Bioplastics from Starch

International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume I Issue VIII, December 2014 | ISSN 2321–2705

Bioplastics from Starch

Yug Saraswat1, Misha Patel2, Tejas Sagar3, Sharmishtha Shil4

1,2,3,4 Chemical Engineering Department, Institute of Technology, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, India

Abstract- Once the most beloved commodity plastics have now become a liability. With Environmental degradation, improper waste disposal it is high time we search for alternatives which can also alleviate stress from conventional sources of energy from producing it. Bio-plastics are environment-friendly and biodegradable hence provide an effective way to replace the conventional plastics. In this paper we review starch as a source for producing bioplastics. We discuss how to generate bioplastic films from different starches, Role of plasticizers (especially glycerol and sorbitol) in producing them, discuss their properties and conclude with its importance and find ways to bring this technology to India. Keywords- Starch, Biodegradable, Bioplastics, Plasticizers, Non-conventional sources.

I. INTRODUCTION

bout 4% of the world’s total petroleum reserves are used for plastic preparation, which are getting exhausted precipitously. The volatile oil prices in past few years, due to the political tensions in the Middle East and Africa, the major crude oil producing regions have actuated research in the area of bioplastics. They are derived from biological resources like starch from corn, tapioca, cassava, wheat, rice, etc. which are easily available in bulk quantities.

II. STARCH

The starch granules consist of amylose and branching points of amylopectin molecules. Amylose constitutes linear chains of the starch, with glucose residues linked by α-D-(1-4) bonds. Depending on the species, it constitutes 20- 30% of starch. Amylopectin has a branched structure and is composed of 300-6000 D-glucose units which are joined by α-glycosidic linkages between C-1of one D-glucose unit to C-6 of other D-glucose unit. The amylopectin content in starch is about 70% by weight that varies on the source.

III. EXTRACTION OF STARCH

Extraction of starch from potato, maize, corn etc. involves crushing of potato or maize or corn into a paste and then soaking in a bowl filled with water. The mixture is squeezed properly and the paste has to be crushed after an interval of 30 minutes for three to four times. Then paste is sieved and cloudy water collected in separate bowl. Water is vaporised and starch is obtained.

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