Volume II Issue VIII

Factors Influencing the Quality of Health Care Provisions on Local Government Units

John Paul R.Tumampus, Mary Jane J. Romero, Ma. Angela P. Espinoza, Olive Chester Cuya-Antonio – August 2018 Page No.: 01-05

This study addressed the problem of determining the services provided by the RHUs in the municipalities of Aliaga, Licab, and Quezon and the factors that influence the delivery of these services. With the use of the descriptive method and employing a set of questionnaire, it was revealed that the three municipalities provide primary health care services but lack facilities for Level 1 hospital. Further, the factors of inadequate facilities, personnel complement, and unsound fiscal management affect the delivery of health care services to the residents in the municipalities concerned. From these findings, it was recommended that there should be a policy of the lead agency, the Department of Health, to prescribe penalties for the local governments to at least compel them to achieve the least requirement for healthcare provision. The healthcare services should be insulated from political control for it can be used as a tool for political gains. Finally, this study should serve as a reference for future studies on health care, particularly for rural communities.

Page(s): 01-05                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 August 2018

 John Paul R.Tumampus
Eduardo L. Joson Memorial Hospital, Cabanatuan City, Philippines

 Mary Jane J. Romero
Department of Education, Division of Nueva Ecija, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

 Ma. Angela P. Espinoza
Tradoc, Philippine Army

 Olive Chester Cuya-Antonio
Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology, Gen. Tinio St., Cabanatuan City, Philippines

[1] Gonzales, JL III, (1996). Evolution of the Philippines Health Care System during the last Forty Years of Development Administration. Asian Journal of Public Administration, 18(2): 168-200.
[2] Shivraj Singh Negi,(2010). Decentralization and its Effects – Health Sector in the Philippines
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[4] Araullo, C. P., (2016). BusinesWorld Online, Opinion, Philippine health care system, from bad to worse, March 28, 2016
[5] Philippines Executive Order No. 119 (1987). Reorganizing The Ministry Of Health, Its Attached Agencies And For Other Purposes
[6] World Health Organization,(2011). The Philippines health system review. (Health Systems in Transition, Vol. 1 No. 2 2011)
[7] Rama Lakshminarayanan (2003) Decentralisation and its Implications for Reproductive Health: The Philippines Experience, Reproductive Health Matters, 11:21, 96-107
[8] National objectives for health: Kalusuganparasamasa: Philippines, 1999-2004 (HSRA monograph series)
[9] Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung – Philippine Office, Oscar Cetrángolo, Carmelo Mesa-Lago, GarryLazaro, and Shenna Kim Carisma, (2013). Health Care in the Philippines: Challenges and Ways Forward
[10] Maslow, Abraham, (2013). A Theory of Human Motivation. Martino Fine Books, Reprint of 1943 Edition.
[11] Kothari, C. R. (2008). Research Methodology, Methods, and Techniques (2nd ed., pp. 109-110). New Delhi: New Age International (P) Limited.
[12] Mugenda, O.M. and Mugenda, A.G. (2003) Research Methods, Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. ACT, Nairobi.

John Paul R.Tumampus, Mary Jane J. Romero, Ma. Angela P. Espinoza, Olive Chester Cuya-Antonio “Factors Influencing the Quality of Health Care Provisions on Local Government Units” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.01-05 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/01-05.pdf

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An Empirical Investigation of Orcutt’s Hypothesis: Evidence from Selected Developed and Developing Countries

Khaliq ul Rehman, Masood ur Rehman Azhar, Saima Masood, Dr. Nor Malina Malek – August 2018 Page No.: 06-16

The present research focuses on Orcutt’s (1950) hypothesis which explains that trade flows disturb/fluctuate in response to change in exchange rate more rapidly as compared to changes in prices. For empirical analysis, the study has used annual data. Based on the availability of the data the study has used the different time periods for the selected developed and developing countries. While for estimation process, we use ARDL and error correction model. The empirical results show the common behaviour among the selected countries that import flows are influenced more quickly in response to change in relative prices than exchange rate whereas, the results of the export side are mostly inconclusive, but in some cases the Orcutt’s hypothesis holds. The study finds out that the Orcutt’s hypothesis holds in very limited case.

Page(s): 06-16                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 August 2018

 Khaliq ul Rehman
Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

 Masood ur Rehman Azhar
School of Social Sciences, UniversitiSains Malaysia

 Saima Masood
Lecturer, COMSATS University Islamabad, Wah Campus, Pakistan

 Dr. Nor Malina Malek
Associate Professor, School of Social Sciences, UniversitiSains Malaysia

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[3]. Asif. M. (2011). Impact of Devaluation on Trade Balance in Pakistan. Oeconomics of Knowledge, 3, 16.
[4]. Abdelnacer, B., Abdelhak, B., & Maliki, B. (2013). The black market exchange rate and demand for money in Algeria. International Journal of Arts and Commerce, 2(10), 71-82.
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[9]. Impulse Response Analysis and Orcutt’s Hypothesis in Trade. Journal of European Economics, 42(3), 673-683.
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[21]. Jalil Khan. A. (2011). Exchange Rate Volatility in Developing Countries: Implications for Trade and Capital Flows in Pakistan. GCU Lahore.
[22]. Khan, A. J., Azim, P., & Syed, S. H. (2014). The Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on Trade.
[23]. Liu, T. C. (1949). Exchange Depreciation and the Balance of Trade. International Monetary Fund, RD-876.
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[26]. Omisakin, O., Oyinlola, A., & Adeniyi, O. (2010). Relative responsiveness of trade flows to changes in exchange rate and prices in selected ECOWAS countries: Does Orcutt hypothesis hold?. Journal of Economics and International Finance, 2(6), 102.
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Khaliq ul Rehman, Masood ur Rehman Azhar, Saima Masood, Dr. Nor Malina Malek “An Empirical Investigation of Orcutt’s Hypothesis: Evidence from Selected Developed and Developing Countries” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.06-16 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/06-16.pdf

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Output and Unemployment Dynamics: Okun’s Coefficient for Pakistan
Nazia Latif, Dr. Muhammad Imran Hanif, Dr. Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid, Zeeshan Ahmed – August 2018 – Page No.: 17-21

The major aim of the paper is to trace out the evidence about the possible affiliation between level of unemployment and growth rate of output which was proposed empirically by Arthur Okun in early sixties. To perform this multivariate time series data has utilized ranges the period from 1972 to 2016 of Pakistan. To access the association and to quantify the magnitude of relationship ARDL, Bound test approach utilized. To check the order of integration Philips perron (PP) and ADF (Augmented Dicky Fuller) test applied. Paper confirmed the existence of inverse affiliation between level of unemployment and growth of output in Pakistan. But the intensity of association is very low, suggests that the political unrests and lack of attention of policy makers toward factor markets hampers the employment creation effect of growth of output. To check the pattern of association Granger causality test uses that prescribed the existence of unidirectional affiliation through unemployment to growth rate of output in Pakistan.

Page(s): 17-21                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 August 2018

 Nazia Latif
M.Phil Scholar, School of Economics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

 Dr. Muhammad Imran Hanif
Post Doc Fellow, Putra Business School, University of Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

 Dr. Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid
Professor, Putra Business School, University of Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

 Zeeshan Ahmed
MS Scholar, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan Pakistan

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[7]. Hanif, M.I., Hanif, M.S., Kamran, A., Shao, Y(2016). Knowledge Sharing and Innovation Performance affected by HR generic strategies: An Empirical Study of SME’s in China and Pakistan, IBT Journal of Business Studies, 12(1),pp. 272-306
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[30]. G.W. Evans (1989), Output and Unemployment dynamics in the united states: 1950-1985. Journal of applied econometrics, 4(1989), 213-237.

