Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the reproductive performance of rabbits fed Moringa oleifera leaves meal and Moringa oleifera twig meal at 0% 5% and 10% leaves meal (MLM) and 10% twigs meal (MTM). Method: Twenty Female grower rabbits of mixed breed with mean Initial weight of 2323.25 +33.12 and five New Zealand White buck. The animals were randomly allocated in completely randomized design. The data collected includes feed intake, conception rate, litter size, litter weight, weaning weight, and average daily weight gain and litter survival rate. Data were analysed using descriptive statistic and ANOVA at α0.05. Result and discussion: The results obtained reveals that feed intake, litter size and average daily weight gained were not significantly different. However conception rate was significantly (P> 0.05) affected. The litter weight after birth was significantly higher in rabbits fed 10% MLM with least litter weight in rabbits fed no MLM/MTM. The weaning weight was higher in 10% MTM while 5% MLM had the least value. The survival rate was significantly higher in rabbits fed 10% MLM with least survival rate recorded for rabbits fed no MLM/MTM. In conclusion, Moringa oleifera leaves/twigs meals at 10% are excellent feed resources for breeding rabbit.
- Page(s): 01-04
- Date of Publication: 19 December 2018
- Olusegun D. Oshibanjo Department of Animal Production, University of Jos, Jos Plateau state, Nigeria
- Philips M. Goholshak National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Rabbitary Unit, Vom Jos Plateau state, Nigeria
- Olabisi Akinfolarin Nigerian Institute of Animal Science, Abuja, Nigeria
- Moses A. AkwashikDepartment of Animal Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
- Opeyemi Adediran Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Oyo state, Nigeria
- Idowu Adesope Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Oyo state, Nigeria
- Lawrence Abegunde Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Oyo state, Nigeria
. Akinmutimi AH, Osuagwu CC, (2008). Response of Weaner Rabbits Fed Graded Levels of Sweet Potato Meal in Place of Maize-Based Diet. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 7: 705-709 . Akinmutimi AH (2006). Determination of Optimal Dietary Level of Inclusion of Cooked Sword Bean Meal in Broiler Starter Diet. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 5: 689–694 . Odeyinka SM., Oyedele OJ, Adeleke TO, Odedire JA, (2008). Reproductive performance of rabbits fed moringa oleifera as a replacement for centrosema pubescens. 9th World Rabbit Congress – June 10-13, 2008 – Verona – Italy. 411–416 . Arijeniwa A, Otaikhian SO, Imaseum JA (2000). Performance of weaner rabbits fed Poultry Grower Mash” supplemented with different grass legume rations. Proceedings of 5th Annual Conference of Animal Sci. Ass. Nig. (ASAN) Sept. 19-22, 2000. pp. 103-105. . Ayssiwede SB, Dieng A, Bello H, Chrysostome CAAM, Hane MB, (2011). Effects of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves meal incorporation in diets on growth performances, carcass characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal chickens. Pak. J. Nutr., 10: 1132-1145. . Adeyemi AA, Ewuola E.O, Tewe OO, (2014). Testosterone, Libido Assessment and Semen Characteristics of Rabbits Fed SupplementalMoringa oleifera Leaf Meal. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science . 16 (1): 1319 . Ukawoko AI, Okehielem OV, (2016). Effect of Gmelina (Gmelinaarborea ) Leaf Meal Based Diets on Growth Performance of West African Dwarf Bucks.Asian Journal of Animal Sciences. 10: 154-158 . Bamishaiye EI, Olayemi FF, Awagu, EF, Bamshaiye OM, (2011). Proximate and phytochemical composition of Moringa oleifera leaves at three stages of maturation. Advance Journal Food Technology.3(4): 233-237. . Makkar HPS, Becker K, (1997). Nutrients and anti-quality factors in different morphological parts of the Moringa oleifera tree. