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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume V, Issue IX, September 2021 | ISSN 2454–6186

FIRE Leadership: A Case Study of the Blaan Tribe in Municipality of Kiblawan, Davao del Sur.

Roel Jr. D. Apas
Master of Public Administration, Davao del Sur State College, Philippines

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract— the study was conducted to determine the long-established leadership system of Blaan Tribe on the aspect of Fortification, Integrity, Resiliency, and being Ethical. The tribal leaders were interviewed to determine the constructs of FIRE leadership based on the Blaan tribe Indigenous Knowledge Systems and practices. This study utilized qualitative methods of research using a case study research design employing appreciative inquiry. The design is appropriate since it gives a comprehensive description of an individual case and its analysis. Through in-depth interviews, the researcher has been able to gain knowledge regarding the type of leadership the Blaan has. They have fortified in the sense that leaders find ways, are responsible to their call of duty, and solicit suggestions to their elders to make just decisions. To be served as a role model of the community, the Blaan Leader admits guilt and takes responsibility for the actions he/she has made. Identifying the root cause is practiced to solve problems, and consensus amongst leaders and community members is the culture. Lastly, Blaan Leaders observe the procedural process of settling conflicts, have a moral principle, basing their decision with consensus, and depend on the traditional customary practices.

Index Terms – Fortification, Integrity, Resilience & Ethical Leadership.


Over the past decades, the spectrum of leadership has grown so much. Numerous leadership theories have been developed, and many leaders are practicing those theories to become better leaders. Many indigenous people are living in Mindanao. One of which is the Blaans considered one of the largest due to their territorial position. The boundaries of their ancestral domain were the territories of their fellow Indigenous Peoples/Indigenous Cultural Communities (ICC’s/IP’s). With the implementation of the IPRA law of 1997, their rights are recognized, right to an ancestral domain, rights to social justice and human rights, right to cultural integrity, and right to self-governance and empowerment (ADSDPP, 2016). However, the problem arises when leaders fail to maintain the status quo of their jurisdiction. The problems they encounter along their way as a leader would test them how fortified they are in times of difficulties, how they practice integrity, how resilient they are while in toughness and challenging situations, and how ethical they are.
In the locality of Kiblawan, Davao del Sur, wherein it is dominated mainly by the Blaan people, leadership has been practiced. Brian has its system of choosing its leader. The leader among the Blaan is recognized through their hard work,