Effectiveness of CRT on Secondary School Students’ Attitude towards Cigarette Smoking in Akwa South LGA

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume V, Issue X, October 2021 | ISSN 2454–6186

Effectiveness of CRT on Secondary School Students’ Attitude towards Cigarette Smoking in Akwa South LGA

Anyamene, Ada; Nwokolo, Chisom Sandra
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract: This study investigated the effectiveness of CRT on secondary school students’ attitude towards cigarette smoking in Akwa South LGA. One research question guided the study while one null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design for the study was quasi-experimental, non-randomised pre-test and post-test, control group research. The sample comprised 62 students purposively selected from a population of 289 students. Questionnaire on Cigarette Smoking (QCS), an adapted Youth tobacco survey (YTS) and Wisconsin inventory of smoking dependence motive (WISDM-68). was used for data collection. The internal consistency reliability coefficient for the instrument was 0.85.Data was collected through direct delivery of the instrument to the respondents. Mean scores were used to answer the research questions, while the null hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA). The finding of the study revealed among others that Cognitive Restructuring technique was effective in reducing students with prone attitude towards cigarette smoking. It was concluded from the findings that CRT is an effective treatment technique for modifying cigarette smoking among secondary school students in Awka South LGA. Based on the findings and implications of the study, it was recommended that Practicing counsellors and therapist should make use of the cognitive restructuring technique in counselling and therapy of secondary school students to modifying their unhealthy attitude towards cigarette smoking.

Keyword: cognitive restructuring technique, attitude, cigarette smoking, effectiveness students


Cigarette smoking among children of school age had been viewed by parents and school authorities as a disciplinary problem, involving moral standards, age-related prerogatives and vague health warnings. Today, the trend seemed to have changed and smoking among the adolescents seems more like a normal act and an accepted part of growing up. However, with so much available research evidence on the harmful effects of cigarette smoking, the health warnings seems to have become clearer that preventing cigarette use among youths is critical to ending what could be described today as tobacco smoking epidemic in the Nigeria.
Smoking is an action taken by people that are associated with the burning and inhaling of a substance. It is the act of inhaling and exhaling the fumes of burning plants material (Webb Hooper, Rodríguez de Ybarra & Baker, 2013). It is one of the most common methods of consuming tobacco. In the opinion of Leone, Landini and Leone (2010), it is the inhalation of the smoke of burned tobacco that may occur occasionally or habitually as a consequence of a physical addiction to some chemicals, primarily nicotine. Through the smoking practice, variety of plant materials are