Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Telfairia occidentalis on the Histology of Kidneys of Lead-Induced Wistar Rats

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Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Telfairia occidentalis on the Histology of Kidneys of Lead-Induced Wistar Rats

Agbai JU1, *Ifegwu NO2, Monday AB3, Willy BV4, Eliyah SC5, Elem CJ6
1,2,5,6 Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria.
3Department of Anatomy, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, Nigeria.
4Department of Anatomy, Edo State University Uturu, Abia State, Uzairue, Edo Statem Nigeria.
*Corresponding Author

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10610
Received: 19 May 2023; Revised: 12 June 2023; Accepted: 16 June 2023; Published: 13 July 2023

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Abstract:
Objective: This research study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Telfairia occendentalis on the histology of kidneys of lead-induced wistar rats.
Methodology: Twenty-five (25) male wistar rats weighing 150-180g were procured and acclimatized for two weeks, after which, they were divided into five (5) groups of five (5) rats each, and were housed in cages. The groups were designated as groups A – E. Group A served as the control group and was not induced with lead (Pb), while Groups B – E were induced. Groups A received distilled water only, Groups B – E received vitamin C, vitamin C + 100mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract Telfairia occendentalis, vitamin C + 400mg/kg ethanolic leaf extract of Telfairia occendentalis and vitamin C + 800mg/kg ethanolic leaf extract of Telfairia occendentalis respectively for 14 days through oral route with the aid of oral gastric tube. On the 15th day, the animals were weighed and sacrificed via chloroform inhalation, and kidneys were harvested from the rats for histological study.
Results: Histopathological findings showed normal renal architecture with glomeruli (G), renal tubules (RT), tubular cells (TC), and normal cuboidal epithelial cells(CEC) within the medullar for animals in group A; moderate degeneration with moderate fatty changes (FC), moderate intra renal hemorrhage (IRH), and moderate renal inflammation (IRI) for animals in group B; mild regeneration with moderate fatty changes (FC), tubular atrophy (TA), and moderate renal inflammation (IRI) for animals in group C; moderate regeneration with mild fatty changes (FC), and mild renal inflammation (IRI) for animals in group D; and moderate regeneration with mild fatty changes (FC) otherwise normal with well outlined tubular cells (TC) for animals in group E.
Conclusion: Ethanolic leaf extract of Telfaria occendentalis have ameliorating effect on the histology of kidneys of lead-induced wistar rats, and the ameliorating effect improves with increase in the dosages of the leaf extract.

Keywords: Telfaria occendentalis, Kidneys, Lead.

I. Introduction

Lead exposure is estimated to accounts for 21.7 million years lost to disability and death worldwide due to long-term effects on health, with 30% of the global burden of idiopathic intellectual disability, 4.6% of the global burden of cardiovascular disease and 3% of the global burden of chronic kidney diseases [1]. its exposure is a global issue since its mining and smelting, and battery manufacturing, disposal, and recycling are common in many countries [2]. It has no confirmed biological role, and no confirmed safe level of lead exposure [3]. It is a highly poisonous metal (whether inhaled or swallowed), affecting almost every organ and system in the human body [4].