Volume II Issue V

An Appraisal of the Role of Nigerian Police Force and Challenges of Democratic Process in Nigeria

Jibrin Ubale Yahaya – May 2018 Page No.: 01-05

This paper gives highlight on the issue of policing, internal security and challenges of Democracy in Nigeria. However, Nigerian democracy was full of a lot of abnormalities since the return of Democratic practice from May 29, 1999. Since then, one of the contending issues affecting democratic process in Nigeria was the failure of relevant security institutions to address the lingering issues of insecurity for a very long time. The papers basically identify some of key areas where insecurity has turned to become one of the major factors that militated against the operation of democracy and good governance in Nigeria. The country has every potential resource to meet the level of global index for development in terms of economic and political dimension but the reverse is the case, Nigerian Democracy is having so many problems of insecurity which resulted to damages of property and killing of many lives . The paper suggest for the peoples of Nigeria to enjoy the full dividend of Democracy and good governance as well as other African countries to copy from our governance practice, Nigerian democratic process must provides responsive and responsible leaders that can make things better in the country in the area of effective security structure, electoral reforms, economic recovery, social welfare services and conduct of good governance in Nigeria which will features accountability, transparency, peoples engagement in governance activities as well as observing the principles of fundamental Human Rights.

Page(s): 01-05                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 May 2018

 Jibrin Ubale Yahaya
Political Science Department, Nassarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

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Jibrin Ubale Yahaya “An Appraisal of the Role of Nigerian Police Force and Challenges of Democratic Process in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.01-05 May 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/01-05.pdf

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Effects of Informal Institutions on the Probability of Democratization in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic

Yahaya Yakubu – May 2018 Page No.: 06-14

Contrary to expectations, regularization of competitive politics in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic did not bring about the demise of influence of non-political determinants of political outcomes. Rather the underlying informal institutions of political clientelism and neopatrimonialism have co-existed alongside formal institutions of liberal democracy and affected probability of. Upon analyzing primary data sourced from Afrobarometer AB and reviewing relevant literature the study contends, formal and informal institutions interpenetrate each other, supplement or may even replace each other. Also both institutions could impede or foster prospects of democratization. However, the mechanisms through which they do are likely to differ contextually. Subsequently, the theoretical and parochial interrogation of institutions depicts the far reaching effects of the informal institution of political clientelism as a definite attribute of practical politics in the Fourth Republic. Hence the study assents with pluralist’s, arguing an objective appraisal of the prospects of contextualizing the practice of democracy in line with prevailing norms, values and beliefs.

Page(s): 06-14                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 May 2018

 Yahaya Yakubu
Department of Political Science & International Relations, Nile University of Nigeria

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Yahaya Yakubu “Effects of Informal Institutions on the Probability of Democratization in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.06-14 May 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/06-14.pdf

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Third Term Craze and Democratic Diplomacy in Africa; East and Central Africa as Case Study
Gideon O. Adeniji – May 2018 – Page No.: 15-23

We cannot really say democratic practice has matured in Africa the way it has in the West because in comparison to European and American countries, democratic practice in Africa is still in infancy. However, most African countries have been long enough in the game to at least move towards the strengthening of the rudimentary prerequisites of democratic practice such as: free and fair elections and high regard for constitutional provisions. Some scholars have argued that the reason for the aberrations we find in the practice of democracy is because the system of government is alien to Africa and was an imposed system. While this may be true to some extent, the question to be asked is whether a preferable system of government does exist asides democracy that really takes cognizance of the rights of the masses and imbues the people with so much freedom and power?.

Page(s): 15-23                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 May 2018

 Gideon O. Adeniji

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Gideon O. Adeniji “Third Term Craze and Democratic Diplomacy in Africa; East and Central Africa as Case Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.15-23 May 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/15-23.pdf

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Role of New Media in Education

Dr. Hemlata Thakur – May 2018 Page No.: 24-25

It is essential to analyze how people learn with the help of computers and which learning activities they deploy during this process. Essential to distance learning is the way new media like internet and intranet can support the learner. It is important to know what expectations learners have from computer assisted studying. It regards the development of effective learning environments, by focusing on two sides of the construction process. The first is the side of the media and their functionalities, both activated and potential, and their disfunctionalities. The second is the exploration of three types of learning activities: cognitive, regulative and affective. Based on these two, we are in pursuit of an optimal mix of media, old and new.

Page(s): 24-25                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 May 2018

 Dr. Hemlata Thakur
Librarian, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

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Dr. Hemlata Thakur “Role of New Media in Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.24-25 May 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/24-25.pdf

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Psychosocial Support and Well-Being for Orphans and Vulnerable Children as a Strategy for Poverty Reduction in Cross River and Ebonyi States, Southern Nigeria
Inah E. Okon, Takim Asu Ojua – May 2018 – Page No.: 26-41

Though, Nigeria has achieved high economic growth rates in the last 5-10 years (6.5 per cent annually), there is high inequality in this growth. For example, of an estimated 54% of the population who lives below poverty line, 64% and 33% are located in the rural and urban areas respectively. In Cross River State, the population of OVC is estimated at 408,124 and in Ebonyi over 565,600 OVC as at 2015. Poverty is widespread and HIV epidemic has revealed a broad range of vulnerabilities faced by children and their families which has invariably increased the number of orphaned children. Over 310,000 children have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS in Cross River and Ebonyi States aside other social factors that has continually increased the vulnerability of children. The sample of 824 tools was selected using a multi two-stage sampling design. In the first stage, 6 LGAs were selected, two from each senatorial district in Cross River and Ebonyi States. The LGAs were purposively selected using the rural – urban criteria and categorized as such. This definition of urban or rural was relative, one chosen Local Government Area relative to the other and therefore only for the purpose of this survey. From the selected LGAs, a (political) ward was chosen using a population based random sampling method to represent a cluster. In this second stage a total of sixty (60) clusters, thirty (30) from each State were selected and, Thirteen (13) households from each cluster were identified using simple random sampling. Focus group discussion with some caregivers as well as organisations that offer help to them was also carried out. To analyse OVC situation in the study area, 15 themes from the 2012 MEASURE evaluation core indicators of child and caregiver/household well-being was adopted. A household survey questionnaire comprising of three sections was utilized to collect quantitative data on households and children 0-9 years, and 10-17 years old respectively. The study showed distribution of the orphans in both States. For Cross River State, 155 (14.2 %), 426 (38.2 %) and 270 (24.7%) were maternal, paternal and double orphans respectively of the 1,093 children who responded, while in Ebonyi State 100 (12%), 547 (66%) and 447 (54%) accounted for maternal, paternal and double orphans respectively. It was further revealed that 35.7per cent and 20.9 per cent of children less than 5 years have had diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks prior to interview date in Cross River and Ebonyi States respectively. Furthermore, about 69.2 per cent and 65.5 per cent respectively for Cross River and Ebonyi States records children less than 5 years of age who has been ill with a fever within the last two weeks just before the interview. The percentage of children in Cross River State 0-9 and 10-17 years who were too sick to participate in daily activities accounts for 53.6 per cent and 49.5 per cent respectively. And in Ebonyi State, about 55.6 per cent and 39.5 per cent were too sick to participate in daily activities for 0-9 years and 10-17 years respectively. Findings further revealed that percentage of children less than 5 years of age who are undernourished in Cross River were found to be 69.0 per cent (0-4 years) while in Ebony State, it is given as 61.4 per cent (0-4) years old. Most of the caregivers of the households surveyed are widows and with very low income as about 75.1 per cent and 86.9 per cent in Cross River and Ebonyi respectively indicate that they earn below N10,000 (less than $30) per month. This implies the inability of over 90 per cent of household heads to attain the $2 per day living standard as recommended by the World Bank. This further confirms the high level of poverty amongst these households with its attendant negative consequences, especially with regards to meeting the needs of the inhabitants of such households. The inability of the people (Caregivers and their OVC) to access basic needs is largely due to the poverty levels in these States which is worse in the rural communities. Economic insecurity at household level lies at the heart of the OVC problem in these two States and therefore remains core part of the solution. The need to increase access of members of the households in the communities of intervention to access micro-credit facilities is critical if the needs of the OVC must be sustainably met. The Ministry of Social Welfare in both States should assist the poorest of the poor through their” Project Hope” and “Comfort” Interventions for indigent people.