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge). 128: 311-322. . SAS (2003). SAS/STAT User's Guide.Version 8 for windows. SAS Institute Inc., SAS Campus Drive, Cary, North Carolina, USA . Iyeghe-Erakpotobor GT, Adeosun YG, Sekoni, AA, Esievo LO, (2008). Reproductive performance of rabbit does on concentrate to forage (Stylosanthes hamata) combinations. Livestock Research for Rural Development 20. Article #178. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd20/11/iyeg20178.htm . Odubote IK, Akinokun J.O (1991). Evaluation of the reproductive and body weight performance of the New Zealand white rabbit. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 18: 61–65. . Iyabode Comfort Alemede., Ayo Aremu, Isaac Oriade, Abdulmojeed Tunji1 Ijaiya (2014). Reproductive Performance of Rabbits (Oryctolagus cunniculus) fed Diets Containing Varying Levels of Dried Bovine Rumen Digesta. Advances in Life Science and Technology 23:43–50 . Rahim A., Reza, A., Shahjalal, M, (1997). Comparative study of soybean meal and whole grain on growth and reproductive performances of rabbits. Bangladesh Journal of animal science 26: 89 – 97. . Das SK, Yadav BPS, (2007). Effect of mating system, parity and breed on the reproductive performances of broiler rabbits under the agro-climatic condition of Meghalaya Livestock Research for Rural Development 19. Article #25.http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/2/das19025.htm . Kavamto ET, Romeiro MM, Campos B, Does DE, (1973). Relationship between litter weight, body weight of doe at mating and litter size. Boletin de industrial Aminal, 30: 357–360. . Roy J, Sultana N, Khondokker Z., Reza A., Hossain SMJ, (2002). Effect of different Sources of Protein on Growth and reproductive Performances of Rabbits. Pakistan J. of Nutrition, 6:279–281.
Olusegun D. Oshibanjo, Philips M. Goholshak, Olabisi Akinfolarin, Moses A. Akwashik, Opeyemi Adediran, Idowu Adesope and Lawrence Abegunde "Evaluation of Reproductive Performance of Rabbits Fed Graded Levels of Moringa oleifera Leaves and Twigs Meals" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 12 December 2018, pp.01-04 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue12/01-04.pdf
A simple, fast, precise, selective and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Minoxidil and Finasteride from bulk and liquid formulations in the presence of soy lecithin excipient. Chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically on a Phenomenex C18 column (250×4.6 mm, 5 µ particle size) using a mobile phase, Phosphate buffer: acetonitrile: methanol (50:50 v/v) (adjusted to pH 5.8 with NaOH) in the ratio of 30:70. The flow rate was 1.2 ml/min and effluent was detected at 211nm. The retention time of Minoxidil and Finasteride were 3.16, and 8.23 min respectively. Linearity was observed in the concentration range of 50 to 250 μg/ml, 1 to 5 μg/ml for Minoxidil and finasteride with correlation coefficient 0.999 for both the drugs. Percent recoveries obtained for both the drugs were 99.275-99.72 and 98.54-99.3% w/w. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The method developed can be used for the routine analysis of Minoxidil and Finasteride in combined dosage form.
- Page(s): 05-10
- Date of Publication: 19 December 2018
- I.PonnilavarasanKMCH College of Pharmacy, Kovai Estate, Kalapatty Road, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu India
- Mansoor.K.PKMCH College of Pharmacy, Kovai Estate, Kalapatty Road, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu India.
- K.K.SivakumarKMCH College of Pharmacy, Kovai Estate, Kalapatty Road, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu India.
