Implication of Poverty on Health Status in Nigeria

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume II, Issue XI, November 2018 | ISSN 2454–6186

Implication of Poverty on Health Status in Nigeria

KAKAIN Stephen1, OBAYORI Joseph Bidemi2

1Department of Agriculture and Applied Economics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
2Department of Economics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

Abstract:-The study examined the implication of poverty on health status in Nigeria. The essentiality of the study was as a result of current growing rate of poverty that has greater implication on both life expectancy and infant mortality rates. Thus, the objectives of the study were to examine the impact of poverty on life expectancy in Nigeria and as well examine the impact of poverty on infant mortality rate in Nigeria. To achieve the stated objectives, secondary data on Nigeria from World Bank data bank were collected on poverty gap, life expectancy and infant mortality rate. The study used the ADF unit root test, co-integration and granger causality tests to analyze the collected data. The ADF unit root test of the series showed that the variables were stationary at first difference. Again, the results of Engle Granger co-integration test result showed that there is a long run relationship amongst the variables. Also, Pairwise Granger causality test result showed that poverty affects both life expectancy and infant mortality rate. The paper concluded that there is high rate of poverty in the Nigerian economy and this variably will have a negative effect on the health status which will in the long run affect economic growth. Based on the findings, study recommends that Nigerian government should implement welfare programmes and increase fiscal expenditures to create employment that will check the growing rate of poverty. Also, emphasis should be placed on the capital expenditure on health sector, in this will stimulate the rapid development of the sector.

Keywords: Poverty, Health Status, Income Inequality, Mortality and Life Expectancy.

I. INTRODUCTION

Nigeria is a large country which occupies about 923768 km2 with a population of 190,632, 261 million estimated based in world fact book (C.I.A., 2018). Nigeria has a huge and vast availability of Natural resources which has generated more than $500 billion, since its inception to crude oil exportation (Xavier & Subramanian, 2003). Yet achieving equitable distribution of income and alleviating poverty has always been some major development objectives. Hence, successive governments has engaged in various poverty reduction programmes such National Poverty Eradication Programme, Nigerian Economy Empowerment Developmental Strategy and Nigerian Millennium Goals amongst others.

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