Influence of Guidance and Counseling as Teachers’ Discipline Management Strategies on Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examination in Public Secondary Schools in Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya

Dr. Jacob Kinoti Nkarichia
Department of Education, Tharaka University
Received: 15 May 2023; Accepted: 30 May 2023; Published: 03 July 2023

Abstract: Discipline in schools is about positive behavior change in order to create conducive environment for learning. When discipline is achieved in secondary schools, it becomes instrumental in students academic performance. This study focused on assessment of the influence of teachers’ discipline management strategies on KCSE performance in public secondary schools in Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya. The objective of this study was to establish the influence of school rules on KCSE performance. The county has had a trend of grade wastage from KCPE to KCSE. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The study targeted 104 public secondary schools in Tharaka Nithi County, with 10 boys schools, 17 girls schools and 77 mixed schools. Stratified random, purposive sampling method and Krejcie & Morgan population sample table was used to determine the sample size. Principals and teachers were the respondents in this study. Interview schedule for 21 principals and 346 questionnaires for teachers were used as tools for data collection. The study sampled 42 schools, which constituted 40% of the total population size. The researcher prepared the instruments with expert judgment by supervisors. Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient (α) was employed in determining the reliability of the instruments. The study was based on Systems Theory of Peter M. A pilot study of 10% of the sample schools and respondents was carried out from each of school category. Alpha index of 0.869 was obtained for the teachers’ questionnaires. The reliability of the interview schedule was ensured by the consistency of the questions and the order in which they were administered. The study used descriptive statistics which included frequencies, measures of central tendencies (mean) and measures of dispersion (standard deviation). Inferential statistics Pearson r was used to test the relationships of the hypotheses with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) in analyzing the data. The data from the interview guide was arranged thematically, transcribed and then presented verbatim in order to triangulate the results. The results revealed that school rules did not influence KCSE performance positively. The findings of this study are expected to be of benefit to different stake holders like teachers, parents and policy developers, who are sensitized with new information on alternative disciplinary strategies to be used on students’ discipline in schools, the policy makers are assisted to come up with a new policy on use of alternative disciplinary methods in schools.

Keywords: Management strategies, academic performance, secondary schools, Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya

I. Introduction

Background to the Study
Discipline refers to educating someone to acquire desired behavior for both remediation and prevention purposes (Cotton, 2012). The quality of students’ discipline in schools is an important factor in determining the intellectual outcome of students and schools (Reynolds, 2009). According to Rogers (2011), discipline has to do with guidance and instruction to teach and enhance a social order where rights and responsibilities are balanced. Discipline is about positive behaviour change (Squelch, 2010). Rossouw (2013) observes that when educators discipline learners, they are making disciples or disciplined persons. In this sense, discipline is regarded as training that develops self-control.