Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Carica Papaya and Newbouldia Laevis on Hormone Profile of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rat

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International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume VIII, Issue XII, December 2021 | ISSN 2321–2705

Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Carica Papaya and Newbouldia Laevis on Hormone Profile of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rat

Ifegwu NO1*, Anibeze CIP2*, Njoku-Oji NN3
1,2Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria.
3Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.
*Corresponding Author

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ABSTRACT
Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis on hormone profile of alloxan-induced diabetic male wistar rats.
Methodology: Forty (40) male wistar rats weighing 150-180g were procured and acclimatized for two weeks, after which, they were divided into eight (8) groups of five (5) rats each, and were housed in cages. The groups were designated as groups A – H. Group A served as the control group, and received distilled water only. Animals in groups B – H were induced with diabetes using alloxan. The diabetic group B did not receive any treatment throughout the experiment, while the diabetic groups C – H received 400mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 600mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 400mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 600mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 200mg/kg of C. papaya + 200mg/kg of N. laevis, and 300mg/kg of C. papaya + 300mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract respectively for 21 days through oral route with the aid of oral gastric tube. On the 22nd day, the animals were sacrificed via chloroform inhalation and blood samples were then collected through ocular puncture for hormonal assay. All data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 25.0.
Result: Levels of FSH, LH and Testosterone were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in groups B and D when compared to the control group A; and significantly (P<0.05) increased in groups F, G, and H when compared to the control group A. However, there was no significant difference on the levels of FSH, LH and Testosterone in groups C and E when compared to the control group A.

Conclusion: Combined leaf extracts of Carica papaya and Newbouldia laevis have ameliorating effect on the levels of FSH, LH and Testosterone of alloxan-induced male wistar rats.

Keywords: Carica papaya, Newbouldia laevis, FSH, LH, Testosterone

I.0 INTRODUCTION

About 422 million people worldwide have diabetes, with majority living in low-and middle-income countries, 1.5 million deaths are directly attributed to diabetes each year, and both the number of cases and the prevalence of diabetes have been steadily increasing over the past few decades [1]. Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which leads over time to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves [1]. The most common is type 2 diabetes, usually in adults, which occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or does not make enough insulin [1]. In the past three decades the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has risen dramatically in countries of all income levels; and Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin by itself [1]. For people living with diabetes, access to affordable treatment, including insulin, is critical to their survival and there is a globally agreed target to halt the rise in diabetes and obesity by 2025 [1].
Diabetic men have significantly low serum testosterone with low LH and FSH, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypoalbuminemia and increased oxidative stress [2]. Low serum testosterone in diabetic men is accompanied by low LH and FSH due to the inability of the pituitary gland to respond appropriately to a decline in testosterone implying central effect of high serum glucose on the interaction between the nervous and endocrine system. Nutritional deficiency, increased oxidative stress and increased aromatase activity due to excessive body fat could also have contributed to the low serum testosterone [2]. An important complication of diabetes mellitus is the disturbance in the male reproductive system [3]. Glucose metabolism is an important event in spermatogenesis. Diabetes mellitus induces molecular alterations which negatively affect sperm quality and function as well as fertility [4]. Many studies in both human and animal studies have confirmed the deleterious effect of diabetes mellitus on sexual functions such as; semen parameters, nuclear DNA fragment and chromatin quality [5, 6]. The main goal of diabetes treatment is establishing of normal blood glucose and preventing or delaying its metabolic complications. Medicinal plants which are composed of phytochemicals and phytonutrients, possess therapeutic properties, or exert beneficial pharmacological effect on the human body and animal body; and include such plants such as Carica papaya and Newbuldia laevis that could help to improve the health of diseased living organisms.