Page(s): 26-41                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2018

 Inah E. Okon
Department of Geography & Environmental Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

 Takim Asu Ojua
Department of Social Work, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

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Inah E. Okon, Takim Asu Ojua “Psychosocial Support and Well-Being for Orphans and Vulnerable Children as a Strategy for Poverty Reduction in Cross River and Ebonyi States, Southern Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.26-41 May 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/26-41.pdf

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Perception of Academic Dishonesty and Participation by Undergraduate Students of Kogi State University, Anyigba

Venatus V. Kakwagh – May 2018 Page No.: 42-45

This study was carried out to analyze the perceptions of academic dishonesty and participation by students of Kogi State University, Anyigba-Nigeria. Data for the study were collected through the application of self administered structured questionnaire. The study has shown that many of the students had engaged in academic dishonesty and/or witnessed their colleagues engage in the practice. The study has also shown that most of the students perceived cheating in examinations by copying their colleagues’ work, sharing of answers for assignments and the exchange of money for marks as less serious offences. This perception of academic dishonesty is due to the non distribution of institutional guidelines to the students and the lack of orientation programmes about academic dishonest behaviour. It is therefore recommended that concerted efforts should be made to address academic dishonesty in all institutions of higher learning in Nigeria. Managers of higher institutions of learning should pay particular attention to this to avoid the transfer of these practices to the workplace. Universities particularly should ensure that institutional rules on academic dishonesty are distributed to the students at the time of registration. Orientation programmes should be periodically carried out to acquaint the students and reawaken their understanding of the consequences of academic dishonest behaviours. School administrators should be more innovative in designing the orientation programmes to avoid dishonest behaviours. It is when this is done that the Nigerian public will begin to develop confidence in the quality of our graduates and even in our academic institutions as being capable of raising future leaders with integrity.

Page(s): 42-45                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2018

 Venatus V. Kakwagh
Department of Sociology, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria

[1]. Alutu,A.N.G and Aluede, O (2006) ‘’Secondary School students’ perception of examination malpractices and examination ethics’’ Journal of Human Ecology 20(4) Online www.krepublishers.com
[2]. Brown, D.L (2002) ‘’Cheating must be okay-everybody does it!’’Nurse Educ 27 pp 6-8
[3]. Guthrie, C.L (2009) Plagiarism and Cheating: a mixed methods study of student’s academic dishonesty. New Zealand: Master of Social Sciences, The University of Waikato.
[4]. Imran, A.M and Ayobami,O.R (2011) ‘’Academic Dishonesty among tertiary institution students: aAn exploration of the societal influences using sem Analysis’’. International Journal of Education 3(2) P11-22
[5]. Kakwagh, V.V (2013) “Declining Quality of Intellectual Output in Nigeria’s Tertiary Institutions of Learning: The Underlining Existential Factors”Journal of Education and Practice 4(11) 39-42
[6]. Kyei,K.A and Nduro,K‘’ (2014) ‘’Inclining factors towards examination malpractice among students in Takoradi Polytechnic, Ghana’’ J Educ Prac
[7]. Nwadiani, M (2005) ‘’Curbing examination malpractice in Nigerian educational system’’. A lead paper presented at the First annual Conference of the Faculty of Education, Ambrose Ali Univeesity, Ekpoma; November 10-12
[8]. Olatunbosun, J.B (2009) ‘’Examination malpractice in Secondary schools in Nigeria: What sustains it?’’ European Journal of Educational studies 1(3) (Online)
[9]. Pino,N.W and Smith,W.L (2003) ‘’College students and academic dishohonesty’’ College student journal 37(4)
[10]. Prenshaw, J.P; Straughan, D.R and Albers-Miller, D.N (2001) University academic dishonesty policy and student perception of cheating: An exploratory content analysis across fourteen universities Online www.sbaer.uca.edu/research/acme/2001/45.pdf
[11]. Taylor, L, Nicky, E and de Lambert,K Academic realities for New Zealand tertiary education staff and new Zealand tertiary education institutions. Brisbane: Proceedings of the ATEM-AAPPA Conference.

Venatus V. Kakwagh “Perception of Academic Dishonesty and Participation by Undergraduate Students of Kogi State University, Anyigba” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.42-45 May 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/42-45.pdf

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Assessment of Economic Benefits of Fire Insurance on Commodity Markets in Nigeria

Momoh, Omowumi, Ayoni, Ajiboye, Lawrence Oluwasanmi – May 2018 Page No.: 46-52

Fire insurance is an effective tool in the mitigation of fire risks in Nigeria. This paper therefore examines the economic benefits of fire insurance on commodity major markets in Nigeria.Few large markets within Ibadan, Oyo State Capital were selected for this study. It was discovered that most of the shop-occupiers at those markets were ignorant of the meaning and importance of fire Insurance. The paper further investigated major causes of fire in the market, its effect on the individual shop occupiers and the business, the level of insurability of the shop occupier and the economic benefits of fire insurance. 500 questionnaire were administered on the randomly selected occupants but only 472 questionnaire were returned. Chi – square was used to analyze the data collected along with the degree of freedom under the level of significance of 5%. Findings indicated that the fire outbreak has effects on the occupants business to the extent of closing down or losing some of their customers. It is therefore recommended that fire insurance should be made as part of the compulsory insurances in Nigeria so as to reduce the economic burden of losses on the occupants and government. Effective and adequately equipped fire brigade should be assigned to protect markets against fire incidents.

Page(s): 46-52                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2018

 Momoh, Omowumi, Ayoni
Department of Insurance, Faculty of Financial Management Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

 Ajiboye, Lawrence Oluwasanmi
Department of Insurance, Faculty of Financial Management Studies, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria

