Land acquisition constitutes a major problem in home ownership or housing development. This paper investigates the constraints and challenges of acquiring land in Benin Metropolis; with the aim of enhancing land acquisition process. It further examines the Land Use Act as it affects individual housing development especially for the low and medium income earners in Benin Metropolis. Primary and secondary data were used. The primary data was obtained from field surveys over a ten (10) years period and covering ten (10) communities within Benin Metropolis; while the secondary data were obtained from government institutions and print media. Survey research design was employed in carrying out the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. The findings revealed that firstly, there has been a significant increase in price of urban land within Benin Metropolis. Secondly, that land tenure and acquisition constituted a major problem in home ownership and development in Benin Metropolis. Thirdly, the increase in the price of land in one community affects the prices of land in neighbouring communities. Fourthly, the activities of land speculators (or traders) also contributed to increase in prices of land. The paper recommends that both federal and state government should focus on providing enabling environment such as embarking on site and services schemes; and also stimulate an effective integrated rural development programmes to encourage development of rural areas. The integrated rural development will consequently serve as growth poles for enhanced rural development.
- Page(s): 01-09
- Date of Publication: 06 November 2016
- Kingsley O. DimunaDepartment of Architecture, Ambrose Alli University, P.M.B.14, Ekpoma Edo State, Nigeria.
. Akeju A. A. (2007). “Challenges to providing affordable housing in Nigeria”, a paper presented at the 2nd Africa international conference on housing finance in Nigeria held at sheu yara’ adua center Abuja, 17-19 October 2007. . Babade T. (2007). Affordable housing programme an agenda for the federal ministry of housing and urban development: issues, constraints, challenges and prospects, in nubi, T. O., Omirin, M. M. & Afolayan, A. S. (Eds.) Private sector driven housing deliver. issues, challenges and prospects: Lagos, department of Estate management, University of Lagos. . Chukwujeku I.E. (2005). The roles of housing corporations in housing delivery. a case study of Kogi investment and properties ltd. Housing Today 1( 9): 6. . Federal Republic of Nigeria (1978): Decree No. 6 of 1978 or cited as the Land Use Act Cap 202, Laws of Federal Republic of Nigeria (LFN, 1990). . Federal Republic of Nigeria (1979): Decree No. 54 of 1979 Laws of Federal Republic of Nigeria. . Federal Republic of Nigeria (1989): Decree No. 53 of 1989 Laws of Federal Republic of Nigeria. . Federal Republic of Nigeria (1991): Decree No. 3 of 1991 Laws of Federal Republic of Nigeria. . Keivan R. & Werna E. 2001. Modes of Housing Provision in Developing Countries in Progress in Planning 55(2): 65-118. . Moatzed-Keivan R. (1993). The role of formal private building firms in low income housing provision in developing countries: The case of Tehran. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Development Planning Unit, University College London. . National Housing Policy (NHP) 2006, Policy of Federal Republic of Nigeria. Federal Government Press, Lagos. . National Population Commission (1991): Population Distribution by Type of Household, Age & Sex. . National Population Commission (2006): Population Distribution by Type of Household, Age & Sex. . Nubi T. (2000). Housing finance in Nigeria: a need for reengineering. . Ogu, V. I. (1997). Housing and environment services in Benin City, Nigeria. unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cambridge, England. . Ogu, V. I. (2002). Enabling strategies and sustainable infrastructural development: focus on Benin City. Nigeria. Regional Development Studies 3. 199-217. . Olurin T. (2007). Housing standards and cost reduction strategies: the challenges of meeting the housing needs of Nigerians in the 21st century”, In nubi, T. O., omirin, M.M. and afolayan, A.S. (Eds.) private sector driven housing delivery. issues, challenges and prospects: Lagos, department of estate management, University of Lagos. . Osuide S. O. (2004). Strategies for affordable housing stock delivery in Nigeria. 18th Inaugural Lecture Series, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. February 2004, P.1. . Oyenuga S. O. (2006). Affordable housing for the masses in a democratic Nigeria, Journal of Estate Surveying Research. 1(2):9 –12. . The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2005 Columbia University Press. Retrieved 18 February 2007. . UNDP (1997): Human development report. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1997 . United Nations Centre for Human Settlement (UNCHS, 1993). National Trends in Housing Production Practices. Vol.4: Naira, Kenya. . United Nations Centre for Human Settlement (UNCHS, 2001). The Millennium Declaration. Paragraph 19.