. Zahid A Zaheer, Shahed Mirza, Ismail Moazzam and Imran W Sayad,2012, UV-Spectrophotometric determination of minoxidil and its application to the assay in pharmaceutical dosage forms, Der Pharma Chemica, 2012, 4 (1),Pg no 568-573. . Hemanth K Gaidhane, Jagdish P Bidada, Akshay S Bhusari , Manjusha S Navkhare, Ganesh P Diwanka, Ashish H Tiwari. Development and Validation of Stability Indicating HPLC Method for the estimation of Minoxidil and related substance in topical formulation, Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2011: 4(12), Pg no: 4481-4484. . Maryam Bordbar, Ali Yeganeh-Faal, Jahanbakhsh Ghasemi, Mohammad Mahdi Ahari-Mostafavi, Nahid Sarlak and Mohammad Taghi Baharifard. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of minoxidil and tretinoin by the H-point standard addition method and partial least squares, Chemical Papers, 2009: 63(3), Pg no: 336-344 . Bonazzi D, Di Pietra AM, Gatti R, Cavrini V. Determination of minoxidil in pharmaceutical formulations by difference spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography (HPLC), Farmaco Societa chimica italiana. 1990, 45(6): Pg no: 727-735. . Carrum G, Abernethy DR, Sadhukhan M, Wright CE 3rd. Minoxidil analysis in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Application to pharmacokinetic studies. Journal of Chromatography. 1986 Aug 22; 381(1):127-35 . Zarghi A. Shafaati, S.M. Foroutan A. Khoddam, Rapid determination of minoxidil in human plasma using ion-pair HPLC, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 36, Issue 2, 29 October 2004, Pg no 377–379 . Jeffrey Hurst.W, Robert A. Martin. The analysis of phospholipids in soy lecithin by HPLC, Journal of the American oil chemists' society, Volume 61, Number 9 (1984), Pg no.1462-1463. . Manish Kumar Thimmaraju, Venkat Rao, Srikanth Gurrala, Jayapal Reddy. UV Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Determination of Finasteride and Tamsulosin in combined dosage form, International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 2011: 1(3), Pg no: 303-310 . Basavaiah.K, Somashekar.B.C, Determination of Finasteride in Tablets by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, E-Journal of Chemistry, 2006: 4, (1), Pg no: 109-116 . Dipti B. Patel, Natubhai J. Patel. Validated RP-HPLC and TLC methods for simultaneous estimation of tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride in combined dosage forms, Acta Pharmaceutica, 2010: 60, Pg no: 197–205 . Srinivas.G, KishoreKumar.K, Yarram Rama Koti Reddy, Mukkanti.K, Gangaram V. Kanumula,Madhavan.P, Validated stability indicating LC method of assay and related substances for Finasteride, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2011: 3(6), 987-996. . Akheel.A.Syed, Mungalimane K., Amshumali. LC determination of finasteride and its application to storage stability studies, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 25 (2001) 1015–1019. . Xiaohong Chen, Erin R. Gardner, Douglas K. Price, and William D. Figg. Development and Validation of an LC–MS Assay for Finasteride and its Application to Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Sample Analysis, Journal of Chromatographic Science, 2008: 46, 356-361. . Szabolcs Fekete, Jeno Fekete , Katalin Ganzler.Validated UPLC method for the fast and sensitive determination of steroid residues in support of cleaning validation in formulation area, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 49 ,2009, 833–838. . Phapale PB, Lee HW, Lim MS, Kim EH, Kim SD, Park J, Lee M, Hwang SK, Yoon YR. Rapid determination of finasteride in human plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to clinical pharmacokinetic study, Journal of Chromatography. B. Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 2010 Jun 15; 878(20):1718-23.