[1]. Acumen, F. (2009).FireInsurance, www.economywatch.com/
[2]. Aduloju, S. A. (2009). Principles of Property Insurance.Lagos, Nigeria:Pumark Nigeria Limited Educational Publishers..
[3]. Ajiboye, L. O. (2008). The growth and development of insurance services in Nigeria between 1980 and 2004.Unpublished Master of Actuarial Science (MAS) project submitted to the Department of Statistics, University of Ibadan. Pg 30.
[4]. Bird, J. (1997).Modern Insurance Law 4th Edition.London Sweet and Maxwell.
[5]. Christiana, N. (2015). Causes, Solution to Fire outbreaks in Nigeria.
[6]. Daily Times (2015). Fire guts Community Market in Jos. https://dailytimes.com.ng/fire-guts-community-market-jos/
[7]. Danielle, O. (2016). Traders lament as fire razes 40 shops in Ibadan, Ado-Ekiti markets. https://dailypost.ng/2016/01/06/traders-lament-as-fire-razes-40-shops-in-ibadan-ado-ekiti-market/
[8]. Donelon,J.(2014).Importance of Fire Insurance. Coverage.https://www.buzzle.com/articles/importance of-fire-insurance-coverage.html
[9]. Epetimehin, F.M (2003). Insurance and Property Alleviation “Cooperative advantage”Ibadan, MickyAdeniji Press.
[10]. https://leadership.ng/2017/09/10/fire-outbreak-costs-nigeria-n6trn-5-years/
[11]. Idowu, B.,Okoye, F., Oni, H.Benjamin, I. and Bello,O.(2016). Nigeria: Inside Nigeria Leading Markets. AllAfrica Global Media.
[12]. Izuoba,C. (2017). Fire Outbreaks Costs Nigeria N6Trillion in 5years.Leadership, September, 10th 2017.
[13]. Jared, P. (2009). An Introduction to fire Insurance.https://www.suite101.com/reference/an-introduction-to-fire insurance.
[14]. Jones, F. H. (2000). Property and Pecuniary Insurance underwriting and claims.CIIN Tuition Service. Study course 310. Great Britain. Pg 2/2.
[15]. NAN (2016) https://nannewsnigeria.com/sokoto-state-govt-will-assist-victims-fire-kasuwardaji-market-tambuwal
[16]. News 24 Nigeria (2015). Fire rasesOgun market. https://www.news24.com.ng/National/News/fire-razes-ogun-market-20151217
[17]. Newswatch Times (2016). Fury of fire: Nigerians recount loses.https://mynewswatchtimesng.com/fury-fire-nigerians-recount-loses/
[18]. Nigeria Tribune (2016).Fire razes 300 shops at station market in Kaduna. https://www.tribuneonlineng.com/fire-razes-300-shops-at-station-market-in-kaaduna.
[19]. Nigerian Newspaper Today (2017) .https://www. nigeriannewspapers.today
[20]. Obinna, C. C. (2006). Risk management for insurance practice.Ejigbo Lagos, Nigeria, Intes Training and Educational Services.
[21]. Obinna, C. C. (2008). Fire Insurance.Ejigbo Lagos, Nigeria, Intes Training and Educational Services.
[22]. Obodoechina, R. (2013). How fire insurance helps you. https://www.vanguardngr.com/2013/05/how-fire-insurance-helps-you/
[23]. Ojogbo, L. U. (2004). Basic Principles of Insurance. Oyo State, Nigeria, Solace Publishers Ibadan.
[24]. Oladokun, V. O and Emmanuel V. G. (2014).Urban Market Fire Disasters Management in Nigeria: A Damage minimization based Fuzzy Logic Model Approach.International Journal of computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 106 – No. 17
[25]. Premium Times (2016). Fire guts Yola market. https://www.premiumtimesng.com/regional/north-east/196153-fire-guts-yola-market.html
[26]. Remi, O. O. (2006). Elements of Insurance.Impressed Publishers, Lagos, Nigeria.Pg 27, 103
[27]. Rumah, C. (2015). 5 reasons the importance of fire insurance. https://askrida.com/en/5- reasons-the-importance-of fire-insurance. Html//.VwJP4ihIT1U
[28]. Taiwo, S. (2017).Fire biggest Consumer Markets in Nigeria.Pulse

Momoh, Omowumi, Ayoni, Ajiboye, Lawrence Oluwasanmi “Assessment of Economic Benefits of Fire Insurance on Commodity Markets in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.46-52 May 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/46-52.pdf

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Historic Preservation: Prospects and Challenges
Stephen Olayiwola Soetan, Oluwaseun Samuel Osadola – May 2018 – Page No.: 53-56

The significance of historical elements in their different forms cannot be overemphasized. They served as relics of the present which connects us with the past. They are the one providing us with insight into the past. It is the need to examine the need, prospect and the challenges facing this task that forms the focus of this paper In a place where lip service and lack of political will prevails and dictates attitudes to historical sites, the needs to highlight the importance of this sites for historical social and economic should be studied and implemented. This paper derives its data from both primary and secondary sources.

Page(s): 53-56                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2018

 Stephen Olayiwola Soetan
PhD, Department of History and International Studies, Ekiti State University, Ado- Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

 Oluwaseun Samuel Osadola
PhD Candidate, Department of History and International Studies, Ekiti State University, Ado- Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

[1]. Arinze,E.N (1990)“Establishing National Registers of Historic Cultural Property in Africa”,I n Andah B.W.(ed.), Cultural Resource Management: An African Dimension.Nigeria: Wisdom Publishers limited.
[2]. Bodam, R.N.S. (1998) “Illicit Traffic of Cultural Property: The Effects on Monuments”. The Museologist, Journal of the Institute of Archaeology and Museum Studies, Jos. vol 2.
[3]. Eboreime,O.J. & Gella, Y. (1998) “Overview of cultural Heritage in Nigeria”.Nigerian Heritage:Journal of the National commission for Museums and Monuments,Vol. 7
[4]. Maduabuchi, K.(2006) Cultural Heritage and its Tourism Potentials: A case study of Ogidi, Idemili North L.G.A of Anambra State. An Unpublished B.A Project Submitted to the Department of Archaeology and Tourism University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
[5]. Okpoko P.U. and Okonkwo E.E (2005) “Heritage Management and Tourism in the Obudu Cattle Ranch and Sukur Kingdom, Nigeria”in CRM: Journal of Heritage Stewardship vol.2 no.2, U.S: National Park Service, Department of the Interior
[6]. Sennott, R, S (ed) 2004, Encyclopedia of 20th century architecture. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn,
[7]. Orser C. E. (eds) 2002, Encyclopedia of historical archaeology, London; New York: Routledge,
[8]. B. Santa, (eds), 2001, Encyclopedia of archaeology: history and discoveries, Calif: ABC-CLIO,
[9]. Bucher W. C. (ed) 1996, Dictionary of building preservation, Madrid, illustration editor. [Washington, D.C.] : Preservation Press; New York: J. Wiley,
[10]. Carole C. (1988) Architectural reconstructions: the aesthetics and methodology of the recreation of what was or might have been.. Monticello, Ill.: Vance Bibliographies, California Office of Historic Preservation, Publications and Forms.
[11]. Massey J. C. (1986) Readings in historic preservation: an annotated bibliography to the key books and periodicals. Washington, D.C.: National Preservation Institute,
[12]. Lindgren, J. M. (1993) Preserving the Old Dominion: historic preservation and Virginia traditionalism. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia,
[13]. Randy C., GreenStreet D. and Witt T. S. (1997) Economic Impact of Historic Preservation in West Virginia. Morgantown: Bureau of Business and Economic Research, West Virginia University,
[14]. Rypkema, D. (1994) The Economics of Historic Preservation. Washington, D.C.: National Trust for Historic Preservation,
[15]. UNESCO UNESCO (2003) Convention for the safeguarding of the intangible Cultural Heritage. Paris: UNESCO.

Stephen Olayiwola Soetan, Oluwaseun Samuel Osadola “Historic Preservation: Prospects and Challenges” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.53-56 May 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/53-56.pdf

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Impact of Political Influence on Educational Sector in Nigeria

Olayisade Rhema Olayinka – May 2018 Page No.: 57-59

Education plays vital role in any community, communities are guided by laws and order, shaping and molding issues on education that are formulated through educational policies. This rightly shows that implementation of educational policies operate within the political framework of the community. Political instability has led to inconsistent policies due to the rapid turnover of education ministers with different interests and lack of educational expertise. This implies that the educational policies are influenced by the political administrators in the country. This paper takes a critical look into the impact of political influence on educational sector in Nigeria. The relationship between both of them, the positive and negative influences from the environment by the political actors, various policies made during the civilian and military administration, and steps taken to rectify the challenges encountered in the political environment through unfavorable policies.

Page(s): 57-59                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2018

 Olayisade Rhema Olayinka
Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

[1]. Abdu, P. S. (2003). The cost and finance of education in Nigeria. Education Today Quarterly, 10(1)12-16.
[2]. Aliu, Y.O (2001) New methods and techniques in the educational management and decision- making. In Nnoli, O. & Duliama I.O (Eds) Reassessing the future of education in Nigeria Abuja: ETF.
[3]. Fafunwa, A. B. (2004). History of education in Nigeria: Boston: George Ailen and Unwin.
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[5]. Okeke B.S. (2007).Politics of education. The Nigerian experience Akwa: Doone Printing and Publishing.
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[7]. Okwori, A & Ede, S (2012). Management issues in Education. Makurdi: Aboki Publishers.
[8]. Vangard newspaper in Nigeria, March 1st, 2018.