Kingsley O. Dimuna "Enhancing Land Acquisition for Individual Housing Development in Nigeria: A Case Study of Benin Metropolis Edo State, Nigeria" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.1 issue 7, pp.01-09 2016
The aim of this paper is to understand the structure of GST and highlight the objectives of the GST and impact on present tax scenario in India. This paper also focuses on the calculation of GST in India. The attempt has also been made to identify the impact of GST on various industries. The GST is the biggest and most crucial tax reform in India since independence. The Government of India has decided to subsume all the indirect taxes of central and states and implement GST by April 2017. It was supposed to be implemented from April, 2010 but due to some disagreement amongst the stakeholders it could not be possible. With GST, it is expected that it will improve and strengthen the tax system which will minimize the tax evasion and distortion. The paper further explores the various benefits and challenges of GST. Finally, the paper examines and draws out a conclusion..
- Page(s): 10-15
- Date of Publication: 06 November 2016
- Azharuddin Mohammad MussaiyibAssistant Professor, IILM Academy of Higher Learning, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
. Agogo Mawuli (2014): “Goods and Service Tax- An Appraisal”Paper presented at the the PNG Taxation Research and Review Symposium, Holiday Inn, Port Moresby, 29-30. . Dr. R. Vasanthagopal (2011), “GST in India: A Big Leap in the Indirect Taxation System”, International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, Vol. 2, No. 2, April 2011. . Ehtisham Ahamad and Satya Poddar(2009), “Goods and Service Tax Reforms and Intergovernmental Consideration in India”, “Asia Research Center”,LSE,2009. . Girish Garg, (2014), “Basic Concepts and Features of Good and Service Tax in India”. . Nitin Kumar (2014), “Goods and Service Tax in India-A Way Forward”, “Global Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies”, Vol 3, Issue6, May 2014. . Pinki, Supriya Kamna, Richa Verma(2014), “Good and Service Tax – Panacea For Indirect Tax System In India”, “Tactful Management Research Journal”,Vol2, Issue 10, July2014 . Monika Sehrawat, Upasana Dhanda (2015), “GST in India: A Key Tax Reform”, “International Journal of Research-Granthaalayah”, Vol.3 (Iss.12): December, 2015. . Akanksha Khurana, Aastha Sharma, (2016) “Goods and Services Tax In India - A Positive Reform for Indirect Tax System”, “International Journal of Advanced Research”, Volume 4, Issue 3, 500-505. . Hitesh K. Prajapati (2016), “Challenges and Implementation of GST (Goods and Service Tax) in India”, “Indian Journal of Research”, Volume: 5, Issue: 7, July 2016. . KPMG International (2016), “Advent of GST: A Necessity for Make in India”. . The Institute of Cost Accountants of India (2015), “An Insight of GST in India”, Volume 1, October, 2015. . www.gstindia.com/basics-of-gst-implementation-in-india/ . wwww.prsindia.org/billtrack/the-constitution-122nd-amendmentgst- bill-2014-3505/ . www.empcom.gov.in/index.aspx . https://forbesindia.com/article/real-issue/how-gst-will-impactvarious- sectors/43877/1 . https://www.gstindia.com/the-challenges-of-implementing-gst/
Azharuddin Mohammad Mussaiyib "Goods and Services Tax in India: An Insight" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.1 issue 7, pp.10-15 2016
The I.T sector is growing globally and in order to fulfill the demands of the I.T sector there is a great demand for skilled I.T professionals in India. New academic institutes are being established and the old ones are revising their curriculum so that the needs of this growing IT industry is fulfilled. But only 25% are considered to be readily employable by the I.T industry. This is due to the difference in the needs of the industry and the syllabus taught in colleges and in order to fill this demand every fresher is given a training by the company so that the employee can undertake his job effectively. In order to understand more about this training procedure two surveys were conducted, one was with I.T company professionals and other one was with the fresh graduates and based on that survey the process of training in I.T firms as well as small business is described.Thus is has been focused on various aspects on training frame work of I.T companies, training cycle and innvoativenes of the employes.