Nazia Latif, Dr. Muhammad Imran Hanif, Dr. Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid, Zeeshan Ahmed “Output and Unemployment Dynamics: Okun’s Coefficient for Pakistan” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.17-21 August 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/17-21.pdf

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Effects of Insurgency on Basic Education Facilities in Mandaragirau District, Biu, L.G.A., Borno State, Nigeria

Abdullahi Usman, Dr Bello A. Ibrahim, Ali Yerima – August 2018 Page No.: 22-26

This paper examined the effects of boko haram insurgents on Basic Education Facility in Mandaragirau District, Biu LGA Borno State in Nigeria. The emergence of Boko haram since 2002 in the North eastern Nigeria has affected several sectors of the Nigerian economy. Education sector was one of sector that suffered a grate set back due to several attacks on schools, killing and abducting student, killing teachers and total destruction of school structures leading to indefinite closure of schools in the region halting all educational activities in the area.
Mandaragirau district was purposively selected and questionnaire was administered to 50 staff randomly selected from the 10 villages hosting Basic Education facility in the area. The findings revealed that before Boko haram insurgency, Educational activities were running smoothly and all the facilities in the schools were functional and on the increased, but during the peak period of violent activities of Boko haram insurgents, these facilities were rendered NOT functional and were on the continuous decrease due to merciless attacks on schools with bombs and other explosive devices resulting into killing, abducting and kidnapping of school children in the area creating fear and displacement of families in the locality. This study also revealed that schools in the area were indefinitely closed down during the peak period of insurgency which served as a government response to the insurgents’ crisis and this has significantly affected day to day running of the schools and consequently affecting education of children in the area.
The study recommend that free and compulsory education should be provided to all especially at grass roots (Primary and Junior secondary school). Security agents should be deployed to protect all educational facilities in troubled area. It was also recommended that parents should be very close to their children in order to monitor their behaviour, attitude and check the peer group influence on their children.

Page(s): 22-26                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 August 2018

 Abdullahi Usman
Federal Government College P.M.B 1102, Maiduguri, Borno State. Nigeria.

 Dr Bello A. Ibrahim
Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, North West University of Kano, Kano State. Nigeria.

 Ali Yerima
Department of Primary Education, College of Education, P.M.B 1502, Waka-Biu, Borno State. Nigeria.

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[13]. UNICEF, (2015) A Report on effect of Boko Haram: Boko Haram violence keeping million children out of school. Tuesday 22 December 2015 by Global Development supported by Bills and Melinda Gates Foundation. 2-18. www.encarta.dictionary.com

Abdullahi Usman, Dr Bello A. Ibrahim, Ali Yerima “Effects of Insurgency on Basic Education Facilities in Mandaragirau District, Biu, L.G.A., Borno State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.22-26 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/22-26.pdf

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Strategies for Implementing Safety Policies in Secondary Schools in Kenya

Jane Kemunto Nyabuti – August 2018 Page No.: 27-35

Safety in learning institutions is increasingly becoming an issue of great concern in Kenya and globally. However, teachers have not been adequately trained on strategies for implementation of safety policies. This study dealt with strategies of implementing safety policies in Secondary schools in Kenya. A mixed design was used in this study. Eighteen National schools were purposively selected to participate in the study. Stratified random sampling was used to select 6 schools. The total sample was 436 respondents including 6 head teachers, 120 class teachers, 300 students, 6 watchmen, and 4 Quality Assurance and Standards Officers (QASOs). Questionnaires, Interview and observation schedules were used for data collection. Quantitative data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics while Qualitative as themes emerged. The significant differences were tested using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings indicated that National Secondary Schools have minimal knowledge of strategies for implementation of safety policies with minimal safety awareness, and variations in attitude among teachers and students.

Page(s): 27-35                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 August 2018

 Jane Kemunto Nyabuti
Department of Educational Administration, Curriculum and Teaching, School of Education University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, PO BOX 2500, ELDORET, Kenya.

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Jane Kemunto Nyabuti “Strategies for Implementing Safety Policies in Secondary Schools in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.27-35 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/27-35.pdf

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A Study on Barriers Faced In Incubation Centre by Entrepreneurs –Analysing the Factors Using One Way ANOVA

Dr J. Krithika – August 2018 Page No.: 36-38

This study explores the barriers faced by the students when they are attached with the Incubation centre of their colleges. These students are supposed to manage both their academics and their entrepreneurial aspiration. Although they get adequate support from their friends, family members and faculty members, having a mentor would help them in shaping the student’s entrepreneurial aspirations. Mentor could be a professional, who can share his knowledge and guide the students. A well-structured questionnaire was circulated among the students and asked to prioritize their barriers, and their expectations on mentor’s qualities.

Page(s): 36-38                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 August 2018

 Dr J. Krithika
Associate Professor, Department of Management Studies, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

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Dr J. Krithika “A Study on Barriers Faced In Incubation Centre by Entrepreneurs –Analysing the Factors Using One Way ANOVA” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.36-38 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/36-38.pdf

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Review on Jatropha

Madepalli Byrappa Gowdu Viswanathan, Jesu Doss Jeya Ananthi, N. Venkatesan – August 2018 Page No.: 39-46

Natural materials including plants, animals and minerals have been the basis for the treatment of human diseases. In the early part of the century, plants were a vital source of raw material for medicines. Greek Physician Galen (129-200 A.D.) devised the first Pharmacopoeia describing the appearance, properties and use of many plants of his time. The foundations of modern pharmaceutical industry were laid when techniques were developed to produce synthetic replacements for many of the medicines that had been derived from the forests. The genus Jatropha belongs to tribe Joanneasiae of Crotonoideae in the Euphorbiaceae family and contains approximately 175 species, cultivated throughout the tropical to temperate regions of the world, have been used in different ailments like bleeding, cancer, diarrhea, fever, pain and infection, jaundice, useful in chronic dysentery, thirst, tridosha, urinary discharges, abdominal complaints, biliousness, anemia, fistula, and diseases of the heart.
Homeopathically it is used for cold sweats, colic, collapse cramps, cyanosis, diarrhea, and leg cramps. The root, stem, leaves, fruit, seed, bark and latex of the plant are largely used for the treatment of many diseases in different parts of the world (Rajore et al., 2003). In the present study, we discussed the chemical constituents and medicinal uses of some of the species of Jatropha.

Page(s): 39-46                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 August 2018

 Madepalli Byrappa Gowdu Viswanathan
Department of Plant Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu, India

 Jesu Doss Jeya Ananthi
Departments of Pharmaceutics, Arulmigu Kalasalingam College of Pharmacy, Krishnankoil – 626126, Tamil Nadu, India

 N. Venkatesan
Departments of Pharmaceutics, Arulmigu Kalasalingam College of Pharmacy, Krishnankoil – 626126, Tamil Nadu, India

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Madepalli Byrappa Gowdu Viswanathan, Jesu Doss Jeya Ananthi, N. Venkatesan “Review on Jatropha” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.39-46 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/39-46.pdf

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Towards Enduring Democratic Polities in Africa: Prospects, Challenges and Trajectories

Yahaya Yakubu, Abubakar Aliyu Maigari – August 2018 Page No.: 47-51

The study explores the causal plausible mechanisms through which culture conditions institutional outcomes and design. Upon review of relevant literature, it opines the confounding role of culture on the nature of institutions cannot be downplayed. Building on Almond and Verba’s Participant Political Culture, it claims the inherent transplanted democracy as obtained in Africa is likely to remain unresponsive. In furtherance, it equates the plausible functionality of any political arrangement, when such political arrangement embodies socially adhered and accepted norms, values and beliefs. Hence, it contends that for democracy to function in Africa there abounds the utmost need for contextual domestication as opposed to the current system of transplantation. Consequently, the exploration and objective application of democratic values inherent in the dominant indigenous culture remains a likely solution to the crisis of governance in Africa and should not be dismissed. While the research does not assents a return to traditionalism, it propagates for the contextual domestication of democracy in tandem with prevailing norms and existential political and societal realities across the African continent.

Page(s): 47-51                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 August 2018

 Yahaya Yakubu
Department of Political Science & Int’l Relations, Nile University of Nigeria

 Abubakar Aliyu Maigari
Department of Political Science & Int’l Relations, Nile University of Nigeria

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[17]. Osaghae, E. E. (1999). Democratization in Africa: Faltering Prospects, New Hopes, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, Vol. 17, (1), pp. 121 – 136.
[18]. Platteau, J. P. (2002). Institutions Social Norms and Economic Development, New Ark, New Jersey: Harwood Academic Publishers.
[19]. Said. E. W. (1993). Culture and Imperialism, London: Chatto and Windus.