Olayisade Rhema Olayinka “Impact of Political Influence on Educational Sector in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.57-59 May 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/57-59.pdf

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Influence of the Level of Citizen Participation on Governance of Projects in County Governments in Kenya

Moi Edna Jemutai, Iravo Mike, Minja David – May 2018 Page No.: 60-63

The level of citizen participation in decision making processes tends to be low. The citizens are often also very little informed about what is being discussed and decided, even though it is supposed to be in the public interest. That has even been the case in the most fundamental expression of the socio-political contract between state authorities and citizens. This paper describes the influence of the level of citizen participation on governance of projects. It is based on the study of the level citizen participation in local governance of projects carried out in Elgeiyo Marakwet and Nandi Counties in Kenya. This study was anchored with the theory of New Public Management (NPM) where it emphasized on a situation that is more transparent, responsible and predictable, and therefore, prompts advance good governance at the local levels. A qualitative research method was the most suitable approach of collecting and analyzing the data. The study found out that citizens were still at the level of tokenism as their power have not been felt though their voices have been heard. When citizen participation is increased sometimes seen as a way to increase the efficacy of regulation, improve the provision of public goods and services, and boost outcomes in areas such as health and education that overlap the boundaries between citizens and their governments. Local government is a platform that all citizens can participate in local issues efficiently and effectively. Their participation is considered as an important factor for the success and prosperity of local government.

Page(s): 60-63                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2018

 Moi Edna Jemutai
PhD Student, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

 Iravo Mike
Professor, Department of ETLM, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

 Minja David
Professor, Department of Public Policy and Administration, Kenyatta University, Kenya

[1]. Fung,A. (2006). Putting the Public Back into Governance: The Challenges of Citizen Participation and its Future.
[2]. John, P. (2009). Can citizen governance redress the representative bias of political participation? Public Administration Review, 69(3), 494-516.
[3]. Marzuki A. (2015). Challenges in the Public Participation and the Decision Making Process Institute for Social Research in Zagreb.
[4]. Mckenna, D. (2011). UK local government and public participation: Using conjecture to explain the relationship. Public Administration, 89(3), 1182-1200.
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[7]. Tritter, J. Q. &Mccallum, A. 2006. The snakes and ladders of user involvement: Moving beyond arnstein. Health Policy, 76(2), 156-168.
[8]. United Nations. (2008). People Matter: Civic Engagement in Public Governance, New York’, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.
[9]. Yang, K., & Pandey, S. K. (2011). Further dissecting the black box of citizen participation: When does citizen involvement lead to good outcomes? Public Administration Review, 71(6), 880–892.

Moi Edna Jemutai, Iravo Mike, Minja David “Influence of the Level of Citizen Participation on Governance of Projects in County Governments in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.60-63 May 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/60-63.pdf

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Building Local Consensus for Food Security: Collaboration between Accra Metropolitan Assembly and Chiefs in Accra, Ghana
Richard Abankwa Agyepong – May 2018 – Page No.: 64-69

Ghana remains food insecure despite the growth of agriculture’s contribution to national development. This is explained by lack of community food security policies. Local governments in Ghana are responsible for the overall development of the country hence expected to lead food security policies. Recognizing the multi-faceted nature of food security in Ghana, collaboration between local governments and chiefs hold the key to local food security in Ghana. Chiefs remain important in Ghana’s governance. Chiefs in Accra control land for farming and other developmental activities, whiles the Accra Metropolitan Assembly is responsible for agriculture and land use policies. The paper examines the extent to which chiefs in Accra collaborate with the Accra Metropolitan Assembly for local food security. The paper employs qualitative approach to collect and analyse the data. The paper concludes that there is weak collaboration between the chiefs and the local government which negatively affects food security programmes.

Page(s): 64-69                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2018

 Richard Abankwa Agyepong
Centre for African Studies, University of Education Winneba, Ghana

[1]. Emerson, K., Nabatchi, T. and Balogh, S. (2012) An Integrative Framework for Collaborative Governance Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1–29, https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/mur011
[2]. Kleist, N. (2011) Modern Chiefs: Tradition, Development and Return Among Traditional Authorities in Ghana. African Affairs. Oxford University Press. Doi: 10.1093/afraf/adr041
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[4]. Owusu-Adjei, E., Baah-Mintah, R and Salifu, B. (2017) “Analysis of the Groundnut Value Chain in Ghana.” World Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 5, no. 3. pp177-188. doi: 10.12691/wjar-5-3-8.
[5]. Owusu-Mensah, I. (2014) politics, Chieftaincy and Customary Law in Ghana’s Fourth Republic. The Journal of Pan African Studies, vol.6, no.7
[6]. Rathbone, R. (2000) Native Courts, Local Courts, Chieftaincy and the CPP in Ghana in the 1950s, Journal of African Cultural Studies, 13:1, 125-139, DOI: 10.1080/713674304 https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713674304
[7]. Ahwoi, K. (2010) Local Government and Decentralisation in Ghana. Unimax Macmillan Limited. Accra
[8]. Ahwoi, K. (2011) Overview of Local Government System in Ghana: Prospects and Challenges. In. Alam, M. and Koranteng, R. (Eds) Decentralisation in Ghana. Commonwealth Secretariat.
[9]. Biitir, S. B. and Nara, B. B. (2015) The role of Customary Land Secretariats in promoting good local land governance in Ghana. Land Use Policy 50. pp 528–536. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.10.024 0264-8377/ Elsevier Ltd.
[10]. Howlett, M. and Ramesh, M. (2014) The two orders of governance failure: Design mismatches and policy capacity issues in modern governance, Policy and Society, 33:4, 317-327, DOI: 10.1016/j.polsoc.2014.10.002
[11]. Koranteng, R., (2011) Decentralised Administration: The Experience of Ghana. In. Alam, M. and Koranteng, R. (Eds) Decentralisation in Ghana. Commonwealth Secretariat.
[12]. Alam, M. (2011) Decentralisation in Ghana and Parkistan: A case of Policy Transfer or Mere Coincidence. In. Alam, M. And Koranteng, R. (Eds) Decentralisation in Ghana. Commonwealth Secretariat.
[13]. Ansell, C., Gash, A. (2007) Collaborative Governance in Theory and Practice the Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. Pp.543–571. doi:10.1093/jopart/mum032
[14]. Lasker, R. D., and Weiss, E. S. (2003) Broadening participation in community problem-solving:A multidisciplinary model to support collaborative practice and research. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 80:14–60.
[15]. Ubink, J. M. And Quin, J. F. (2007), How to combine tradition and modernity? Regulating Customary Land Management in Ghana. Elsevier Ltd.
[16]. F.A.O (2006) Food Security. Policy Brief, Issue 2,June. ftp://ftp.fao.org/es/ESA/policybriefs/pb_02.pdf (assessed on 31-03-2018)
[17]. Gregory, P.J., Ingram, J.S.I. and Brklacich, M. (2005) Climate change and food security: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Biological Sciences, 360(1463): 2139-2148.
[18]. Nyanteng, V. K. and Asuming-Brempong, S. (2003) The role of agriculture in food security in Ghana. Paper prepared for the Roles of Agriculture International Conference 20-22 October. Rome, Italy
[19]. Darfour, B. and Rosentrater, K. A. (2016) Agriculture and Food Security in Ghana. Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations. 478. https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/abe_eng_conf/478
[20]. Kasanga, K., Kotey, N.A. (2001) Land management in ghana: building on traditionand modernity. In: Land Tenure and Resource Access in West Africa.International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
[21]. Amanor, K.S., 2009. Securing lands rights in Ghana. In: Ubink, J.M., Hoekema, A.J.,Assies, W.J. (Eds.), Legalising Land Rights: Local Practices, State Responses andTenure Security in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Leiden Unviersity Press,Leiden.
[22]. Ray, D. I. (2003) Ghana: Traditional Leadership and Rural Local Governance. In, Ray, D. I. And Reddy, P.S. (Eds) Grassroots Governance? Chiefs in Africa and the Afro-Caribbean. University of Calgary Press
[23]. Dzivenu,S. (2011) Chieftaincy‐State Relations: Making Political Legitimacy in Ghana’s Fourth Republic. Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The University of Edinburgh https://hdl.handle.net/1842/14203
[24]. Boafo-Arthur, K. (2003) Chieftaincy in Ghana: Challenges and Prospects in the 21st Century. African and Asian Studies, volume 2, no. 2. Pp.125-153. DOI: 10.1163/156920903322149400
[25]. Ubink, J. (2007) Traditional Authority Revisited: Popular Perceptions of Chiefs and Chieftaincy in Peri-Urban Kumasi, Ghana, The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 39:55, 123-161, DOI: 10.1080/07329113.2007.10756610
[26]. Murdock, B., Wiessner,C. and Sexton, K. (2005) Stakeholder participation in voluntary environmental agreements: Analysis of 10 Project XL case studies. Science, Technology & Human Values 30:223–50.
[27]. Asamoah, K. (2012) A qualitative study of Chieftaincy and Local Government in Ghana. Journal of African Studies and Development Vol. 4(3), pp. 90-95.DOI: 10.5897/JASD11.089
[28]. Arhin K (1985). Traditional Rule in Ghana: Past and Present. Accra, Sedco Publishing.
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[33]. Government of Ghana (2014) National Accounts Statistics: Gross Domestic Product. Ghana Statistical Service
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Richard Abankwa Agyepong “Building Local Consensus for Food Security: Collaboration between Accra Metropolitan Assembly and Chiefs in Accra, Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.64-69 May 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/64-69.pdf

