Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Terminalia catappa (Indian Almond) on the Liver of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rat

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Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Terminalia catappa (Indian Almond) on the Liver of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rat

Emmanuel Osagumwenro Ero*, Humphrey Benedo Osadolor, Laurel Imose Oyakhilome
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Benin, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author
DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10508
Received: 19 April 2023; Revised: 06 May 2023; Accepted: 11 May 2023; Published: 12 June 2023

Abstract: Different schools of thought believed the Indian almond has antidiabetic and hepatoprotective potentials, however, there is paucity of information on the ability of this plant to carry out its antidiabetic properties. This study therefore seeks to determine the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Indian almond on the liver of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Three groups of Wistar rats were used in this study, a normal control, a diabetic control, and a treated group (5 per group). Rats in the normal group were administered distilled water orally per day, rats in the diabetic group were intraperitoneally injected with 150mg/kg body weight of alloxan and administered distilled water orally per day, while rats in the treated group were intraperitoneally injected with 150mg/kg of alloxan and treated orally with 600mg/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract of Indian almond per day for 21days. Administration of aqueous leaf extract of Indian almond to the diabetic rats caused a significant decrease in the level of blood glucose, activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and conjugated bilirubin (p< 0.05) and a significant increase in the level of total protein and albumin (p< 0.05) when compared with the control groups. The results obtained from this study suggested that the aqueous leaf extract of Indian almond possesses antidiabetic activity and could be used for the management of diabetes and liver damage associated with its metabolic consequences.

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Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Liver, Hyperglycemia, Terminalia catappa.

I. Introduction

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, has been one of the most devastating diseases known to man [1]. It is a major endocrine disorder that is on the rise [2]. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic dysfunction characterized by an uncontrolled hyperglycemic state that results from defects in insulin secretion, action or both. Diabetes mellitus is one of the main threats to human health globally in the 21st century. As estimated by the World Health Organisation (WHO), in developing countries, the prevalence of diabetes is increasing with about 70 million people suffering from diabetes mellitus [3].
The liver plays a vital role in regulating glucose levels in physiological and pathological states such as DM. In type 1 DM, insulin deficiency upregulates hormone-sensitive lipase in the adipose tissues, subsequently leading to increased lipolysis and the circulation of free fatty acids, which subsequently accumulate in the liver. These processes enhance the hepatic uptake of very low- density lipoproteins and the synthesis of triglycerides [4]. Concurrently, elevated glucagon levels inhibit hepatic triglyceride output. Therefore, the accumulation of fat in the liver may be due to an imbalance in the uptake, synthesis, export and oxidation of free fatty acids in the liver [5]. Aside from abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism, an accumulation of hepatic fat in DM may be due to either hyperglycaemia-induced activation of the transcription factor carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein and sterol regulatory element- binding protein 1c, the upregulation of the glucose transporter 2 protein with subsequent intrahepatic fat synthesis or a combination of these mechanisms [6].

There are lots of chemical agents available to treat diabetic patients, but total recovery from diabetes has not yet been reported [7]. However, plants that are potential sources of hypoglycemic bioactive ingredients provide an alternative to synthetic agents [8]. Plants of medicinal value have been found to contain numerous bioactive compounds known as phytochemicals that can protect humans against diseases. Some of these phytochemicals possess pharmacological concomitant such as antioxidant activities, antidiabetic properties, anti-microbial activities and analgesic effects [9]. Presently, aside from the various types of oral hypoglycemic agents used in the management of diabetes mellitus, interests in the use of herbal remedies are on the rise due to the side effects associated with orthodox therapeutic agents. Therefore, there is need for the development of new oral antidiabetic therapy with minimal side effects. Most medicinal plants exert their antidiabetic effects through different mechanisms such as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic beta cells, alteration of some glucose metabolizing enzymes, reduction of glucose intake or both [10].