I.Ponnilavarasan, Mansoor.K.P, K.K.Sivakumar"Simultaneous Estimation of Minoxidil and Finasteride by RP-HPLC in Presence of Soy Lecithin Excipient in Lotion Dosage Form" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 12 December 2018, pp.05-10 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue12/05-10.pdf
Citrus aurantifolia Linnhas many medicinal and pharmacological significance. This work aimed at evaluating the phytochemical constituents, acute toxicity and the anti-nociceptive activity of the methanol crude stem bark extract of Citrus aurantifolia. Presence of some bioactive metabolites: cardiac-glycosides, terpeniods, flavonoids, tannins and phlobatannins were found in crude methanol extract. Acute toxicity ( LD50) of the methanol crude extract was determined and it was observed that there was no mortality at 5000mg/kg b.d.wt. Hence, the extract was found to be non toxic. In acetic-acid induced test the methanol stem bark extract demonstrated significant antinociceptive activities (P≤0.05), the percentage inhibitions of the treatment groups were 48.3%, 52.6% and 57.9%.Pentozocine (20 mg/kg), a standard drug gave the percentage inhibition of 67.8%. The extract on tail immersion test appeared to increase the mean reaction time at (30 min.) were found to be 5.00±0.00s, 5.80±0.37s, 6.00±0.32s and 7.00±0.32s respectively and at (120 min.), were observed to be 4.40±0.25s, 5.20±0.20s, 5.40±0.25s and 5.80±0.20s. Pentozocine gave mean reaction time of 9.00±0.32s, 8.00±0.32s, 7.60±0.68s and 6.20±0.20s respectively at various post treatment time intervals.The percentage inhibitions of methanol extract on tail immersion test at dose of 400mg/kg was 20%,at 30min, at 60min, was 71.4%, at 90min. was 32% while at 120min. was 22.7% and finally, for the 600mg/kg body weight were 40%, 80.9%, 36% and 31.8 respectively. The pentozocine gave percentage inhibitions at 30, 60, 90, 120 min were 80%, 90%, 52% and 40.9% for various doses at post treatment time were found to be higher than that of the methanolextract. Moreover the extract appeared to induced an increase in pain threshold at (P˂0.05) to Eddy’s hot plate. The maximum dose of 600mg/kg, the percentage increase in pain threshold of 82.4% respectively. Pentozocine (20 mg/kg) showed mean reaction time of 6.60±0.24s and percentage increase in pain threshold 94.1%. The activity of the pentozocine was found to be significantly higher compared to the extract although, they were all significant at (P≤ 0.05) across the column. Thus, the usage of the plant in treatment of analgesic condition by local people could be justified.
- Page(s): 11-17
- Date of Publication: 20 December 2018
- Mustapha A. TijjaniDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
- Fanna I. AbdulrahmanDepartment of Science Laboratory Technology, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1070 Maiduguri, Borno State – Nigeria.
- Sherriff AdamDepartment of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State., Nigeria
- Usman B. ShamakiDepartment of Pharmaceutical Chemisty, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
. Akerele, O. (1993). Summary of WHO Guidelines for the Assessment of Herbal Medicines. Herbal Gram.22:13-28. . Abel, C. and Busia, K. (2005). An Explanatory Ethnobotanical Study of the Practice of Herbal Medicine by the Akan people of Ghana. Altern.Med. Rev. 10:112-122. . Roosita, K., Kusharto, C. M., Sekivama, M., Fachrurozi, Y., and Ohtsuka, R. (2008). Medicinal plants used by the villagers of a Sundanese community in west Java, Indonesia 115:72-81. . Scazzochio, F., Cometa, M., Tomassin, L. and Palmery, M. (2001). Antibacterial Activity of Hydrastis Canadensis Extract and its Major Isolated Alkaloids.Panta.Med. 67:561-564. . Joshi, B. Sah, G. B.,Basnet, B. B., Bhatt, M. Sharma, R.,Subedi, K., Pandey, J. and Malla, R. (2011). Phytochemical Extraction and Antimicrobial Properties of Different Medicinal Plants: Ocimum sanctum (Tutsi), Eugenia caryophyllata (Clove), Achyranthesbidentata (Datiwan) and Azadirachtaindica (Neem). J. Microbiol. Amtimicrob.3(1),1-7. . Okwi, D. E. and Emenike, I. N. (2006). Evaluation of the Phytonutrients and Vitamins Contents of Citrus Fruits. Intern. J. Mol. Med. and Adv. Sci.2(1): 1-6. . Brain, K. R. and Tuner, T. D. (1975). The Practical Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Weight ScienceTechnical Bristol, Britain.140-144; 152-154. . Markham, K. R. (1982). Techniques of Flavonoids Identification.Academic Press, London.193-204. . Trease, G. E. and Evans, W. C. (2002).Textbook of Pharmacogonosy, 14th Edition. W.B Saundors Company LTD. 24-25 Oval, London. NW7DX, UK and printed by Harcourt Brace and Company. 