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Teacher`s Perception of Relationship Between Communication and Administrative Efficiency in Senior Secondary Schools in North-Eastern Region of Nigeria

Dr. Gambo A. Danladi and Adamu Gambo – May 2018 Page No.: 70-73

Every activity in an organization requires human beings to interact, exchange information and co-ordinate other peoples` efforts. Such information becomes the basis for decisions affecting product lines, operation planning, marketing strategy, etc. Thus, almost everything managers do to facilitate the attainment of organizational objectives requires effective communication and without the means and capacity to communicate, every activity will fail. This study was conducted to examine perception of relationship between communication and administrative efficiency among teachers of secondary schools in north-eastern region of Nigeria. To achieve this objective, the researchers developed and administered a questionnaire on two hundred and fifty (250) teachers in north-eastern region of Nigeria. Data analysis was made using Mean, Standard deviation and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient scores was used in testing the null hypotheses formulated. Among the findings were that significant difference of perception of relationship exists between communication and efficiency of co-ordination among teachers of secondary schools in north-eastern region of Nigeria. The study concluded that effective organizational communication is necessary for administrators, teachers and all members of an organization to increase efficiency, quality, and innovation and gain competitive advantage. Therefore, the paper recommends the proper co-ordination of various units or departments to encourage the administrators to co-ordinate the affairs of the schools.

Page(s): 70-73                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2018

 Dr. Gambo A. Danladi
Foundations Department, School of Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria

 Adamu Gambo
Curriculum Department, School of Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria

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Dr. Gambo A. Danladi and Adamu Gambo “Teacher`s Perception of Relationship Between Communication and Administrative Efficiency in Senior Secondary Schools in North-Eastern Region of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.70-73 May 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/70-73.pdf

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A Review of the Literature on Ethnic Identity in Malaysian Indian Adolescent

Charles Ganaprakasam – May 2018 Page No.: 74-79

Positive discrimination or affirmative action is most prevalent issues in Malaysia education context conferring preference on Bumiputera in general and Malay in particular (Hwok-Aun Lee & Muhammad Abdul Khalid, 2015). The greater essence of education in multiethnic societies is to provide great ethnic interaction among students from various ethnic backgrounds (Tan Yao Sua & R. Santhiram, 2014. Diverse ethnic groups are further segregated and this is demonstrated from friendship designs among school children which primarily express a strong in-group partialityTherefore, school is a powerful social climate which has promising capability to encourage interracial interaction by eliminating the presence of discrimination, prejudice and stereotype. Every minority individual should comprehend and educate them regarding the notion of ethnic identity which enables them to cope effectively the occurrences of discrimination and prejudice.The existence of inequality has greater potentiality to lower one’s self-efficacy and will effect academic achievement. According to Ganaprakasam & Abdul Majid (2017) positive ethnic identity contributed to the development of self-efficacy. Given this point, school administration and teacher should abandon the practice of inequality and boost the formation of ethnic identity among minority’s students.This paper reviews the previous literature and the important notion of ethnic identity of Malaysian Indian adolescent.

Page(s): 74-79                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 June 2018

 Charles Ganaprakasam
Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia

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Charles Ganaprakasam “A Review of the Literature on Ethnic Identity in Malaysian Indian Adolescent” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.74-79 May 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/74-79.pdf

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The Role of Innovation Capability on Batik Fashion Industry as an Intervening Variable

Ayesha Saleem, Dr. Muhammad Imran Hanif, Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid – May 2018 Page No.: 80-85

This study aims to examine as a role of business innovation, entrepreneur competencies, quality management and innovation capability on batik fashion industry and performance. The issue of the examination is the secret to enhance development capacities and execution of SMEs woven and fashion industry in Multan. The sample in this study is SMEs woven and fashion industry employees and owners in Multan comprising of 105 individuals by utilizing a purposive inspecting strategy. The information is gathered by overview technique through meetings, surveys and Questionnaire. The result of data analysis using SPSS demonstrate that the significant and positive influence of business innovation, entrepreneur competencies, quality management towards fashion performance industry. Performance significantly and positively impacts on competitive advantage. Based on the judgments of this study, innovation capabilities and fashion performance industry can be enhanced through the development of business innovation, entrepreneur capabilities, and quality management.

Page(s): 80-85                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 June 2018

 Ayesha Saleem
MS Scholar, Institute of Banking and Finance, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan Pakistan

 Dr. Muhammad Imran Hanif
Assistant Professor, Institute of Banking and Finance, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan Pakistan

 Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid
PhD, Professor of Marketing and Supply Chain Management, Putra Business School (PBS), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor. Malaysia

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Ayesha Saleem, Dr. Muhammad Imran Hanif, Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid “The Role of Innovation Capability on Batik Fashion Industry as an Intervening Variable” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.80-85 May 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/80-85.pdf

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Impact and Implications of Low Income Female Headed Households on Children’s Wellbeing: A Case of Dodoma Municipality
Deodata V. Mtenga, Dr. Rehema G. Kilonzo – May 2018 – Page No.: 86-95

Household headship is a major determinant for the wellbeing of the family members and particularly children who need more attention and materials for their growth and development. The emergency of female headed households has great negative impact and particularly to low income female headed household. This study therefore attempted to discover the impact and implications of low income female headed household to children wellbeing taking Dodoma Municipality as a case. Three wards were selected for the study namely Kizota, Hazina and Madukani. Generallythere is poor support to female headed household hence most of them find themselves in poor condition which make them hard to meet the basic needs for their family members and particularly children. This is to say low income female headed household has perpetual poverty situation as they do not have resources to break the cycle. They have low income, poor housing, less access to land and most of them have poor education which also leadlow employment opportunity. All These together compromises the provision of material wellbeing of their children thus impair their development and future prospect as adult. Children in low income female headed household usually have low education, poor nutrition, share poor housing with their parents and they denied their right to play. Therefore targeting to low income female headed households will be a good way of improving their livelihood with those of their children. Hence, the government and Non-governmental organizations including CBO and FBO should extend hand to include support to low income female headed households. Improvements their income earning opportunities by increasing their chance of accessing credits and business resources will make women improve in their livelihood thus better children wellbeing.

Page(s): 86-95                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 7 June 2018

 Deodata V. Mtenga
Assistant Lecturer, Department of Development Studies, School of Social Sciences, College of Humanity and Social Sciences, University of Dodoma (UDOM), P. O Box 259, Dodoma, Tanzania.