Yahaya Yakubu, Abubakar Aliyu Maigari “Towards Enduring Democratic Polities in Africa: Prospects, Challenges and Trajectories” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.47-51 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/47-51.pdf

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Historical Factors That Contributed the Ship (URU) Building in Beypore

Shameerali .M – August 2018 Page No.: 52-56

This work is an attempt at understanding the historical factors that contributed the Uru (wooden ship) building in Beypore. The history of ship building in Beypore goes back to 2000 years before. The ship building has been an impulse to trade in Malabar with overseas regions. Many attempts have been made by many scholars to study the history of ship building. The significance of ship building is closely related with trade, both native and foreign, prosperity of land, water transportation etc. The present attempt is a micro level study about the historical factors that contributed the ship building in the port of Beypore in Kozhikode. Studies on some aspects of ship building in Beypore have appeared along the history of the locality. It is an exclusive study on the ship building in Beypore. The scope of the present work is limited to the study of ship building in a particular area only. Sources for this work are mainly secondary sources. Primary sources like Gazetteers, interviews, news papers etc. have been used for this study. Descriptive and analytical methods have used in the preparation of this work.

The age old tradition of the ship building in Beypore goes back to 2000 years before. According to some historians, there are references about Beypore in the history of Solomon, Israeli emperor (C. 900 BC). His sailors and traders used to have precious goods from Malabar. This references deserve study. After that, Romans came here for trade. From ancient period, even today, teak timber of the region of Kerala has it’s own peculiarity. Teak and other timbers are found abundantly grown in the forests of Malabar and its transportation through rivers, management of skilled laboures, etc contributed the ship building. The trade relations with Arabs have been an impulse to ship building in Malabar. The ship building of Malabar has attracted scholars, studies on the history of trade and oceanic voyages.

The important factors that contributed the development of ship building in Beypore are estuarine port, availability of timber, river transportation of timber, attitude of local rulers towards trade and traders, trade relations with the Arabs and the Portuguese, growth of skilled and non-skilled labours, etc.

Page(s): 52-56                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 August 2018

 Shameerali .M
Research Scholar, Thunchath Ezhuthachan Malayalam University, Tirur, Malappuram, Kerala, India

[1]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/port
[2]. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/estuary/.
[3]. https://www.keralatourism.org/destination/beypore/318
[4]. Dr.Kunhali V., Construction of Indian Vessels in 16th century in Malabar (Jnrl) The Malabar, Calicut University, Vol.I, (Sept. 2001), Pp.16.
[5]. Asokan,K.K., Tourism Potentials of Kerala with special reference to Beach Tourism; PhD (Commerce) Thesis submitted to the University of Calicut (Dept. of Commerce); 2011, Pp 129.
[6]. William Logan, Malabar Manual (1887), Thiruvananthapuram,1981, p.40.
[7]. Vijayalekshmy, M., Trade and Trading centres in Kerala (A. D. 800- 1500); PhD (History) theses submitted to University of Calicut; 1997; Pp. 64.
[8]. Dr. Vijayalekshmy, M., Malabarileaadhya kala Muslim Samooham; in M.C.Vasisht, P.B.Salim IAS &N.P.Hafiz Mohamed (Ed.); Malabar Paithrkavum Prathapavum, 2011, Calicut, Pp. 95.
[9]. Arunachalam, B; “Timber Traditions in Indian Boat Technology”; in K.S.Mathew, ed., Shipbuilding and Navigation in the Indian Ocean Region A D. 1400- 1800, New Delhi, 1997, Pp.13.
[10]. Joseph.C.C., Ship building and Navigation in India and the Portuguese during the Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries., PhD (History) Thesis submitted to The University of Pondicherry., 2003., Pp.47.
[11]. Ibid., Pp. 43.
[12]. Ibid., Pp. 45.
[13]. Dr.Kunhali, V., Timber Industry related to ship building in Kerala; History of Traditional Navigation., edited by Dr. G. Victor Rajamanikkam, Tanjavur, 1998, Pp.159.
[14]. Ibid.
[15]. Kadeeja, P., The Arabs in East West trade – A Study in Political, Economic and Social Interactions – 9th To 15th Century; PhD (History)Thesis submitted to the University of Calicut, 2008, Pp.115-116.
[16]. Ibid., Pp.161-162.
[17]. Dr.Kunhali, V., Timber Industry related to ship building in Kerala; Op.Cit., Pp.158.
[18]. Joseph, C.C., Op.Cit., Pp.5.
[19]. Ibid.,Pp.48 – 49.
[20]. Dr.Kunhali, V., Timber Industry related to ship building in Kerala; Op.Cit., Pp.159.
[21]. Joseph, C.C., Ibid.
[22]. Dr.Kunhali, V., Timber Industry related to ship building in Kerala; Ibid..
[23]. Joseph,C.C., Ibid.
[24]. Ibid.
[25]. Mammad Koya Parappil, P.P., Kozhikkotte Muslimkalude Charithram, Calicut, 1994, Pp.392-393.
[26]. Ibid.
[27]. Mujeebu Rehiman, M.P., Formation of Society and Economy In Malabar 1750-1810; PhD (History Thesis submitted to the University of Calicut; 2009; Pp. 35.
[28]. Vasisht, M.C and Dr.P.B.Salim IAS, Arab Rekhakalile Malabar; in M.C.Vasisht, P.B.Salim IAS & N.P.Hafiz Mohamed (Ed.); Malabar Paithrkavum Prathapavum, 2011, Calicut, Pp.85 – 86.
[29]. Dr.Mathew, K.S., Malabarile Portuguese sannidhyam; in M.C.Vasisht, P.B.Salim IAS & N.P.Hafiz Mohamed (Ed.); Malabar Paithrkavum Prathapavum, 2011, Calicut, Pp. 148.
[30]. Ibid.
[31]. Interview with Goguldas; Mesthiri in Beypore, Dated on 26.04.2006.
[32]. Interview with Edathumpadikkal Sivasankaran, Former Mestiri in Beypore, Dated on 25.04.2006.
[33]. Joseph,C.C., Op.Cit., Pp.54-55.
[34]. Interview with Sathyan Edathodi, Mestiri in Beypore, Dated on 04.11.2017.
[35]. Joseph,C.C., Ibid.
[36]. Mammad Koya Parappil, P.P., Op.Cit., Pp.131.
[37]. Dr.Kunhali, V., Construction of Indian Vessels in 16th Century in Malabar, Op.Cit., Pp.19-20.
[38]. Muhammed Koya Parappil, P.P., Op.Cit., Pp.79
[39]. Alex, George., Traditional Technology of Malabar Khalasis; Malabar, M.G.S.Narayanan (Ed.), Souvenir of Malabar Mahotsav – 1993, Calicut, 1994, Pp.167.
[40]. Ibid.
[41]. https://www.thehindu.com/features/magazine/the-boatmakers-of-beypore/article4884192.ece
[42]. Madhyamam daily, VaradhyaMadhyamam, dated 14, September 2008.
[43]. Ibid.
[44]. https://samskarikam.blogspot.in/2005/06/blog-post_15.html.
[45]. Interview with Shanmugham Kozhippally, a Uru building worker in Beypore, dated on 04.11.2017.
[46]. Interview with Abdullah Beramy, Bermintakam, Kozhikode, dated on 04.11.2017.
[47]. SubairHudavi, Dr., Malabar MuslimgaludeAtmiyaParambaryam; in M.C.Vasisht, P.B.Salim IAS &N.P.Hafiz Mohamed (Ed.); Malabar PaithrkavumPrathabavum, 2011, Calicut, Pp. 161.
[48]. Mammad Koya Parappil, P.P., Op.Cit., Pp.110-111.
[49]. Mammad Koya Parappil, P.P., Op.Cit., Pp.130-131.

Shameerali .M “Historical Factors That Contributed the Ship (URU) Building in Beypore” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.52-56 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/52-56.pdf

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Denominationalism of Private Universities in Uganda as an Antecedent of Employee Job Satisfaction

Dr. Kayindu Vincent, Toriola Funke Christiana, Umar Saleh Baba – August 2018 Page No.: 57-63

This study was carried out in 13 private universities in Uganda (six denominational universities and seven non denominational universities) to assess the difference in the job satisfaction of academic officials between denominational and non-denominational private universities. The study used a descriptive survey design which involved quantitative and qualitative approaches. Whereas quantitative data were analyzed using the t-test, qualitative data was analysed using percentage distribution. Results from 296 respondents who were chosen to participate in the study using universal and purposive sampling, revealed that there was a significant difference in the job satisfaction of academic officials between denominational and non-denominational private universities in Uganda (sig, .000). It was recommended that non denominational universities should borrow a leaf from denominational universities by making workers feel that they own the respective universities.

