Evaluation of Radiation Exposure Rate and Determination of Excess Life Time Cancer Risk in Lecture Halls in Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State Nigeria

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VIII, Issue III, March 2023|ISSN 2454-6194

Evaluation of Radiation Exposure Rate and Determination of Excess Life Time Cancer Risk in Lecture Halls in Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State Nigeria

Ogobiri E. Godwin1, Anyalebechi Onyebuchi2, Godwill Ziriki3
1Physics Department, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
2Physics Department, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
3Bayelsa Medical University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Received: 13 February 2023; Revised: 02 March 2023; Accepted: 09 March 2023; Published: 11 April 2023

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract: – The radiation exposure rate (ER) in lecture halls in Niger Delta University (NDU) Bayelsa State Nigeria has been evaluated and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) determined, including the corresponding annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE). The exposure rate was measured using Radalert 100XTM Device which uses a Geiger muller tube to detect radiation in the Four (4) Lecture Halls in the university. The highest average indoor ADR, AEDE and ELCR of: 463.280nGy/h, 2.270msv/y and 7.900×10-3 respectively were reported in Hall 1 code named LH1. Comparatively Hall 4 (LH4) had the lowest values of ADR 226.20nGy/h, AEDE 1.110msv/y and ELCR 3.880 x 10-3. The organ evaluation shows the teste with reported value of 1.490msv/y and the ovaries 0.570msv/y. These values are higher than the world average as submitted.

Keywords: Indoor Radiation exposure, Lifetime Cancer risk, Lecture Halls

I. Introduction

There is no known value at which continued exposure rate to a radiation dose does not pose a risk. The evaluation of radiation hazard indices is very indispensable given its usefulness in appraising the radiological effects. The need to make a reliable choice that will lead to a good analysis of hazards involved in radiation exposure entails that radiological hazard indices assessments are properly carried out Radiation call for the transmission of energy either as a wave or particle in a given medium. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, 1989) categories radiation as: electromagnetic (visible light, x-ray), acoustic radiation (sound, ultrasound) and particle radiation (Neutron). Fount of radiation exposure encompass; cosmic ray galactic Neutron and gamma ray from interaction between space radiation and lunar soil in the moon, sporadic solar particles upshot from solar flares and primordial radionuclide, K40, U238 and Th232 coming from earth crust such as rock, soil, water, sediments and foods plus human body (manickavasagan and Jayasuriya, 2016). These sources are reinforced by our extensive use of electronic devices in communication, application of radio therapy in medicine and other electric installations.

Well known impact of radiation is visible in the area of human and animal health in form of cancer. At high doses and perhaps low doses too, radiation might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and some other non-cancer disease (Kamiya etal 2015). The dose response relation for cancer at low doses are assumed for behoof of radiological protection to be linear without a threshold. It is in response to these outlined observations that the practice of radiation protection emphasized that the exposure rate to radiation should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA Principle).

Several works have been done in the area of radiation generally. Ogbobiri etal (2022) carried out an estimation of radiation exposure rate and evaluation of life-time cancer risk in two waste dump sites in Yenagoa Metropolis in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Anyalebechi etal (2021) studied the assessment of Excess Life-time risk from gamma radiation exposure rate in two tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Ugbede etal (2018) worked on the measurement of background ionizing radiation (BIR) and evaluation of life-time cancer risk in highly populated motor parks in Enugu City Nigeria. Others include; Okeyode etal (2019); Kamiya etal (2015), Manickavasagan etal (2016) et cetera. We justify this particular work from the rise in cancer and related health issues in recent times is Bayelsa. these calls for concern and concerted efforts in sourcing it possible roots no matter how little it may be contributing. This is why we are shifting attention to indoor radiation exposure rate in halls of Learning in Niger Delta University. It has been shown that building materials may add to indoor Radon level in addition to Radon that get into halls and homes through cracks, foundations and waters. Those building materials such as concrete bricks, gypsum, granites and chemicals in paints can emit beta and gamma radiation and the halls may not be well and regularly ventilated. The current work evaluates radiation exposure rate and excess life time cancer rate in Four (4) Lecture halls in Niger Delta University (NDU) Amassoma Bayelsa State, Nigeria