 Dr. Rehema G. Kilonzo
Senior Lecturer Department of Development Studies, School of Social Sciences, College of Humanity and Social Sciences, University of Dodoma (UDOM), P. O Box 259, Dodoma, Tanzania

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Deodata V. Mtenga, Dr. Rehema G. Kilonzo “Impact and Implications of Low Income Female Headed Households on Children’s Wellbeing: A Case of Dodoma Municipality” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.86-95 May 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/86-95.pdf

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Analysis of Local Governments’ Service Delivery in Ondo State and Selected South West States of Nigeria

Dr. Fasunwon Adebayo Folorunso, Akungba Akoko – May 2018 Page No.: 96-102

The 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria identifies the Local Government as the third tier of government, and thus an instrument for the achievement of sustainable development at the grassroots. Certain basic functions are therefore ascribed to it by the constitution. Many researchers have been conducted on the performance of local governments in Nigeria, and other political systems in world. However, these researches have not used the constitutional functions of the local government as basis for the appraisal of the local government. Using the survey research method, this study not only seeks to investigate respondents’ perception on the extent to which local government had performed their constitutional roles in the South Western part of Nigeria, but also to compare and identify if there is any difference between the oil and non oil producing states of the region. The study discovered that the performance level of local governments is still below and expectation, and that there is a minimal difference in the local governments’ performance at both the oil and non oil producing states of the South West region of Nigeria. The study recommends that local government staff should be trained on their constitutional roles, and also local government administrations should be financially empowered to carry out their expected roles.

Page(s): 96-102                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 June 2018

 Dr. Fasunwon Adebayo Folorunso
Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

 Akungba Akoko
Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

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Dr. Fasunwon Adebayo Folorunso, Akungba Akoko “Analysis of Local Governments’ Service Delivery in Ondo State and Selected South West States of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.96-102 May 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/96-102.pdf

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Corporate Board Meeting Frequency and Financial Performance of Listed Building Materials Companies in Nigeria

SABO Usman – May 2018 Page No.: 103-107

The study examines the impact of corporate board meeting frequency on financial performance of listed building materials companies in Nigeria. The population of the study is made up of 12 listed building materials companies in Nigeria out of which 9 companies are selected to form the sample. The linear regression is used in analyzing the data. The findings of the study reveal that corporate board meeting frequency has positive and insignificant impact on financial performance. The firm size has positive and significant impact on financial performance of listed building materials companies in Nigeria. The study recommends that the number of meetings of the board of directors of these companies should not be more than eight (8) times in a financial year. The listed building materials companies in Nigeria should take measures to improve on the assets maintenance, assets renewal, leasing and hire purchase of assets which improve significantly the return on assets of such companies. These recommendations could be implemented by issuing an improved code of corporate governance by the central bank of Nigeria and Nigeria security and exchange commission.

Page(s): 103-107                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 June 2018

 SABO Usman

[1]. Abidin, Z.Z., Kamal N.M. & Jusoff K. (2009). Board structure and corporate performance in Malaysia: International Journal of Economics and Finance, 1(1), 150-163.
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[3]. Ali A. & Nasir S.B. (2014). Impact of board characteristics and audit committee on financial performance: A study of manufacturing sector of pakistan: Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 5(7), 144-151.
[4]. Babatunde A.L, Edwin T.K., Adedire T.O & Oluwaremi F. (2014). Measuring impact of corporate governance on the performance of the Nigerian insurance company: International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, II (11), 1 – 17.
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SABO Usman “Corporate Board Meeting Frequency and Financial Performance of Listed Building Materials Companies in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.103-107 May 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/103-107.pdf

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‘The Effect of Organizational Innovation and Organizational Culture on the Market Performance of SMES in Pakistan’
Gulshad Hussain, Dr. Muhammad Imran Hanif, Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid – May 2018 – Page No.: 108-111

I. INTRODUCTION

All the organizations try the best for the improvement of performance and culture of the organization is one of the most important driver for the betterment of firm’s performance. Previous studies has focused on performance of the firm in term of organizational productivity, employees’ job satisfaction, and employees turnover rate that are significantly being affected by organizational culture.On the same time, innovation is found to have positive impact on the firm’s performance, nation’s overall economic climate, industry competitiveness and the standard of living of the nation. Innovations are important competitive instrument for long term organizations’ objectives accomplishment/ performance improvement and success. It is also considered most important source of gaining competitive edge through bringing changes in the technology, work environment as well support for proper implementation of organization’s initiative change. Both organizational culture and innovation has greater importance and playing major role for the firm performance. Several studies conducted on the culture, innovations relationship but that focuses job satisfaction, employees turnover and productivity. In others studies researchers focuses on organizational culture with innovation, product innovation, market innovation and check these factors impact on the market performance of the firm.there are just a couple of studies which have particularly displayed and observationally researched the idea of relationship between organizational innovation its culture, and organizational performance (Martins and Terblanche, 2003).

Page(s): 108-111                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 June 2018

 Gulshad Hussain
MS Scholar, Institute of Banking and Finance, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

 Dr. Muhammad Imran Hanif
Assistant Professor, Institute of Banking and Finance, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

 Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid
PhD, Professor of Marketing and Supply Chain Management, Putra Business School (PBS), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor. Malaysia

[1]. Chang and Lin 2007. (n.d.). Chang and Lin (2007).
[2]. ‘Community framework for state aid for research and development and innovation’ (2006/C 323/01. (n.d.). ‘Community framework for state aid for research and development and innovation’ (2006/C 323/01 .
[3]. Boyne et al., 2003; Jansen et al., 2006; Roberts and Amit; 2003. (n.d.).
[4]. Carrillo & Gromb, 1999; Hodgson, 1996; Kreps,1990; Smith, Mannion, & Goddard, 2003. (n.d.).
[5]. Christmann, 2000. (n.d.).
[6]. Daft, 1978; Damanpour,1991; Thompson, 1965; Zaltman et al., 1973. (n.d.).
[7]. Damanpour & Aravind 2012: 429. (n.d.).
[8]. Damanpour, 1991; Kimberly and Evanisko, 1981; Read,2000. (n.d.).
[9]. Gopalakrishnan and Damanpour :1997. (n.d.).
[10]. Halil Semih Kimzan,2013. (n.d.). “Role of innovation and organizational culture in firm performance: A study of turkish banking sector”.
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[14]. Needle, David (2004). (n.d.). . Business in Context: An Introduction to Business and Its Environment. ISBN 978-1861529923.
[15]. Robert E. Quinn and Kim S. Cameron at the University of Michigan. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://popinnow.com/four-types-organizational-culture/
[16]. S. Hogan 2014. (n.d.). S. Hogan, L. Coote, Organizational culture, innovation, and performance: a test of Schein’s model, J. Bus. Res. 67 (2014) 1609e1621.
[17]. Turkstad,2016. (n.d.). Turkstad, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Statistics, 2016.

Gulshad Hussain, Dr. Muhammad Imran Hanif, Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid “‘The Effect of Organizational Innovation and Organizational Culture on the Market Performance of SMES in Pakistan’” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.108-111 May 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/108-111.pdf

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Personal Rule: The Bane of Democratic Survival in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic
Yahaya Yakubu – May 2018 – Page No.:112-116

Contrary to expectations, democratic advancements and establishment of modern institutions of liberal cum regularization of periodic elections in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic has not brought an end to personal. Rather prebendalistic perception of public office, alongside the twin incidence of neopatrimonialism and political clientelism has fostered the prevalence of personal rule. Upon examining the theoretical precepts of prebendalism the study claims; while personal rule negates the probability of democratization, individual networks wills of statesmen amongst other ethnic, political and social elites arguably remains the panacea of democratic survival. Consequently, as opposed to focusing on the negative effects of personal rule, the study propagates the need to take into account certain non-political determinants of political outcomes in the practice of democracy. Conclusively it posits, the need for the contextualization of governance in line with prevailing norms, ethics and values.