Page(s): 57-63                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 August 2018

 Dr. Kayindu Vincent
Kampala International University, Uganda, East Africa

 Toriola Funke Christiana
Kampala International University, Uganda, East Africa

 Umar Saleh Baba
Kampala International University, Uganda, East Africa

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Dr. Kayindu Vincent, Toriola Funke Christiana, Umar Saleh Baba “Denominationalism of Private Universities in Uganda as an Antecedent of Employee Job Satisfaction” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.57-63 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/57-63.pdf

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Politics, Interests and Social Security: Key Drivers of Social Policy in Africa

Datti Maryam Ibrahim – August 2018 Page No.: 64-67

Social policy in Africa is seen to be driven bydiverse factors, a close assessment of the different waves of social policy, from colonial Africa topresent day social policy shows a provision that is discriminatory; through all era’s of African social policy development the common denominator was a non-inclusive provision.A variety of factors have determined the provision of social policy in Africa in different eras from the colonial era, through the era of decolonisation, nationalism, democratisation and decades that followed. Provision of social policy was driven by attempts to pre-empt uprisings, ideologies of nation building, political elite interests and poor social conditions on the continent. This paper aims to investigate the main drivers of social policy in Africa from the colonial era to the post-colonial era, and present day development of social policy.

Page(s): 64-67                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 August 2018

 Datti Maryam Ibrahim
Assistant Lecturer, Department of International Relations and Diplomacy, Baze University, Abuja, Nigeria

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[10]. Kpessa, M., D. Béland and A. Lecours (2011). ‘Nationalism, development, and social policy: The politics of nation-building in sub-Saharan Africa’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 34(12), pp. 2115-2133.
[11]. Laird, S. E. (2007), Rolling Back the African State: Implications for Social Development in Ghana. Social Policy & Administration, 41: 465–486.doi:10.1111/j.1467-9515.2007.00568.x
[12]. Luiz.J.M, 2013, A Review of Social Welfare in Sub-Saharan Africa: From the Colonial Legacy to the Millennium Development Goals, economic papers 32(1), 110–121
[13]. Nkurmah. K, 1967, Axioms of Kwame Nkurmah, Freedom Fighters edition, International Publishers, New York, NY, USA.
[14]. Mkandawire. T, (2010).”How the New Poverty Agenda Neglected Social and Employment Policies in Africa.” Journal of Human Development and Capabilities: A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development 11, no. 1 (2010): 37 – 55.
[15]. Schüring, E. and Lawson, M. J. (2011). “Social Protection in Zambia – Whose Politics?,” In “Social Protection for Social Justice”.Institute of Development Studies, UK.
[16]. Suleiman, B.M., Onyeonoru, I., Matthew, E. (2015). ‘Demagogues and the Challenge of Democratic Politics in Nigeria’. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Science Index 105, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 9(9), 3170 – 3174.
[17]. Ulriksen, M. S. (2012). “Welfare Policy Expansion in Botswana and Mauritius: Explaining the Causes of Different Welfare Regime Paths.” Comparative Political Studies 2012: 1–27

Datti Maryam Ibrahim “Politics, Interests and Social Security: Key Drivers of Social Policy in Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.64-67 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/64-67.pdf

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Personal Hygiene Practices among Primary School Pupils in Makindye Urban Council, Kampala District, Uganda: Implications for School Managers

Dr. Kayindu Vincent, Toriola Funke Christiana, Umar Saleh Baba – August 2018 Page No.: 68-73

This paper presents part of the findings of a study carried out in 2017 partly to investigate personal hygiene practices among primary school pupils in Makindye Urban Council, one of the seven Urban Councils which make Kampala district. Taking a sample of 380 pupils randomly selected from six primary schools in the area, the data collected were analyzed using arithmetic mean, and the findings showed that the personal hygiene practices among primary school children were generally good (mean, 2.05). Thus, the implications for school administrators were
the need for teachers and head teachers and classroom teachers to sensitize pupils more about culture; the need for head teachers to urge pupils to have shoe brushes or sponge for cleaning shoes. Even water should be availed at school for them to clean themselves, such as washing hands; head teachers using part of the school funds to buy toilet tissues and put them in the toilets to be used by the learners who go there for the long call, as well as the need for school administrators to do more to promote activities which help to educate pupils on the ways of maintaining good personal hygiene, for example Drama and group discussions on topics related to personal hygiene. All this can help learners to be healthy.

Page(s): 68-73                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 August 2018

 Dr. Kayindu Vincent
Kampala International University, Uganda, East Africa

 Toriola Funke Christiana
Kampala International University, Uganda, East Africa

 Umar Saleh Baba
Kampala International University, Uganda, East Africa

[1]. Aiello, A.E, Larson, E.L, Sedlak, R.. (2008), Personal health bringing good hygiene home. American Journal of Infection Control; 36, 52-65.
[2]. Byaruhanga-Akiiki, A.T. (1991). African world religion: A grassroots perspective. Kampala: Makerere University Printery.
[3]. Kayindu, V. (2017). Social and religious perspectives of contemporary ethical issues (Accessed online).
[4]. Kirwana-Ssozi, P. (2000). Ebyobuwangwa y’emmunyeenye y’eggwanga. Kampala: Tipset Publishers.
[5]. Kizza, P. (2016). Primary school inspection in Kampala district of Uganda. Unpublished MED dissertation, Kampala International University, Uganda.
[6]. Larson EL, Lin SX, Gomez Pichardo C. (2008) Predictors of infectious disease symptoms in inner city households. Nursing Research; 53:190-7
[7]. Muguluma, G. (2015). Psycho-social determinants of secondary school students’ discipline in Wakiso district, Uganda. Unpublished MED dissertation, Kampala International University, Uganda.
[8]. Republic of Uganda (2006). Primary school teachers’ guide on STD/HIV/AIDS prevention education. Kampala: Ministry of Health.
[9]. Republic of Uganda (2008). The Education (Pre –primary, Primary and Post- primary) Act, 2008. Kampala.
[10]. Sarkar, M. (2013). Personal Hygiene among primary school children living in slum of Kolkata, India. Journal of preventive medicine and Hygiene. September; 54(3):153-158
[11]. Ssonko, D. (2014). Head teachers’ management styles and secondary school students’ discipline in Ssembabule district, Uganda. Unpublished MED dissertation, Kampala International University, Uganda.
[12]. Tumwebaze, I.K. et al. (2015), Sanitation facilities in Kampala slums, Uganda: users’ satisfaction and determinant factors. Int J Environ Health Res.; 23(3):191–204.

Dr. Kayindu Vincent, Toriola Funke Christiana, Umar Saleh Baba “Personal Hygiene Practices among Primary School Pupils in Makindye Urban Council, Kampala District, Uganda: Implications for School Managers” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.68-73 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/68-73.pdf

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Teachers’ Classroom Management Techniques for Effective Teaching and Learning in Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria

Eboatu, V. N., Enemoh, Chinwe Grace – August 2018 Page No.: 74-79

This study was designed to investigate teachers’ classroom management techniques for effective teaching and learning in Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of the study, four research questions were formulated. From a population of 325 teachers, 240 teachers were randomly selected from the secondary school in study areas. Teachers’ classroom management techniques were examined using a structured questionnaire made by the researchers and validated by two lecturers in the department of Educational Management and Policy and an expert in Measurement and Evaluation. The test-retest method was used to establish the reliability coefficient (r). This was established as 0.85. Data was analyzed using mean. Results showed among others that secondary school teachers in Njikoka use rules and active student engagement to manage their classrooms, and that cordial relationships exists between teachers and their students. It was recommended that students should be made to understand and memorize the rules and regulations. Teachers should keep engaging the students actively in the class and maintain cordial relationships with the students.

Page(s): 74-79                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 August 2018

 Eboatu, V. N.
Ph.D, Department of Educational Management and Policy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Enemoh, Chinwe Grace
Department of Educational Management and Policy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

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[6]. Goodman, N. (2001). Attending to attendance for retention and results. In NISOD abstracts XXIII, Austin: University of Texas.
[7]. Marzano, R.J & Marzano, J.S (2003). The keys to classroom management Journal of educational leadership: Vol. 61, pg 6-73.
[8]. National Council for Accreditation of Teachers Education (2002) Professional https://www.radford.edu/ntexp/field experiences / forms / code of ethics.PDF
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[11]. Okorie, O. (2003). Effective Classroom Management in Nigeria Primary Schools.Afikpo Today. June, 12
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[13]. Smittle, P. (2003) Principles for Effective Teaching. https://www.nede.oppstate.edu/resources/reports/documents / Vol. 26.
[14]. United Nation’s Children Education Fund (2000). Primary School Education Report.

