children with Autism should be trained on play activities to use with their children to enhance social interactions at home; the findings of this study should inform active formulation of policies and legislation relevant to the plight of children with Autism; Teacher Training Institutions should incorporate in their curriculum play activities enhancing social interactions in children with Autism to promote inclusion. Further research should be carried out in all counties in Kenya on play activities enhancing social interactions in children with Autism. In addition, further research should consider other areas of functioning in children with Autism. A similar study should be conducted in special schools serving children with Autism in Kenya.

Page(s): 143-150                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 October 2018

 Joyce A. Ogogo

Department of Special Needs Education, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

 Geoffrey K. Karugu

Department of Special Needs Education, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

 Joel M. C. Wa Munyi

Department of Special Needs Education, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

[1]. Cappadocia, M. C., Weiss, J. A., & Pepler, D. (2012). Bullying experiences among children and youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(2), 266–277.
[2]. Fowler, K. (2009). An evaluation of peer-mediated social skills training for a child with Asperger ’ s syndrome and peers.
[3]. Lamport, M. A. Graves, L., & Ward, A. (2012). Special needs students in inclusive classrooms: The impact of social interaction on educational outcomes for learners with emotional and behavioral disabilities. European Journal of. Business and Social Sciences, 1(5), 54-69.
[4]. Orsmond, G. I., Krauss, M. W., & Seltzer, M. M. (2004). Peer relationships and social and recreational activities among adolescents and adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.
[5]. Poisson, L. (2010). Peer-mediated social skills instruction and self-managementstrategies for students with autism. Dissertation AbstractsInternational: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
[6]. Wheeler, J. J., & Huang, A. X. (2006). Effective Interventions for Individuals with High Functional Autism. International Journal of Special Education, 21(3), 165–175.
[7]. Amir M., Nekoo P., Elaheh R., Pouria M., Masih, S., Ramin, K. &Vahid, Z. (2015) Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Patterns of Participation in Daily Physical and Play Activities: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Neurology Research International, 531906, 7
[8]. Chleien, S., Rynders, J., Mustonen, T. & Fox, A. (2012). Effects of Social Play Activities on the Play Behavior of Children with Autism. Journal of Leisure Research.317-328.
[9]. Mengxian Z. & Shihui C. (2017). The Effects of Structured Physical Activity Program on Social Interaction and Communication for Children with Autism. Bio-Med Research International, 2018, Article ID 1825046, 13 pages.
[10]. Nicola Y., Sara S., Caroline R., Ruth, A. & Brenda, T. (2005) Designing a Playground for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Effects on Playful Peer Interactions. Psychology/ Institute of Cognitive Sciences, University of Sussex, and St Anthony’s School, Chicester

Joyce A. Ogogo, Geoffrey K. Karugu, Joel M. C. Wa Munyi “Play Activities for Enhancing Social Interactions of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Public Primary Schools in Migori County – Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.143-150 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/143-150.pdf

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Assessing the long-term stability of Microfinance Institutions in India: A quantitative analysis of key operational metrics to highlight the extent of financial and social efficiency achieved by MFIs

Neel Malhotra – September 2018 Page No.: 151-180

Microfinance institutions (MFIs) have played an important role in enhancing financial inclusion in India. The unprecedented growth of the MFI industry highlights the success of their business models and is a testimony to the success and sustainability of the industry. The Indian regulator, Reserve Bank of India (RBI), has also played an instrumental role in facilitating the growth of this industry. This research paper is an attempt to understand the various factors that drive growth and efficiency for these microfinance institutions. Empirical analysis suggests that geographical and social factors and variations in them played a crucial role in the growth as well as the productivity and efficiency for the MFI Industry.
Data for top MFIs was used toanalyze the following:
a) Comparative analysis of different MFIs across lending models (JLG vs SHG) and ownership structures (Not-for-profit vs for-profit).
b) Various operational metrics that contribute to the financial and social efficiency of MFIs, including the shifting focus towards urban areas from rural areas, and stupendous growth in the North-Eastern Region.
c) The social, economic and political environment, with focus on external shocks that are difficult to quantify and assess at the time of credit delivery.
d) Recent shifts in the business models that mitigate some of the risks and pave the way for further Financial Inclusion.
e) Using Multivariable linear regression and Holt’s trend-corrected double exponential smoothing to build an Associative model that forecasts the future of the MFI industry.
The study of different lending models and ownership structures clearly revealed a preference for the combination of Joint Lending Groups with “for-profit” as the most efficient business model and data on productivity and efficiency validates this thesis. Even though the lending is to the lower strata of the society, the profit motive not only enhances efficiency in the credit delivery process, but also helps generate internal capital and attracts capital investment from institutional investors. Moreover, the integration of technology along with introduction of Aadhaar have been instrumental in driving operational efficiencies. Improved efficiencies and risk-monitoring systems have led to declining credit costs, with some MFIs converting into Small Finance Banks or merging with larger NBFCs. The study also concludes that the shift towards individual loans, especially to existing borrowers is likely to bring about the next leg of growth for the MFI Industry.