Page(s):112-116                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 June 2018

 Yahaya Yakubu
Department of Political Science & Int’l Relations, Nile University of Nigeria

[1]. Aluko S. (2007), Federal Government Reform Agenda and the Nigerian Economy: 1999-2007 A Critical Assessment, Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 4.8.
[2]. Auyero J. (2001), Poor Peoples’ Politics: Personist Survival Network and the Legacy of Evita, Durham N.C. Duke University Press.
[3]. Ayoade J. (2006), Godfather Politics in Nigeria: Money, Politics and Corruption in Nigeria, IFES.
[4]. Bartholomew U. I and Ralph, C. N. (2015). Prebendalism as the Albatross to Democratic Practice and National Development in Nigeria: A Critical Discourse, Journal of Policy and Development Studies, Vol. 9, No. 4. Pp. 18-31.
[5]. Dahl, R. (1989). Democracy and It’s Ethics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[6]. Diamond L. (2008), The State of Democracy in Africa, Paper Presented at Ghana Centre for Democratic Development.
[7]. Eisenstaedt S. N. (1972), Traditional Patrimonialism and Modern Neopatrimonialism, London: Sage Publication.
[8]. Fawhemi G. (2008), Obasanjo is the Most Corrupt Nigerian’ The Source Newspaper, February 25, 16, 2008.
[9]. Francis I and Imobong E. (2013), The Exercise of Power in Nigeria’s Democracy: A Moral Examination, Public Policy Administration Research.
[10]. Hari, H. (1997). Introduction to Political Sociology, New Delhi: Preface Books.
[11]. Huntington, S. P. (1991). Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century, Norman and London: University of Oklahoma Press.
[12]. Joseph, R. (1987). Democracy and Prebendal Politics in Nigeria: the Rise and Fall of the Second Republic, Cambridge: University Press.
[13]. Kamvara M. (1993), Politics and Society in the Third World, New York Routledge.
[14]. Khan M. H. (2005), Markets, States and Democracy: Patron Client Networks and the Case of Democracy in Developing Countries Democratization, 12(5): 704-724.
[15]. Linus, M. (2000). The Frozen Democracy: Godfatherism and Elite Corruption in Nigeria, Enugu: Triumphant Creations.
[16]. Mala, M. (2010). Corruption in Nigeria: Conceptual and Empirical Notes, journal of Information, Society and Justice, Vol. 3, No. 2.
[17]. Max Weber. (1968), Economy and Society, New York Bedminster Press.
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[19]. Ngige C. N. (2003), I don’t Think Uba and I will Ever Quarel, in Tell Magazine, July 21, 26, 2003.
[20]. Ogundiya, I. (2010). Corruption: The Bane of Democratic Stability in Nigeria, Current Journal of Social Science, Vol. 2. No 4. Pp, 233-241.
[21]. Robert J and Carl R. (1984), Personal Rule in Black Africa: Price, Autocrat, Prophet and Tyrant, Cambridge University Press.
[22]. Shopeju J. O and Ojukwu C. C. (2008), Patrimonial Rule in Olusegun Obasanjo’s Nigeria, African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, Vol. 2. No. 5.

Yahaya Yakubu “Personal Rule: The Bane of Democratic Survival in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.127-132 May 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/127-132.pdf

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The Factor of Attitude towards the Implementation of the Aural – Oral Skills Component of the 9 – Year English Studies Curriculum at JSS Level in Katsina State, Nigeria
GIDE, Umar Saleh, IBRAHIM, Mohammed – May 2018 – Page No.: 117-121

This study assessed two variables related to the implementation of the English Aural – Oral Skills Component of the 9 – Year English Studies Curriculum at the Junior Secondary School (JSS) level in Katsina state. The objective was to find out whether the attitude of both teachers and students is favourable to the teaching and learning of the two skills. Two research questions related to the variables were used to guide the study. Questionnaires were used to collect data for the research. Forty one public, twelve community and eleven private JSS were used as school samples for the study. The target population was made up of 456 teachers of English and 170, 368 JSS students in all the 318 public, community and private JSS in Katsina State. The sample was made up of 210 teachers and 384 students proportionately distributed across the 64 sampled schools to reflect types of schools and Educational Zones. Simple frequency counts and percentages were used to analyse the questionnaires. The major findings from the study showed that the attitude of both teachers and students is not sufficiently favourable for the successful implementation of the English Studies curriculum. This is in consideration that the English aural – oral skills are the backbone of the English language. In the light of the findings the researcher recommended among others that education authority and school proprietors should organise sensitization programmes to reorient teachers on the need to give primacy and importance to the teaching of the aural – oral skills. The researcher also proposed integrated approach to teaching the language so that students would be made to see the relationship among the skills in order to bring to limelight that oral skills can be instrumental to learning other skills. .

Page(s): 117-121                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 June 2018

 GIDE, Umar Saleh
Ph.D, College of Education, Alqalam University, Katsina, Nigeria

 IBRAHIM, Mohammed
Ph.D, Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

[1]. Aina,G.F (2001). An Assessment of the Spoken English Component of the ESL Curriculum for Junior Secondary Schools, an unpublished M.Ed Dissertation, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
[2]. Ali, M.D. (2011). The Implementation of Interdisciplinary Curriculum at Basic Education Level in Katsina state. An unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Bayero University. Kano.
[3]. Clifford, I. G (2011).Impact of Large Classes on Learning English as L2 at Junior Secondary School Level in Yobe State Unpublished PhD Thesis,Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.

[4]. Enesi, A.O (2001). Effects of Multi-Dimensional Learning variables on ‘O’ level English underachievers.An unpublished Ph.Dtheis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
[5]. Gay, L.R (1981).Educational Research: Competences for Analysis & Application.Ohio: Bell and Howell.
[6]. Krejcie, Robert V., & Morgan, Daryce W, (1970). “Determining Sample Size for Research Activities”, Educational and Psychological Measurement. Retrieved from: www.fns.usda.gov/fdd/processing/info/salesvarificationtable 17th July, 2013.
[7]. National Educational Research and Development Council (2007).9 – Year Basic Education Curriculum, English Studies, for JS 1 – 3.Author.
[8]. Olaofe, I. (2013).Teaching English in Second Language Adverse Situations. Zaria, Nigeria: Yahaya Ventures, General Printers and Publishers.
[9]. Sani, U. (2001).Evaluation of the Methods and Materials for Developing English Aural – oral Skills in SS III of Katsina Metropoli., M.Ed (TESL) Dissertation,Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

GIDE, Umar Saleh, IBRAHIM, Mohammed “The Factor of Attitude towards the Implementation of the Aural – Oral Skills Component of the 9 – Year English Studies Curriculum at JSS Level in Katsina State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.117-121 May 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/117-121.pdf

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Effect of Human Capital Management on Organizational Efficiency (A Study of Zenith Bank PLC Calabar, CRS, Nigeria)
Ogar, Cassius Ayam, and Igwe, Monday Nweke – May 2018 – Page No.: 122-133

 The study critically and analytically ex-rayed the importance of Human capital management in contemporary business organizations. It is the key element in improving productivity, performance as well as competitiveness. This study thus examines the impact of Human Capital Management on organizational efficiency with particular references to the banking industry. Zenith bank PLC Calabar branch Cross River State Nigeria was used as case study. The study was anchored on the Human Capital Theory which describes HCM as the key competence, skills, knowledge and abilities of the workforce that contributes to organizations competitive advantage. One of the objectives of the study was to examine the extent to which human capital management influence organizational efficiency. The researchers pondered on what extent does human capital management influence organizational efficiency? The researchers asserted that: Human capital management does not increase organizational efficiency. An exploratory survey design was employed where questionnaire were administered to forty (40) respondents conveniently selected from staff of the Bank. Primary and secondary data were collected and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science Students (SPSS) and formulated hypotheses were tested using the simple regression model and ANOVA. The findings revealed that Human Capital has positive impact on organizations efficiency. The researchers recommended that Human Capital Development practices such as training and retraining, welfare incentives etc should be adopted often in organizations in order to galvanize the desired motivation and commitment from the workforce.