Eboatu, V. N., Enemoh, Chinwe Grace “Teachers’ Classroom Management Techniques for Effective Teaching and Learning in Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.74-79 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/74-79.pdf

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Civil Society and Democratization Process in Developing Country: A Review

Shahajadi Khanom – August 2018 Page No.: 80-84

Civil society is an essential pillar of democracy. The role of civil society in developing country to establish democracy is very vital and important. This paper presents the concept of civil society, it’s origin, idea of democracy, democratization and finally the role of civil society in democratization process especially in developing country like Bangladesh.

Page(s): 80-84                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 August 2018

 Shahajadi Khanom
Lecturer in Political Science, Officer on Special Duty (education leave), Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education. Dhaka, Bangladesh

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[21]. Criticisms of NGOs – Assignment Point www.assignmentpoint.com/arts/criticisms-of-ngos.html

Shahajadi Khanom “Civil Society and Democratization Process in Developing Country: A Review” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.80-84 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/80-84.pdf

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The Impacts of Exchange Rate Volatility on Commodity Wise Trade Flows between Pakistan and Its Major Trading Partner China

Muhammad Zubair Chishti, Khaliq ul Rehman, Dr. Javed Iqbal, Farrukh Mahmood – August 2018 Page No.: 85-95

The presented study explores the impacts of volatile exchange rate volatility on commodity wise trade flows between Pakistan and its major trading partner China, using the data from 1981 to 2015. Further, we use the ARDL approach to show the long run and short run empirical results of 38 exporting and 44 importing industries. We conclude that 79% of industries are affected in the short run due to the volatility. While, in the long run, 20 exporting industries and 29 importing industries respond to the volatility. And the unique findings of our study, due to employing disaggregated data, are that the two large exporting industries coded as 651 (57% share) and 652 (13% share) get benefits and get no benefit respectively in the long run. However, in theimports side, the large industry coded as 724 (10% share) gets loss due to the volatility.

Page(s): 85-95                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2018

 Muhammad Zubair Chishti

Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

 Khaliq ul Rehman

Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

 Dr. Javed Iqbal

Assistant Professor School of Economics, Quaid-1-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

 Farrukh Mahmood

Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad, Pakistan

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Muhammad Zubair Chishti, Khaliq ul Rehman, Dr. Javed Iqbal, Farrukh Mahmood “The Impacts of Exchange Rate Volatility on Commodity Wise Trade Flows between Pakistan and Its Major Trading Partner China” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.85-95 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/85-95.pdf

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Urbanisation Trends and Potentials in Telangana

Dr. K. Jayachandra, V. Sai Prasanna – August 2018 Page No.: 96-103

There is an emerging consensus that urbanisation is critically important to international development, but considerable confusion over what urbanisation actually is, whether it is accelerating or slowing, whether it should be encouraged or discouraged, and more generally what the responses should be. This Working Paper reviews some key conceptual issues and summarises urbanisation trends. It ends with a brief review of urbanisation and sustainable development, concluding that while urbanisation brings serious challenges, attempts to inhibit urbanization through exclusionary policies are likely to be economically, socially and environmentally damaging. Moreover, with the right support urbanisation can become an important element of sustainable development.
Urban or Built-up Land is comprised of areas of intensive use with much of the land covered by structures. Included in this category are cities, towns, villages, strip developments along highways, transportation, power, and communications facilities, and areas such as those occupied by mills, shopping centers, industrial and commercial complexes, and institutions that may, in some instances, be isolated from urban areas. Urbanisation in way, uses most of the land use land cover classes into built-up allowing certain percentage of vegetative areas as green spaces like Parks, As an advantage of urbanisation process, it coverts most of the wasteland categories into built-up or useful urban infrastructure related features such as play grounds, Graveyards, religious centres. The major land use that will completely diminishing due to urbanisation is the agriculture and some extent the smaller sized water bodies.

Page(s): 96-103                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2018

 Dr. K. Jayachandra
Regional Director, Centre for Environment and Development, Hyderabad & Geomatics Consultant

 V. Sai Prasanna
Persuing M.Tech (Environmental Geomatics), JNTUH, Hyderabad, India

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Dr. K. Jayachandra, V. Sai Prasanna “Urbanisation Trends and Potentials in Telangana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.96-103 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/96-103.pdf

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Peasants’ Income Diversification in Bangladesh

Md. Shafikuzzaman Joarder – August 2018 Page No.: 104-109

The study aims to explore pattern and grounds of income diversification of the peasants in Bangladesh. By applying a mix method approach, the study interviewed 103 peasants from two villages of northwestern Bangladesh and analyzed the data accordingly. Evidence shows that drought, seasonality, discriminatory tenancy arrangement and in-effective market mechanism substantially reduce farm income and reshape peasants’ livelihood in many ways. Subsequently, peasants strive to earn more from various off-farm sectors to cope with recurrent challenges, and with a hope to ameliorate their capability for future investment. Income diversification strategies, however, do not show a strong affiliation with income well-being and successful coping of the peasants. Therefore, this paper recommends for formulating a better policy to protect peasant livelihood.

Page(s): 104-109                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 September 2018

 Md. Shafikuzzaman Joarder
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh.

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Md. Shafikuzzaman Joarder “Peasants’ Income Diversification in Bangladesh” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.104-109 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/104-109.pdf

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Contending Issues in Party and Electoral Politics and Consequences for Sustainable Democracy in Nigeria: A Historical and Comparative Appraisal

Victor E. Ita – August 2018 Page No.: 110-121

This article focused on some contending issues in Nigeria’s party and electoral politics and its consequences for sustainable democracy in the country. Based on historical and comparative analysis, and drawing from the experiences of party and electoral politics in Nigeria’s Second and Fourth Republics, the paper substantiated the fact that electoral and party politics have impacted negatively on the country’s body politics as no elections conducted in the country within these epochs have been adjudged as credible, free and fair. The paper noted factors such as intra-party squabbles, inter-party violence, negative role of the security agents during election, the bias nature of electoral commission, godfatherism and money politics are germane to the problematic nature of party and electoral politics in Nigeria. On the strength of the debased nature of Nigeria’s party and electoral politics, it was recommended among others, that the political parties should be reorganized on the principle of all-inclusiveness rather than exclusion and reoriented from being mere platforms for acquisition of political power to effective institutions that are capable of promoting internal democracy and engendering sustainable democracy in Nigeria’s political landscape..

Page(s): 110-121                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 September 2018

 Victor E. Ita
Department of Political Science, Akwa Ibom State University Obio Akpa Campus, Oruk Anam LGA, Nigeria

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Victor E. Ita “Contending Issues in Party and Electoral Politics and Consequences for Sustainable Democracy in Nigeria: A Historical and Comparative Appraisal” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.110-121 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/110-121.pdf

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The Understanding of ShaykhAbd Allah Bin Foduye and Badiuzzaman Sa’id Nursi on the Harmonisation among the Verses and Chapters of the Glorious Qur’an

Abubakar Ibrahim Usman, Zayyanu Altine – August 2018 Page No.: 120-126

Al-Qur’an, as a compendium Book, contains knowledge dealing with issues for guidance to all human endeavours. It is the message from Allah to humankind and therefore it is of utmost importance to us. To properly grasp the teachings of the Qur’an one needs first of all to understand its content. Therefore, some special knowledge of the circumstances that engulf the Glorious Qur’an is also necessary for fuller understanding of its meaning and implications. For this purpose, the paper discusses the Understanding of ShaykhAbd Allah Bin Foduye Badiuzzaman Said Nursi in one important aspect or science of the (that is Harmonisation among the verses and chapters of the Glorious Qur’an). This paper attempts to discuss the little background of these two prominent scholars that is Shaykh ‘Abd Allah bin Foduye who was born in the year 1179A.H/1766-7.C.E and (d. 1829 C.E), and Badiuzzaman Sa’id Nursi who was born in 1877 C.E in the small village of Nurs in the province of Bitl is in eastern Anatolia of the old Ottoman Empire (modern day Turkey) and (d. 1960 C.E). This paper also underlines the definition of the term Tanasubor Munasabat (Harmonisation) and bring out the views or understanding ShaykhAbd Allah bin Foduye and Badiuzzaman Said Nursi and on Harmonisation among the verses and chapters of the Glorious Qur’an. The method used in this research is analytical method. This paper also explicit the two great scholars have expresses this aspect of Harmonisation among the verses and chapters of the Glorious Qur’an in details.

