Building Back Better of Covid 19 Learning Loss: A systematic Review

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume V, Issue XII, December 2021 | ISSN 2454–6186

Building Back Better of Covid 19 Learning Loss: A systematic Review

Nina Alfa Rizkana, Muhamad Ayub, Sofia F. Sulaeman
Department of Guidance and Counselling, University of State Jakarta

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract – Build back better became a concern for policymakers after the Covid 19 shock hit the world of global education. Education stakeholders need to look at the evidence that has been taken by some States in intervening. It is important for decision makers to choose what strategy is most appropriate for better education build back. But no research synthesis has attempted to compile the finding from different studies. The purpose of this study is to state the evidence of mitigating learning loss. The article identifies a number of strategies that has been taken to intervene and provide basis for refining the research on mitigating the learning loss.

Keywords-Learning loss, Covid 19, mitigation, international education, systematic review


Contagious Disease Outbreaks have occurred several times throughout the history of the world and have the potential to have profound and long-lasting impact. From the bubonic plague that occurred in the 14th century, the Spanish flu in 1918, followed by SARS, Ebola and Zika in the twenty-first century. This incident certainly had an impact not only on the economy, politics, but also socially (Huremovic, 2019).
And now what we are still facing today is the Covid 19 pandemic. One of the sectors that has been badly affected is the education sector. This pandemic has created an emergency with an unprecedented escalation. Initially, school closures were carried out by the worst-hit schools. But then as the crisis escalated, 49 countries have taken the decision to close schools to reduce the risk of transmission (Domenico et al., 2020) which has caused 90% of students experienced educational barriers. (Reuge et al., 2021) . UNESCO Institute for Statistics stated that in March 2020, 165 countries carried out a lockdown, including eliminating school hours which mean an impact on 1.5 billion students and 63 million secondary and primary school teachers. (Ella Page, 2021)
Although there is a global agreement that school closures are carried out to prevent the spread of the epidemic,(Jackson et al., 2013)(Ciavarella et al., 2016) many researchers, teachers, parents and policy makers are concerned about the impact on reducing adequate learning opportunities. (Armitage & Nellums, 2020). Inadequate learning opportunities lead to learning loss in school children, not only in developing countries but also in developed countries such as in Europe.(Blasko et al., 2021). The term learning loss means a decrease in learning achievement due to disruption of the learning process (Betebenner et al., 2021) and also a reduction in knowledge and skill (Pier, L., Hough, H. J., Christian, M., Bookman, N., Wilkenfeld, B., & Miller, 2021),
(Maldonado & De Witte, 2021)’s research results described the potential for learning loss to occur in three of the five subjects tested. Especially in mathematics with a standard deviation value for an average decrease of 0.17. As for the value of Dutch, there was an average decrease in the value of the standard deviation of 0.19 compared to the previous value. Even in some students who come from marginal groups, there is a risk of dropping out of school. This of course affects the welfare of children’s lives and has an impact on the socio-economic conditions of their community and even their country.

Some research have shown that learning losses happened during the Covid 19 pandemic are proofed by glaring gap in achievement between children from lower socioeconomic status and higher socioeconomic status (Engzell et al., 2021; Maldonado & De Witte, 2021). Thus, Children lost the most dan gain the least(Lewis et al., 2021). This is in line with the result of (Lee Elliot Major, 2021) ‘s research on the impact of school closures on the children of blue collar workers.