Page(s): 151-180                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 October 2018

 Neel Malhotra
Grade 12, Singapore International School, Mumbai, India

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Neel Malhotra “Assessing the long-term stability of Microfinance Institutions in India: A quantitative analysis of key operational metrics to highlight the extent of financial and social efficiency achieved by MFIs” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.151-180 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/151-180.pdf

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Scene Description in Tour “The Target to Al-Jamahiriyatul Uzmah Wa Al-Sulf Fi Ziyarati Jamhuriyati Mali” by Prof. Sambo Wali Junaibu

Dr Nasiru Ahmad Sokoto, Nura Atiku Balarabe – September 2018 Page No.: 181-185

The Tour Literature in Sokoto city emerged since 19th century A.D. by Usmanu bin Fodiyo who wrote a spiritual journey titled “Walamma Balaghtu”. Then came after that the journey of Abdulkadir bin Mustapha Al-toraddy who wrote a fictional journey titled “Musamaratu al Habib wa musayaratu al- sahib”. Then the trip made by Waziri Junaidu in the 20th century and his physical records which attracted the attention of the researchers. Then his son Sambo Wali Junaid stepped on the footsteps of his predecessors by writing his physical records in an exciting and attractive style. The two researchers had chosen one of the author’s journeys wishing to make a literary analysis and focus on the scenes in his journey. This paper is aiming to highlight aesthetic of the scene description during the journey. The beauty of description will appear in the research while the reader imagines as if he is watching before him a cinema screen of the places and buildings described by the author. The researchers stopped at the following results:
• The Tour Literature exists in Sokoto Arabic Literature in particular and Nigerian Arabic Literature in general.
• Sambo Wali Junaidu is one of the genius authors who excelled in the Tour Literature and has good styles and expression.
• The author did well in describing the scenes in his journey, he did not only narrate it but presented it in a splendid manner in such a way that it fascinate the minds and link the brains in order to reach the utmost of what he saw, so that the reader will be excited in the scenes that he observed during his journey.

Page(s): 181-185                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 October 2018

 Dr Nasiru Ahmad Sokoto
Department of Arabic Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Nura Atiku Balarabe
Department of Arabic Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

[1]. Suratul Ankabut: v.20)
[2]. Atiku Balarabe, el- Rihlatu e- kanakariyah wa ma fiha mina el- hidayah published by Dar el- Ilmi 2011 A. H p.4.
[3]. Ibn Qutaibah, Abu Abdullahi, el- shi’iru wa el- shu’arah, p.62.
[4]. Uwaisu Ibrahim, Diwanu el- ustazu el duktur Sambo Wali Junaidu: Jam’an wa dirasatn adabiyah, PhD Thesis, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokotio, 2017, p.7
[5]. Op-cit, p. 8
[6]. Op-cit, p.9.
[7]. A S Agaka, el- mudarahah baina el- Waziri Junaidu wa najlihi Sambo wali Junaidu, a paper published in Al-Nahdah: Journal of Islamic Heritage, vol.4 Nos.1&2, March 2007 Centre for Islamic Studies, UDU, Sokoto, ISSN 1O794-4829 Pp. 220-231

Dr Nasiru Ahmad Sokoto, Nura Atiku Balarabe “Scene Description in Tour “The Target to Al-Jamahiriyatul Uzmah Wa Al-Sulf Fi Ziyarati Jamhuriyati Mali” by Prof. Sambo Wali Junaibu” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 9, pp.181-185 September 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-9/181-185.pdf

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