Page(s): 120-126                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 September 2018

 Abubakar Ibrahim Usman
Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Zayyanu Altine
Arabic and Islamic Education Board, Sokoto, Nigeria

[1]. Al-Qur’an-Kareem, (1997), Arabic text with corresponding English meanings, Al-Muntada Al-Islamy: AbulQasim Publishing House.
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[5]. Foduye, A. (2013),Al-Fara’id al- JalilahwaSa’it al-Fawa’id al-Jamilah Fi‘Ulum al-Qur’an, M. A. Kaigama et al (trans), S. Musa (ed) “selected writings of Shaykh ‘Abd Allah bnFoduye” vol. 2. Iqra Publishing House,Gusau.
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[7]. Gwandu, A. A. (1977), “Abd Allah b. Foduye as a Muslim Jurist” Ph.D Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Arts, Durham University, London.
[8]. Muhammad, U.J. (2015), Qur’anic ideals on Good Image formation & positive personality traits:panacea for Harmonious Muslim-Muslim relation in Nigeria, paper presented at1st National Conference on Qur’an recitation Competition in Nigeria held atUniversity Auditorium, UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.
[9]. Nursi, S.(2004), Signs of Miraculousnesss: The Inimitability of the Qur’an’s Conciseness.
[10]. ———.(2005), The Words : The Reconstruction of Islamic Belief and Thought. Translated by Hüseyin Akarsu. New Jersey: Light.
[11]. Vahide, S. (2003), A Chronology of Sa’idNursi’s life. In: Abu Rabi’ I.M. (ed), Islamic at the Cross Road: on the life and Thought of BadiuzzamanSa’idNursi. Albany: State University of New York Press.
[12]. __________(2005), Islam in Modern Turkey: An Intellectual Biography of Badiuzzaman Said Nursi, State University of New York Press, Albany.

Abubakar Ibrahim Usman, Zayyanu Altine “The Understanding of ShaykhAbd Allah Bin Foduye and Badiuzzaman Sa’id Nursi on the Harmonisation among the Verses and Chapters of the Glorious Qur’an” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.120-126 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/120-126.pdf

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Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: Changing the Pattern of Counterinsurgency

Modu Lawan Gana, Ku Hasnita Binti Ku Samsu, Mohd Mahadee Bin Ismail – August 2018 Page No.: 127-130

This paper is a concept that x-rayed the existing pattern of counterinsurgency methods taken by Nigeria’s government in combating an insurgent Boko Haram in Nigeria. The paper argued that the growth and sustenance of Boko Haram insurgency despite the successive counterinsurgency measures by the Nigeria’s government is rooted from the enemy centric approach of the government that resulted in unquantifiable destruction of human and material goods. The repressive military action characterise by dragnet arrest, indefinite detentions and disappearance, looting and burning of civilian properties raises suspicions on the military that resulted in their detachment from the communities they are policing. This therefore denied the government with vital intelligence about the insurgent movement, their modus operandi and their dens. As consequence, the paper argued it captivated further support for the Boko Haram group from the affected communities. The paper in its contribution recommend that to ensure speedy successes in combating the Boko Haram group, Nigeria’s government is to change its military centric counterinsurgency approach to civilian oriented measures that will incorporate the civilian groups in the affected communities into the counterinsurgency team.

Page(s): 127-130                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 September 2018

 Modu Lawan Gana
Department of Public Administration, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic Geidam, Nigeria

 Ku Hasnita Binti Ku Samsu
Department of Nationhood and Civilization Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia

 Mohd Mahadee Bin Ismail
Department of Nationhood and Civilization Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia

[1]. Adeniran, L. R. (2016). Socio – Economic Effects of Boko Haram Violence on Oyo State , Nigeria Socio – Economic Effects of Boko Haram Violence on Oyo. Journal Of Humanities And Social Science, 19(January 2014), 61–65.
[2]. Agbiboa, D. (2013). The Ongoing Campaign of Terror in Nigeria : Boko Haram versus the State. Stability International Journal of Security & Development, 2(3), 1–18.
[3]. Agbiboa, D. (2015). Resistance to Boko Haram: Civilian Joint Task Forces in North-Eastern Nigeria. Conflict Studies Quarterly, Special Is(December), 3–22.
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[7]. Azumah, J. (2015). Islam and Christian – Muslim Relations Boko Haram in Retrospect. Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, 26(1), 32–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/09596410.2014.967930
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[13]. Shola, O. J. (2015). Globilization of Terrorism : a Case Study of Boko-Haram in Nigeria

Modu Lawan Gana, Ku Hasnita Binti Ku Samsu, Mohd Mahadee Bin Ismail “Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: Changing the Pattern of Counterinsurgency” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.127-130 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/127-130.pdf

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Conflict and Development: A Case Study of East Pakistan Crisis, 1971

Masood ur Rehman Azhar, Saima Masood, Dr. Nor Malina Malek, Khaliq ul Rehman – August 2018 Page No.: 131-135

This essay supports the theoretical approaches of conflict and development and reveals that unequal development and resources scarcity deepens the poverty and creates conflicts in the society. Resource scarcity and unequal distribution of available resource create new marginalization and grievances. The marginalized, deprived, and excluded people struggle for their rights through non-peaceful means. This case study presents a theoretical analysis of an International conflict, i.e., East Pakistan Crisis, 1971, and reveals that political, economic and social inequalities create an understanding of deprivation among the masses causing large-scale violence and conflict in society.

Page(s): 131-135                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 September 2018

 Masood ur Rehman Azhar
School of Social Sciences, UniversitiSains Malaysia
COMSATS University Islamabad Wah Campus, Pakistan

 Saima Masood
COMSATS University Islamabad Wah Campus, Pakistan

 Dr. Nor Malina Malek
Associate Professor, School of Social Sciences, UniversitiSains Malaysia

 Khaliq ul Rehman
Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

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[20]. Warner, G. (2005). Nixon, Kissinger and the breakup of Pakistan, 1971. International Affairs, 81(5), 1097-1118. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2346.2005.00504.x

Masood ur Rehman Azhar, Saima Masood, Dr. Nor Malina Malek, Khaliq ul Rehman “Conflict and Development: A Case Study of East Pakistan Crisis, 1971” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.131-135 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/131-135.pdf

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Library and Information Science Role in Human Development

Eniekebi Ejiro Regina (CLN) – August 2018 Page No.: 136-140

Library and information science play an important role in the development of knowledge, full society through its collections, facilities, resources and services. Information sciences have tried to develop human resource in all aspects. There are several challenges to solve user needs and satisfaction among library services at the right time. Human resource is the most needed asset in the organization because all other Natural resources can be better used by motivated human resources only. Thus It is important to invest time, money and effort in it to provide fruitful results. But often these potentials are not fully utilized by management through appropriate and systematic efforts. As has been well observed, “Every human being is born with something new, something never existed before. Each is born with the ability to win in life. His own unique potentials, capabilities and limitations.” Thus library and information science needs to develop human resources to the achievement of personnel as well as organization goals and objectives especially in weaker sections.

Page(s): 136-140                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 September 2018

 Eniekebi Ejiro Regina (CLN)
Library Department, College of Education, P.M.B 1251, Warri. Delta State, Nigeria

[1]. Abdulhadi Abba Kyari (2017). Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare. Human Development. Archived from the original on 2018-05-10.
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Eniekebi Ejiro Regina (CLN) “Library and Information Science Role in Human Development” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.136-140 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/136-140.pdf

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Managerial Capabilities and Private University Performance in Kenya

Jonas Yawovi Dzinekou and Robert Arasa – August 2018 Page No.: 141-149

In the recent past, the dynamic capability framework has been intensively used to explicate the capabilities required by firms to adapt to a changing environment. However, the framework is rarely discussed in the context of academic institutions. Managerial capabilities have been discussed as crucial for organisational performance. This study analyses the effects of managerial capabilities in the performance of private universities in Kenya. Using a survey research design, the study is based on quantitative data. A random sampling method was used to sample 329 respondents that are stratified into academic and non-academic staff. The structural equation model was employed to analyse the relationship between managerial capabilities and university performance. The result shows that managerial capabilities have a positive influence on private universities performance. The finding provides more insights on how managerial capabilities can be deployed in the university changing environment to influence performance.

