Extraction, Chemical Modification and Characterization of Turmeric Dye (Curcuma longa) and its Application on Cotton Fabric

Extraction, Chemical Modification and Characterization of Turmeric Dye (Curcuma longa) and its Application on Cotton Fabric

A.U. Awode, G.M. Dalyop., S. D. Olatidoye., S. Tijani., I. H. Kalu and O. Adeyanju
Department of Chemistry, University of Jos, Nigeria
Corresponding author
DOI: https://doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2023.8713
Received: 13 May 2023; Revised: 26 June 2023; Accepted: 29 June 2023; Published: 03 August 2023


Abstract: Curcuma longa is a tropical plant whose rhizomes has been used to dye cloth since at least 2500 BCE but being a natural dye, it has poor to moderate fastness. In this study, an attempt was made to extract turmeric dye from Curcuma longa rhizomes and carry out its chemical modification by the choline chloride method to improve its fastness property when applied to fabrics. Turmeric dye was extracted from the rhizome using acetone and further crystallized with hexane to form the curcumin, the concentrated yellow dye. The characterization of the extracted dye and modified dye was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Dyeing of cotton fabric was carried out using the extracted dye and the modified dye. Fastness properties was also determined on the dyed fabric. Fastness properties of natural Curcuma Longa dyed cotton fabric ranged from moderate [2] to good [4] and that of modified Curcuma Longa dyed cotton fabric ranged from good [4] to excellent [5]. This indicate that the modified fabric has better fastness properties. Dye manufacturing from local plants should be supported using chemical modification to achieve better fastness properties on dyed fabrics.

Key Word: Chemical modification, Dye, FTIR, Turmeric, Fabric

I. Introduction

Generally, dyes are used for colouring of foods, drugs, leather, cosmetics, petroleum products and textile materials among other things. These materials are dyed for different purposes, for instance, in leather industries; one of the reasons for dyeing the leather is to make it adaptable for fashion styling (Adeyanju et al., 2021; Opera et al., 2014). Petroleum products are coloured for identification of fuel adulteration (Adeyanju et al.,2021; Ezeokonkwo and Okoro, 2014) andfor differentiation of various petroleum products (Rostad, 2010).Most substances are generally dyed to enhance appearance and aesthetic value of finished products. In recent times, many people are becoming more conscious of the need to use natural dyes in food colouring as against synthetic dyes (Dweck, 2009). Some of the approved dyes are being delisted due to legislative action as well as consumer interest (Garcia and Cruz-Remes, 1993). Again, natural food colourant contain some biological active components such as lycopene, carotenes, canthaxanthin and quercetin which plays a vital role in human health (Okafor et al., 2016).

Turmeric (a yellow dye) is a good colouring agent (Yankar et al., 2007) which is used as a spice and as natural food colourant. Turmeric has been reported to have a powerful antiseptic effect that revitalizes the skin while Indigo, a dark blue dye has a cooling sensation (Gravier and Patni, 2011). Dyes are coloured substances that chemically bonds to the substrate to which it is being applied (Booth and Gerald, 2000). They are molecules that can be dissolved in water or some other carrier so that they will penetrate the fiber (Patra et al., 2000).

The colour of a dye is dependent upon the ability of the substance to absorb light within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum (380-750nm). An earlier theory known as Witt’s theory stated that a coloured dye has two components, a chromophore which imparts colour by absorbing light in the visible region and an auxochrome which intensifies the colour but this theory has been superseded by modern electronic structure theory which states that the colour in dyes is due to excitation of valence pi-electrons by visible light (Bafana et. al., 2011).

The colouring matter in turmeric is called curcumin (C21H20O6). Curcumin is a yellow-orange compound extracted from curcuma rhizomes, especially Curcuma longa, obtained through extraction with solvent and extract purification through crystallization. The chemical composition of the commercial product is often the mixture of curcuminoids derived from curcuma invaried proportions. The concentration of the three major curcuminoids of different samples of Curcuma longa presented an average composition of 50 – 60% curcumin, 20 – 30% demethoxy-curcumin and 7 – 20% bidemethoxycurcumin (Li et al., 2011). In figure 1:

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