Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Constituents of Triumfetta rhomboidea Leaves and Roots

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Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Constituents of Triumfetta rhomboidea Leaves and Roots

A. F. Akinsola1 and A. G. Oluwafemi2
1Depatment of Industrial Chemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
2Department of Biochemistry, Landmark University, Omu-aran, Kwara-State.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2023.8510

IJRISS Call for paper

Received: 12 May 2023; Accepted: 23 May 2023; Published: 18 June 2023

Abstract: This study investigated the proximate, mineral constituents and qualitative phytochemical screening of both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Triumfetta rhomboidea leaves and roots. The study involved the collection of samples from Ekiti State University farm, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. The samples were analyzed using standard analytical methods. Proximate analysis revealed that the leaves and roots of Triumfetta rhomboidea contained moisture (15.8 ±0.0, 15.2 ±0.1), crude protein (14.2 ±0.1, 10.2 ±0.0), crude fat (2.10 ±0.02, 0.92 ±0.04), ash (16.2 ±0.0, 12.2 ±0.1), crude fibre (9.14 ±0.04, 10.3 ±0.2), carbohydrate (42.6 ±0.1, 51.2 ±0.4) and energy (246, 254) content respectively. In addition, Na (44.7 ±0.2, 28.7 ±0.6), K (1203 ±3, 723 ±3), Mg (83.8 ±1.4, 41.2 ±0.3), P (896 ±4, 692 ±3), Ca (403 ±2, 294 ±2), Zn (11.0 ±0.1, 14.3 ±0.1), Mn (4.12 ±0.11, 2.92 ±0.06), Cu (2.42 ±0.02, 1.73 ±0.03, Cr (0.015 ±0.005, 0.045 ±0.005), were found in TRL and TRR while Cd and Pb were not detected in both samples. The phytochemical study showed that both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Triumfetta rhomboidea leaves and roots contained phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and, reducing sugars. However, terpenoids were absent in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves and roots of Triumfetta rhomboidea. Alkaloids and steroids were present in the aqueous and ethanolic extract of roots only. Terpenoids were absent in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves and roots respectively with saponins not found in the ethanolic extract of the leaves only. Cardiac glycosides and phlobatannins were identified in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves only. These findings suggest that Triumfetta rhomboidea leaves and roots may have potential health benefits and could be used as natural sources of important nutrients and phytochemicals. The plant parts considered in the present study can be very useful in the development of either therapeutic or prophylactic medicine and can also be good sources of supplements in foods. Further research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits of Triumfetta rhomboidea and its components in different contexts.

Key words: Triumfetta rhomboidea, leaves, roots, proximate, minerals, phytochemicals

I. Introduction

The search for natural remedies has been a topic of great interest in recent years. Medicinal plants have been used by different cultures as a primary source of medicine and food for centuries [1]. Medicine developed from natural plants is commonly used due to its eco-friendliness, ease of accessibility, economic viability and generation of little or no side effect [2],[3]. Different parts of medicinal plants are targeted for investigation and these include leaves, roots, fruits, stems, barks, flowers, transudate and exudate [2],[4]. Therefore, any part with therapeutic and prophylactic effects are mostly used as alternative medicines for the prevention, management and treatment of diseases such as ulcer, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity own to their safety, ease of accessibility and efficiency.