Page(s): 141-149                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 September 2018

 Jonas Yawovi Dzinekou
Institute of Social Ministry in Mission, Tangaza University College, Nairobi, Kenya

 Robert Arasa
School of Business and Economics, Machakos University, Kenya

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Jonas Yawovi Dzinekou and Robert Arasa “Managerial Capabilities and Private University Performance in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.141-149 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/141-149.pdf

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Social Change and the Effect of Non Violence Conflict Management in Rural Communities

Jibrin Ubale Yahaya – August 2018 Page No.: 150-158

Social change as a process could make peoples changes in the function of a social system which includes changes in the nature of social institutions, social behavior and social relations. Social change can be drive from cultural, religious, economic, political, scientific and technological forces. This paper would give us a picture on how non violent mechanism can brings about sustainable peace in the society. The violent and non-violent conflicts are also presented as opposite and contradictory. The paper intended to review various relevant researchers on the subject matter, the paper adopted urban industrial impact theory and Deprivation theory to explain how lives of peoples in rural areas needed changes that could lead to social adjustment. However peoples in rural areas are denied the rights of basic social amenities that make energetic youth migrate from rural to urban areas to seek for a better life. The paper also assesses how the peaceful and non-violent method of conflict resolution can contribute to address the problems of destructive violence in the society, through provision of basic social amenities at rural areas and engaging rural communities in governance process.

Page(s): 150-158                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 September 2018

 Jibrin Ubale Yahaya
Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

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Jibrin Ubale Yahaya “Social Change and the Effect of Non Violence Conflict Management in Rural Communities” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.150-158 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/150-158.pdf

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Electoral Process and Management in Nigeria: Towards a Non-violent General Election

Asadu Ikechukwu – August 2018 Page No.: 159-166

Election is a vital instrument of democratic governance. For election to achieve its objectives as a mechanism for smooth transfer of power and exercise of peoples’ sovereignty, it should be free and fair; devoid of any form of electoral cum political violence. Nigeria constitution and electoral laws outlaw electoral violence and stipulate penalties for offenders. Not withstanding the legal provisions against electoral violence, incidences of violence have continued to manifest in local, state and federal elections in Nigeria. The paper examined the salient factors responsible for electoral violence in Nigeria and its effects with a view to suggesting appropriate measures for reducing the rate of violent incidence during elections in Nigeria. The methodology of the paper is qualitative and descriptive. Data for the study were generated through documentaries and structured oral interview. The generated data were subjected to contextual-descriptive analysis. The findings among other things demonstrate that pervasive poverty and illiteracy; winner-take-all syndrome; excessive monetization of politics; political godfatherism and low civic education contribute to electoral violence in Nigeria. Consequently, the paper suggests capacity building for electoral bodies; zero tolerance to corruption; strengthened security agencies; strengthened civil society; poverty reduction and youth empowerment; less monetization of politics as measures to counter electoral violence.

Page(s): 159-166                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 September 2018

 Asadu Ikechukwu
Ph.D, Department of Public Administration and Local Government, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

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Asadu Ikechukwu “Electoral Process and Management in Nigeria: Towards a Non-violent General Election” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.159-166 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/159-166.pdf

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Logical Framework Approach and Performance of Early Childhood Development and Education Projects in Siaya County, Kenya

Achila Linet Oyola & Abuya Isaac Odhiambo – August 2018 Page No.: 167-174

Early childhood development and education (ECDE) projects play an important role in the provision of safe and age appropriate instructional learning environments and resources for children aged between 3-6 years. Following the promulgation of the new constitution in 2010, ECDE was devolved and the created 47 county governments took responsibility for the design, implementation and monitoring of ECDE. However, available evidence suggest that the performance of ECDE projects may be compromised in the absence of effective monitoring and evaluation approaches. Monitoring and evaluation is vital for the effective and sustained performance of ECDE projects. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the influence of monitoring and evaluation approaches on the performance of early childhood development and education projects. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of logical framework approach on performance of early childhood development and education projects in Alego Usonga Sub-County. The design of the study was cross-sectional. The target population was 1217respondents, composed of County Executive committee members, County Chief Officers, Departmental directors, Project management committee members, Sub-County Administrators, Ward administrators, ECDE coordinators and ECDE instructors. Simple stratified random sampling was used. Using the Krejcie and Morgan table of estimation, 297 sample size was calculated. Data was analysed using SPSS computer package version 21. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were computed. Descriptive statistics included frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations. Inferential statistics included correlation and regression analyses. Pearson correlation(r) and coefficients of determination (R2), were computed to assess the association between the independent variables and the dependent variable. The finding of the study was that there was significant positive association between logical framework approach and performance of ECDE projects (r=0.395 P<0.01). The study recommended that the County government should strengthen the use of the logical framework approach in ECDE projects and that the logical framework should be integrated in the design and daily implementation of the projects. The County government should also ensure that the ECDE projects are effectively designed and implemented to assure sustainable and quality performance.

Page(s): 167-174                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 September 2018

 Achila Linet Oyola
Department of Open Learning, University of Nairobi, Kenya

 Abuya Isaac Odhiambo
Department of Open Learning, University of Nairobi, Kenya

[1]. Aune, J. B. (2000). Logical framework approach and PRA: Mutually exclusive or complimentary tools for project planning? Development in Practice, 10, 687–690
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[3]. Barasa, R. (2014). Influence of monitoring and evaluation tools on project Completion in Kenya: a case of constituency development fund projects in Kakamega County. Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Nairobi, Kenya.
[4]. Coleman (1987), “Logical framework approach to the monitoring and evaluation of agricultural and rural development projects”, Project Appraisal, 2(4), pages 251- 259.
[5]. Couillard, J., Garon, S., & Riznic, J. (2009). The Logical Framework Approach–Millennium. Project Management Journal, 40(4), 31-44.
[6]. Donaldson, T., & Preston, L. E. (1995). The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence and implications. Academy of Management Review, 20, 65-91.
[7]. Government of Kenya. (2012). Kenya Vision 2030. A Globally Competitive & Prosperous Kenya. Nairobi: Government of Kenya, Press.
[8]. Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Education and Psychological Measurement, 607-610.
[9]. Levin, H. (1995). International Encyclopedia of Economics of Education. 2nd ed. Pergamon: Oxford:, pp.381- 386
[10]. Mallak, L., Patzak, G. and Kurstedt, H. (1991). Satisfying stakeholders for successful project management. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 21(1-4), pp.429-433.
[11]. Nganga, L. W. (2009). Early childhood education programs in Kenya: challenges and solutions. Early Years: Journal Of International Research & Development, 29(3), 227-236. doi:10.1080/09575140902984400
[12]. Shaji, M. G., & Indoshi, F. C. (2008). Conditions for Implementation of the Science Curriculum in Early Childhood Development and Education Centres in Kenya. Contemporary Issues In Early Childhood, 9(4).
[13]. Sitati, E. M., Ndirangu, M., Kennedy, B., & Rapongo, G. S. (2016). Implementation of Early Childhood Development Education Service Standard Guidelines on Physical Facilities in Public and Private Early Childhood Education Centres Kakamega County, Kenya. Early Child Development And Care, 186(11), 1765-1778
[14]. Smith, B., Hurth, J., Pletcher, L., Shaw, E., Whaley, K., Peters, M. and Dunlap, G. (2014). ECTA Center: A Guide to the Implementation Process: Stages, Steps and Activities.
[15]. Thompson, C., Pulleyblank, R., Parrott, S., & Essex, H. (2016). The cost-effectiveness of quality improvement projects: a conceptual framework, checklist and online tool for considering the costs and consequences of implementation-based quality improvement. Journal Of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, 22(1), 26-30. doi:10.1111/jep.12421
[16]. Yu, A. G., Flett, P. D., Bowers, J. A. (2005). Developing a value-centred proposal for assessing project success, International Journal of Project Management 23, 428–436

Achila Linet Oyola & Abuya Isaac Odhiambo “Logical Framework Approach and Performance of Early Childhood Development and Education Projects in Siaya County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.167-174 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/167-174.pdf

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Feminist Jurisprudence and Islam in Bangladesh: A Critical Perspective on Some Contemporary Issues

Md. Tuhin Mia – August 2018 Page No.: 175-182

Feminism’s existence in Bangladesh and in Islam is not new phenomena. There are a lot of feminist jurisprudences in Islam which are still unreachable to Bangladeshi women. Since as of modernism, women have been struggling for their equal rights and empowerment which are already enshrined in the Islamic philosophy of life. However, in Bangladesh, some of the women’s jurisprudential rights in Islam were ignored somehow due to social norms and customary legitimacy although this is a Muslim-majority country. It is notable that, Bangladesh is gradually developing women’s rights-related challenges day by day; besides, its overall progress in the country. Some specific rights are very obvious, such as the right to education, political rights, social rights and so on. Yet, there are certain issues regarding women’s rights in Islam that has a negative approach in Bangladesh and they do exist in the country while Islam does not conflict as religious disputes. Some women activists in Bangladesh are claiming that Islam discriminates between male and female in feminism. But it van be argued that Islam has given women rights and empowers them in a unique way. Islam is a religion that is in favor of women’s emancipation in the society. This study will find out those issues with Islamic arrangement, following core principles outlined in the Quran and Hadith in terms of Islamic Jurisprudence of feminism and scholarly opinions of renowned scholars.