13-53, 117-139. . Lorke, D. (1983). A New Approach to Practical Acute Toxicity.Archives of Toxicology; 53:275-289. . Ramabadran, K., Banisnath.,MTurndorf, H., and Puig, M. M (1989). Tail immersion test for the evaluation of a nociceptive reaction in mice: methodological considerations of J.Pharmacol.toxicol. Methods,21: 21-31. . Singh, S. and Majumdar, D. K. (1995). Analgesic activity of Ocimum sanctum and its possible mechanism of action.Int. J. Pharmacogn., 33, 188-192. . Shetty, S. N. and Anika, S. M. (1982). Laboratory Manual of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1st ed. Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishers.pp.218-221. . Franzotti, E. M., Santos, C.V .F., Rodrigues, H. M. S., Mourao, R. H. V. and Andrade, M. R. (2000).Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Acute Toxicity of Sida CordiforliaL. J.Ethnopharmacol.,72:273-277. . Koster, R., Anderson, M. and Debeer, E. J. (1995).Acetic acid for Analgesic Screening. Federation Proceedings; 18: 412-415. . Dambisya, Y. M. and Lee, S. (1999). Influence of Temperature, pH and Naloxone on the Anti- nociceptive Activity of Chanastriatus(Haraun) Extract in Mice. J Ethnopharmacol; 66: 181-186. . Bolon, B, and St. Omar, V. E. V. (1989). Behavioral and development effects in sucking mice following material exposure to the mycotoxin Secaconic acid. J. Pharmaco., and Biochem.of Behav, 34:229-231. . Bors, W., Heller, W., Michel, C. and Saran, M. (1990). Flavonoids as antioxidants: Determination of radical scavenging efficiencies. Methods in Enzymology, 186:343-355. . Colerige Smith, P. O., Thomas, P., Scurr, J. H. and Dormandy, J. A. (1980). Causes of various ulceration, a new hypothesis, Brit. Med. J.,296:1726-1727. . Kumar, S., Mishra, A. and Pandey, K. (2013). Antioxidant mediated protective effect of Partheniumhysterophorus against oxidative damage using in vitro models. ”BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13(120): 34-42. . Clack, W. and Mackay, E. (1950). Effect of flavonoid substances on histamine toxicity, anaphylactic shock and histamine enhanced capacity to dye. J. Aller., 21:133-147. . Hertog, M. G. L., Fesken, E. J. M., Holiman, P. C. H., Kantan, M. B. and Kromhout, D. (1993).Dietray Antioxidants; Falconoid and Risk of Coronary Heart Diseases. The Zutphen Elderly Study Lancet, 342, 1007-1011. . Mori, A., Nishinoc, E. N and Tavata, S. (1988). Cytotoxicity of plant flavonoids against Hela cells. Phytochemistry,27: 1017-20. . Tapas, A. R., Sakarkar, D. M. and Kakde, R. B. (2008). Flavonoids as nutraceuticals: A review. Tropical J. Pharm. Res., 7: 1089-1099. . Baars, E. W., Jong, M., Nierop, A. F. M., Boers, I. and Savelkoul, F. H. J. (2011) Citrus/Cydonia Compositum Subcutaneous Injections Versus nasal Spray for Seasonal Allergic rhinitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial on Efficacy and Afety. ISRN Allergy; doi:10. 5402/2011/836051 . Nunez, G. M., Emim, J. A., Souccar, C., &Lapa, A. J. (1997). Analgesic And Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Aqueous Extract of Plantago major L. Int. J. Pharmacogn., 35(2): 99-104. . Yongna, Z., Wapana, R., Pisit, B., Zhongkun, L. and Rongpin, Z. (2005). Analgesic and the Antipyretic Activities of the Aqueous Extract of Urtica macrorrhiza in Experimental Animals.Fitoterapia.75, 91-95. . Ferreira, S. H., & Vane, J. P. (1974). New Aspect on the Mode of Action of Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs. Ann.Rez.Pharmacol.,14, 57 . Eerkenkopf, J. W., and Waionmann, B. M. (1988). Production of Prostaglandins in Mice Following Intraperitoneal Injection of Acetic acid, Phenylbenzoquinone and Zymosan: its role in the Writhing Response. Prostaglandins.36: 698-709. . Abdulrahman, F. I., Sandabe, U. K. and Iguniwei, P. B. (2005). Anticonvulsant, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of aqueous extract of Terminaliaavicennoides stem bark on rats, Sahel Journal of Veterinary Science, 4(1): 43-47. . Sodipo, O. A., Mamza, U. T., Abdulrahman, F. I. And Khan, I. Z. (2015). Evaluation of Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Toxicity Studies of Ethanolic Stem bark extract of phyllantusAmarus ThonnandSchum (Euphorbiacea), TheInl. J. Scie. And Tech.3(6): 262-268