- Page(s): 16-19
- Date of Publication: 06 November 2016
- T. Kishore KumarResearch Scholar, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. Assistant Professor, School of Management, SRM University, Chennai, India
- Dr. A. Chandra MohanResearch Supervisor, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore Dr. A. Chandra Mohan, Professor, School of Management, SRM University, Chennai, India
. Aggarwal. “Emerging Markets Labor Supply in the Indian IT Industry”.Communications. (Dec. 2008). . Senge, The Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of the Learning Organization, New York, 1990. . NASSCOM-Deloitte Study Report. “Indian IT/ITES Industry: Impacting Economy and Society”. (December 2009) . Gotel, O., Kulkarni, M., Scharff,. T.: "A Global and Competitionbased Model for Fostering Technical and Soft Skills". Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, Hyderabad, India, February 17, 2009. . Conchuir, P. J, Olsson, H. H. “Global Software Development: Where are the Benefits”. Communications, ACM Vol 52, (Aug 2009), pp 127-131. . NASSCOM-Deloitte Study 2008 Report. “Indian IT/ITES Industry: Impacting Economy and Society 2007- 2008”. Available at: https://www.nasscom.in. (December 2009)
T. Kishore Kumar, Dr. A. Chandra Mohan "Training Model in I.T Companies and the Gap between University Education and Corporate Expectations" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.1 issue 7, pp.16-19 2016
Let R be a ring and M a right R-Module, S = End R(M). The module M is called Almost Generalized Principally injective (AGP-injective) if, for any 0 (Not equal to) a (element) R, there exists a positive integer n = n(a) and an S-submodule Xan of M such that an(Not equal to)0 and lR.rR(an)=Man+Xan as left S-modules. A ring R is called right AGP-injective if R R is an AGP-injective. In this paper we defined some parallel results which are proved by Zhao. Yu-e. It is also proved that a local ring R is von-Neumann regular if and only if every right Rmodule is AGP – injective if and only if R is strongly singular. Key words: AP-injective, von-Neumann regular ring, weak continuous ring, strong regular ring, nilpotent element, Regular, idempotent, Reduce, ZI ring.
- Page(s): 20-23
- Date of Publication: 06 November 2016
- R.S. WadbudheMahatma Fule Arts, Commerce and Sitaramji Chaudhari Science Mahavidyalaya, Warud, Amravati, SGB Uni. Amravati, 444906 [M.S.] India
. F. W. Anderson, K. R. Fuller, Rings and Categories of Modules, Springer-Verlag, New- York, 1992. . S.Wongwai, Small PQ-Principally injective modules, Int. J. Math. Archive -3(3). 2012 962-967. . W.K. Nicholson, J.K. Park, M.F. Yousif, Principally quasi injective modules, Comm. Algebra 27(4) (1999)1683-1693. . Z. Zhu, Pseudo QP-injective modules and generalized pseudo QPinjective module, Int. Electron. J. Algebra 14 (2013) 32-43. . Yueming Xiang, Almost Principally small injective rings, J. Korean Math. Soc. 48 (2011), 6, pp. 1189-1201. . S. Baupradist, T. Sitthiwirattham and S. Asawasamrit. On Generalization on pseudo-injectivity, Int. Journal of math. Analysis, Vol. 6, 2012 n0. 12, 555-562. . Zhao, Yu and Du. Xianneng, On Simpe AGP-injective Modules. Int. Journal of Algebra, Vol. 6, 2012. No. 9, 441-446. . Huanyin Chen and Miaosen Chen, On Semi-regular Rings. New Zealand Journal of Mathematics Vol. 32, 2003, 11-20. . S.S. Paye and Y. Zhou, Generalization of principally injective rings, J. Algebra 34, 2006, No. 6, 2157-2165. . J. L. Chen and Y. Zhou, GP-injective need not be p-injective, Comm, Alg. 33 (2003) No. 7, 2395-2402. . SANG BOK NAM, A note on simple singular GP-injective Modules, Kangweon- Kyungki Math, 7 (1999) N0. 2 215-218.
R.S. Wadbudhe "Generalization of Simple Singular AP-injective Modules" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.1 issue 7, pp.20-23 2016