Page(s): 122-133                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 June 2018

 Ogar, Cassius Ayam
Faculty of Management Sciences, Department of Business Administration, Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH) Nigeria

 Igwe, Monday Nweke
Accountancy/Business Administration/Banking and Finance, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria

[1]. Abdullah, L., Iaafar, S., & Taib, I. (2013). Human Capital Indicators. Journal of Applied Sciences, 13(3), 423-429.
[2]. Baron, A. (2007). Human capital management: achieving added value through people. Kogan Page Publishers.
[3]. Becker, B., & Gerhart, B. (1996). The impact of human resource management on organizational performance: Progress and prospects. Academy of management journal, 39(4), 779-801.
[4]. Becker, G. S. (1994). Human capital revisited. In Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education (3rd Edition) (pp. 15-28). The university of Chicago press.
[5]. Bozbura, F. T., Beskese, A., & Kahraman, C. (2007). Prioritization of human capital measurement indicators using fuzzy AHP. Expert systems with applications, 32(4), 1100-1112.
[6]. Carpenter, M. A., Sanders, W. G., & Gregersen, H. B. (2001). Bundling human capital with organizational context: The impact of international assignment experience on multinational firm performance and CEO pay. Academy of management journal, 44(3), 493-511.
[7]. Chen, C. J., & Huang, J. W. (2009). Strategic human resource practices and innovation performance—The mediating role of knowledge management capacity. Journal of business research, 62(1), 104-114.
[8]. Collins, C. J., & Clark, K. D. (2003). Strategic human resource practices, top management team social networks, and firm performance: The role of human resource practices in creating organizational competitive advantage. Academy of management Journal, 46(6), 740-751.
[9]. Davidsson, P., & Honig, B. (2003). The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of business venturing, 18(3), 301-331.
[10]. Delaney, J. T., & Huselid, M. A. (1996). The impact of human resource management practices on perceptions of organizational performance. Academy of Management journal, 39(4), 949-969.
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[13]. Jimenez-Jimenez, D., & Sanz-Valle, R. (2005). Innovation and human resource management fit: an empirical study. International journal of Manpower, 26(4), 364-381.
[14]. Kruppke, H., Otto, M., & Gontard, M. (2006). Human Capital Management. Personalprozesse erfolgreich managen. Berlin–Heidelberg: Springer. Google Scholar.
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[18]. Snell, S. A. (1992). Control theory in strategic human resource management: The mediating effect of administrative information. Academy of management Journal, 35(2), 292-327.
[19]. Stijns, J. P. (2006). Natural resource abundance and human capital accumulation. World Development, 34(6), 1060-1083.
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[21]. Youndt, M. A., Snell, S. A., Dean Jr, J. W., & Lepak, D. P. (1996). Human resource management, manufacturing strategy, and firm performance. Academy of management Journal, 39(4), 836-866.

Ogar, Cassius Ayam, and Igwe, Monday Nweke “Effect of Human Capital Management on Organizational Efficiency (A Study of Zenith Bank PLC Calabar, CRS, Nigeria)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.122-133 May 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/122-133.pdf

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Performance Appraisal: A Tool for Employee Performance (A Study of Obudu Mountain Resort)
Ogar, Cassius Ayam, Igwe, Monday Nweke, Rosamond Effiom – May 2018 – Page No.: 134-143

This study focuses on performance appraisal as a tool for enhancing Organizational performance in Obudu Mountain Resort Cross River State Nigeria. The researchers aimed at exploring the following objectives; firstly to determine if performance appraisal enhances the attainment of organizational goals. Secondly, to determine the effect of performance appraisal on employee performance in an organization. To facilitate the investigation of the study, pertinent questions such as: Does performance appraisal aid the attainment of organizational goals? What are the effects of performance appraisal on employee performance in an organization? Some theoretical assumptions were made which included: Performance appraisal does not enhance the attainment of organizational goals. Furthermore, the descriptive survey design was adopted with an interpretivist philosophy and a deductive approach on a cross sectional time horizon. Primary data were collected randomly from selected respondents in the organization using close ended questionnaire and interview techniques. Secondary data were sourced from published works of scholars related to the subject under review. The population of the study was made up 256 employees working in the Ranch Resort and the Taro Yamane formula was used to draw out a sample size of 156 respondents of the population. Data were analyzed with percentage and frequency. The Z – test techniques was applied in testing the hypotheses of the study. The researchers concluded that the basic purpose of performance appraisal system should be to improve the employee performance that will help the organization succeed and attain it’s established predetermine goals. However, they recommended that a better detailed structure for performance appraisal should be put in place in the Resort.
.

Page(s): 134-143                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 June 2018

 Ogar, Cassius Ayam
Business Administration, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH) Nigeria

 Igwe, Monday Nweke
Accountancy/Business Administration/Banking and Finace, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria

 Rosamond Effiom
Postgraduate Student, Business Administration, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH) Nigeria

[1]. Alamdari, A., Nejati, M., Ahmadizadeh, A., & Mohammadi, H. (2017). Investigating the Effect of the Performance appraisal Program on Employee Performance (Case Study of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED BIOTECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH, 8(4), 8-15.
[2]. Anstey, E., Riggar, T. F., & Walker, J. (2017). Staff appraisal and development. Routledge.
[3]. Cascio, W. (2018). Managing human resources. McGraw-Hill Education.
[4]. Certo, S. C. (2018). Supervision: Concepts and skill-building. McGraw-Hill Education.
[5]. Den Hartog, D. N., Boselie, P., & Paauwe, J. (2004). Performance management: A model and research agenda. Applied psychology, 53(4), 556-569.
[6]. DeNisi, A. S., & Murphy, K. R. (2017). Performance appraisal and performance management: 100 years of progress?. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 421.
[7]. DeNisi, A., & Smith, C. E. (2014). Performance appraisal, performance management, and firm-level performance: A review, a proposed model, and new directions for future research. The Academy of Management Annals, 8(1), 127-179.
[8]. DeNisi, A., & Smith, C. E. (2014). Performance appraisal, performance management, and firm-level performance: A review, a proposed model, and new directions for future research. The Academy of Management Annals, 8(1), 127-179.
[9]. Dusterhoff, C., Cunningham, J. B., & MacGregor, J. N. (2014). The effects of performance rating, leader–member exchange, perceived utility, and organizational justice on performance appraisal satisfaction: Applying a moral judgment perspective. Journal of business ethics, 119(2), 265-273.
[10]. Galagedera, D. U., Roshdi, I., Fukuyama, H., & Zhu, J. (2017). A new network DEA model for mutual fund performance appraisal: An application to US equity mutual funds. Omega.
[11]. Grant, R. M. (2016). Contemporary strategy analysis: Text and cases edition. John Wiley & Sons.
[12]. Harrington, J. R., & Lee, J. H. (2015). What drives perceived fairness of performance appraisal? Exploring the effects of psychological contract fulfillment on employees’ perceived fairness of performance appraisal in US federal agencies. Public Personnel Management, 44(2), 214-238.
[13]. Hodgetts, R.M and Kroeck, G.K, (1992) personal management, the Dryden press, Harcourt Brace Jouarich Inc. Florida pp329
[14]. Jacobs, G., Belschak, F. D., & Den Hartog, D. N. (2014). (Un) ethical behavior and performance appraisal: the role of affect, support, and organizational justice. Journal of business ethics, 121(1), 63-76.
[15]. Latham, G. P. (1981). Increasing productivity through performance appraisal. Prentice Hall.
[16]. Lee, T. W., & Steers, R. M. (2017). Facilitating effective performance appraisals: The role of employee commitment and organizational climate. In Performance measurement and theory (pp. 75-93). Routledge.
[17]. Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (1999). The effect of the performance appraisal system on trust for management: A field quasi-experiment. Journal of applied psychology, 84(1), 123.
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Ogar, Cassius Ayam, Igwe, Monday Nweke, Rosamond Effiom “Performance Appraisal: A Tool for Employee Performance (A Study of Obudu Mountain Resort)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 5, pp.134-143 May 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-5/134-143.pdf

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