Mustapha A. Tijjani, Fanna I. Abdulrahman, Sherriff Adam, Usman B. Shamaki"Phytochemical Screening, Acute Toxicity and Anti-Nociceptive Activity of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Citrus aurantifolia Linn" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 12 December 2018, pp.11-17 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue12/11-17.pdf
Traction motor system in India works on single phase 25kV traction system. If this single phase traction load is supplied from only one phase then it creates the unbalance effect in three phase system to reduce unbalancing effect, all these phases are tapped from the adjacent substations in sequence. These phases are electrically isolated from each other by means of neutral sections normally provided near the traction substation (TSS) and sectioning post (SP). But at such section post or near neutral section only sign boards are used which give the indication to driver at that time DJ (circuit breaker) should be open, which may not be clearly seen in the foggy, rainy, snowing and polluted environment. Due to ignorance of such sign electrical hazard is possible. Hence our project basically focused on the automatic clearing of such a neutral section using sensor, relay, and use of circuit breaker at the start and end of the neutral section and it's function is to carry the supply of running phase to neutral section by disconnecting the next phase, without loss (interruption) of the supply from OHE and continuous operation of the all electrical equipment on the train, which is not possible at the present in neutral section.
- Page(s): 18-20
- Date of Publication: 05 January 2019
- Yogesh RathodBE Student, Dept. of Electrical Eng., MET BKC IOE, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
- Durgesh KhairnarBE Student, Dept. of Electrical Eng., MET BKC IOE, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
- Manoj DeoreBE Student, Dept. of Electrical Eng., MET BKC IOE, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
- Bhaulal PhadBE Student, Dept. of Electrical Eng., MET BKC IOE, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
- R. J. NikamAssistant Professor, Dept.o f Electrical Eng., MET BKC IOE, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
. H. Preatap, “Modern electric traction s”, DhanpatRai& Co. . Handbook on Arthur Flury AG neutral section. . Ministry of Railway, “Pamphlet on neutral section maintenance”. . J.B. Gupta, “Utilization of electrical energy and electric traction”, S Chandpublication. . http://www.kportal.indianrailways.gov.in . http://www.rdso.indianrailways.gov.in/
Yogesh Rathod, Durgesh Khairnar, Manoj Deore, Bhaulal Phad, R. J. Nikam "Automatic Switched Neutral Section in Railway" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 12 December 2018, pp.18-20 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue12/18-20.pdf
This paper has investigated the viability of constructing Kashimbilla Multipurpose Dam in Taraba State Nigeria using Cost and Benefit Analysis (CBA) under two different scenarios. It particularly varied interest rate, project costs and benefits. The analysis has demonstrated that Kashimbilla Dam is a worthwhile project. While the result from the computation of the CBA suggests that the project is viable, other social benefits such as improved crop yields resulting from irrigation services, improved water availability, full benefits from flood control (value of human life), increased access to water resources, creation of employment and tourism indicate also that the project is a worthy public undertaking.