Page(s): 175-182                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 September 2018

 Md. Tuhin Mia
Postgraduate Research Assistant, Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah (Faculty) of Laws, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)

[1]. Kalam, A. (2014). Social norms and impediments of women development in Bangladesh. Int’l J. Soc. Sci. Stud., 2, 100.
[2]. Alak, A. I. (2015). Modern States, Legal Reforms and Feminism (s) in Muslim countries. “Analize–Journal of Gender and Feminist Studies” is an on-line, open access, 98.
[3]. Al-Hibri, A. (1997). Islam, law and custom: Redefining Muslim women’s rights.
[4]. Al-Qaradawi, Y. (1997). The status of women in Islam. Islamic Incorporated.
[5]. Al-Turabi, H. (1999). On the position of women in Islam and in Islamic society.
[6]. Ansari, A. H. (2010). Feminist jurisprudence in Islam: an overview. Journal of Islamic Law Review, 6(1), 85-107.
[7]. Badawi, Jamal A. (1980). “Status of woman in Islam”.
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[11]. https://darussalamblog.com/women-rights-work/
[12]. https://sunnah.com/abudawud/1/236, Sunan Abi Dawud 236, Book 1, Hadith 236
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[15]. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/feminist_jurisprudence
[16]. Kamali, M. H. (2011). Islamic family law reform: problems and prospects. Islam and Civilisational Renewal (ICR), 3(1).
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Md. Tuhin Mia “Feminist Jurisprudence and Islam in Bangladesh: A Critical Perspective on Some Contemporary Issues” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 8, pp.175-182 August 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-8/175-182.pdf

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Waziri Junaidu and His Contributions to Linguistics

Muhammad Arzika Danzaki – December 2018 Page No.: 243-246

This paper attempts to highlight the contributions of Waziri Junaidu to linguistics through a survey of some of his works on the subject. It established that, his contributions to linguistics are manifested in the works he wrote on aspects of Fulfulde language, especially syntax, morphology and phonology. It posit that, despite those works written by Waziri Junaidu, there was hardly any attention paid by researchers to his contributions in the study of language. After presenting a brief biography of the subject, the paper identified the works which represent his major contribution to the field. It further outlined some of the specific aspects of the language he dealt with in his said works.

Page(s): 243-246                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2018

 Muhammad Arzika Danzaki
Department of Arabic, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto-Nigeria

. Alkali, H., (2002). The Chief Arbiter: Waziri Junaidu and his Intellectual Contributions. Sokoto: CIS, Usmanu Danfodiyo, University.
[2]. Junaidu, I., (1993). Rayuwar Wazirin Sokoto Alhaji Dr. Junaidu. Zaria: Gaskiya Corporation Ltd.
[3]. El-Tekeinah, M. M., (1980). Al-Ab’ad al-Fanniyyatu fi ash’ar al-Waziri Junaidu. (Artistic Dimensions in the Poetry of Waziri Junaidu). Unpublished MA thesis, ABU Zaria.
[4]. Sokoto, N. A., (2001). Al-Qiyamu al-Ruhiyyatu fi Shi’ri Waziri Junaidu. (Spritual Values in the Poetry of Waziri Junaidu). Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Arabic, UDU, Sokoto.
[5]. de Saussure, F., (1916). Course in General Linguistics. Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye (eds.)
[6]. Hijaziy, M. F., (n.d.). ‘Ilm al-Lughati al-‘Arabiyyah. Kuwait: wikalatu al-Matbu’at.
[7]. Ibrahim, A., (2012). Samples of Prepositions in the Anthology of Waziri Junaidu: A grammatical Study. Unpublished MA dissertation, Department of Arabic, UDU, Sokoto.
[8]. Simons, G. F. and Charles, D. F. (eds.). 2018. Ethnolugue: Languages of the World, twenty first edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Available at: http//ethnologue.com
[9]. Junaidu, S. W., (2001). Wakakken Fassarar Marta’ul Adhhan zuwa Hausa, (Translation of Marta’ul Adhhan to Hausa in verse). Hausa Studies. Vol III (3). PP. 30-54.
[10]. Junaidu, W., (n.d.). Marta’ul al-Adhhan li man Yuridu Lughati al-Fullani. [Eng. ‘A Pasturage for the Minds for he who intends (to learn) Fulfulde Language.’]
[11]. Junaidu, W., (n.d.). Iqdu al-Murjan ‘alã Lughati al-Fullãni. [Eng. ‘A Coral Jewellery on Fulfulde Langauge.’]
[12]. Junaidu, W., (n.d.). Al-Bakuratu al-Janiyyah ‘ala Lughati al-Fullani. [Eng. ‘Ripe first fruits on Fulfulde Language.’]
[13]. de St. Croix, F. W., (1998) Fulfulde – English Dictionary; Daudu, G. K. et al (eds.). Kano: CSNL, Bayero University, Kano.
[14]. Junaidu, W., (n.d.). Al-Murshid al-Muwati Ila Tahajji Lughati al-Fullani. [Eng. ‘The suitable guide in Fulfulde Language spelling.’]

Muhammad Arzika Danzaki “Waziri Junaidu and His Contributions to Linguistics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.243-246 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/243-246.pdf

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The Linguistic and Non-linguistic Features in Facebook Status Updates among Malaysian Youths: A Sociolinguistic Perspective

Ying Qi Wu – December 2018 Page No.: 247-253

This study aims at exploring the linguistic and non-linguistic features found in the Facebook status updates among Malaysian youths. Firstly, the prevalent features of code switching, code mixing and emoticons are identifiedand the use of them among three main races in Malaysia isalso examined. Then the main purpose of this study is to find out the functions of code switching, code mixing and emoticons. For this purpose the status updates are analyzed through Appel and Muysken’s (2006) as well as Dresner and Herring’s (2010) works as analytical frameworks in this study. The results show that code switching and code mixing are frequently used by Malaysian youths in their Facebook status updates. Code switching mainly achieves the expressive and directive functions. Code mixing mainly fulfills expressive and referential functions. In addition, the emoticons are mainly functionally used as facial expression, emotion/feelings indicators and illocutionary force indicators.

Page(s): 247-253                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2018

 Ying Qi Wu
Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Language and Linguistics, University of Malaya, Malaysia

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[10]. Carol, M. C. (2006). Multiple Voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Maldan, MA:Wiley-Blackwell.
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[13]. David, M.K. (2007). Changing language policies in Malaysia: Ramifications and implications. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Language, Education and Diversity, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
[14]. Dresner, E., & Herring, S. C. (2010). Functions of the non-verbal in CMC: Emoticons and illocutionary force. Communication Theory..
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[16]. Heller, M. (1988). Codeswitching: Anthropological and Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
[17]. Holtgraves, T.M. (2002). Language as Social Action: Social Psychology and Language Use. New Jersey, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[18]. Huang, H. T. M., (2013). Language, identity and mobility: Perspective of Malaysian Chinese youth. Malaysian Journal of Chinese Studies, 2 (1): 83-102.
[19]. Ilyas, S., &Khushi, Q. (2012). Facebook status updates: A speech act analysis. Academic Research International, 3 (2), 500-507.
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Ying Qi Wu “The Linguistic and Non-linguistic Features in Facebook Status Updates among Malaysian Youths: A Sociolinguistic Perspective” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 12, pp.247-253 December 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-12/247-253.pdf

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