- Page(s): 21-28
- Date of Publication: 06 January 2019
- James T. IhumFormer Postgraduate Student, Department of Economics, LUBS, University of Leeds, UK
- Fabian StephenCenter for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy, School of Social Sciences, University of Dundee, UK
. Abayomi, A., Reginald, I., Imo E. E, and Ali-Dapshima, A. 2015.Progress on the Hydropower Component of Kashimbilla Multipurpose Dam Project, Nigeria. . Altinbilek, D. 2002. The Role of Dams in Development, International Journal of Warter Resources Development, 18, pp.9-24. doi:10.1080/07900620220121620 [online] [accessed 10th May 2017] via https://www.researchgate.net/publication/11351678_The_Role_of_Dams_in_Development . Babagana A, Dungus B, Belloo S. A and Kolo B. S, 2015.Problems and Prospects of Alau DamConstruction in Alau Community,Konduga Local Government Area,Borno state, Nigeria. European Scientific Journal July 2015 edition vol.11, No.20 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431 . Brimmo, A. T., Sodiq, A. , Sofela, S. and Kolo, S. 2016. Sustainable energy development in Nigeria: Wind, hydropower, geothermal and nuclear (Vol. 1). 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James T. Ihum and Fabian Stephen "A Cost and Benefit Analysis of Kashimbilla Multipurpose Dam Project in Takum, Taraba State, Nigeria " International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 12 December 2018, pp.21-28 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue12/21-28.pdf
Terminalia catappa is a family of combretaceae which constitutes of many bioactive components. One thousand grammes (1000g) of the leaf of Terminalia catappa was extracted with methanol using cold infusion techniques. Crude extract obtained, which was further partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water to give n-hexane portion (1.638% W/W), dark green in colour, oily in texture, ethyl acetate portion (0.075% W/W), black in colour, gummy in texture, n-butanol portion (0.777% W/W), brown in colour, oily in texture and finally aqueous portion (2.997% W/W), dark brown in colour, powdered in texture. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanol crude extract and partitioned portions revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites such as cardiac glycoside, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloid. However, metabolites such as phlabotannins and glycosides were tested negative. The n-butanol portion was subjected to purification using column and thin layer chromatography methods. Fractions were obtained rerun, recombined and pooled based on their retardation factor (Rf). Pure isolate with retardation factor (Rf) 0.4 and melting point 286.00-287.00oC which was subjected to Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and the result was compared using NIST library of compounds which are of therapeutic values.
- Page(s): 29-45
- Date of Publication: 06 January 2019
- Umar Dan’azumiDepartment of Basic Science, College of Agriculture Gujba, P.M.B 1104 Damaturu Yobe State-Nigeria
- A. M. FulataDepartment of Remedial Science, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, P.M.B 1070 Maiduguri, Borno State-Nigeria
- Suleiman AliDepartment of Basic Science, College of Agriculture Gujba, P.M.B 1104 Damaturu Yobe State-Nigeria
- Mohammed AuduMai Idris Alooma Polytechnic Geidam, P.M.B 1020 Geidam Yobe State-Nigeria
- M. M. GarandawaMai Idris Alooma Polytechnic Geidam, P.M.B 1020 Geidam Yobe State-Nigeria
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Umar Dan’azumi, A. M. Fulata, Suleiman Ali, Mohammed Audu, M. M. Garandawa "Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and GC-MS Analysis of the Bioactive Components of the Leaf of Terminalia catappa" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 12 December 2018, pp.29-45 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue12/29-45.pdf