Analysis of Anions Distribution in Gobbiya Dam Water, Bogoro Local Government Area of Bauchi State by GIS

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Analysis of Anions Distribution in Gobbiya Dam Water, Bogoro Local Government Area of Bauchi State by GIS

Gad Dauda Sumdhin1*, Auwal Adamu Mahmoud1, Haruna Adamu1, Shiphrah Retu Afsa2, Wisdom Raymond3
1Department of Chemistry Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria
2National Centre for Remote Sensing Jos, Nigeria
3Specialist Hospital Yola
*Corresponding Author
Received: 14 February 2023; Revised: 01 July 2023; Accepted: 07 July 2023; Published: 11 August 2023

Abstract: – Water quality is one of the main challenges that societies faces, threatening human health, limiting food production, reducing ecosystem functions, and hindering economic growth. In this research water sample from Gobbiya dam were collected at ten different points on the dam water surface using a water sampler with the coordinate of the sampling point recorded using a Global Positioning System (GPS) camera. Powder pillow reagents with a DR/890 colorimeter was used to determine the level of anions in the water samples after which Geographical information system (GIS) were used to estimate by interpolation the levels of anions at unmeasured distance on the dam water surface. The result obtained showed that the concentration of sulphate and phosphate has no statistical difference across the ten sampling points as revealed by ANOVA (P≤0.05) ,Whilst Chloride, Nitrate, Ammonium showed a statistical differences across the ten sampling points and where further subjected to Turkey Pair-Wise test to determine the points of variation. The average concentrations of the anions determine are as follows: Phosphate, Chloride, Nitrate, Ammonium, Sulphate (0.06±0.01, 0.48±0.24, 14.4±10.30, 3.95±2.82, 2.40±0.97) mg/dm3, respectively. The anions determined in the dam water are within the permissible limit set by WHO and FEPA for domestic and irrigation purposes.

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Keywords: Anions, GIS, Dam water, ANOVA, Turkey Pair-Wise, Colorimeter, Powder Pillows, coordinates, GPS.

I. Introduction

The functions and importance of water cannot be over-emphasized; water is primary for life and occupies a very important place in science, philosophy and religion. The qualities of water control the productivity of the aquatic habitat. It is a medium by which organic and inorganic wastes and sediments are distributed throughout the ecosystem. Aquatic bodies may be marine, fresh water or estuary, freshwater habitats are broadly classified into two main groups, namely; standing water or lentic, and flowing water or lotic. The lentic environment sometimes known as the standing water series includes all forms of inland water (lakes, reservoirs, ponds, bogs, swamps, etc.) in which water motion is not that of continuous flow in a definite direction. Essentially, the water is standing although a certain amount of water movement occurs such as wave action, internal current of water flow near inlets and outlets (Avoaja, 2005).

Water is a basic natural resource and its availability has played an important role in the evolution of human settlements. Humans depend mainly on freshwater available in inland lakes and rivers, which constitute less than 50% of the total amount of the water in biosphere (Wetzel, 1983). As a result, there has been a growing necessity for conservation of water because of growing populations and increase in pollution of surface waters (Abubakar et al., 2015). Inland water bodies depend on the amount of annual rainfall, size, seepage, climate and geographical location. Most water bodies in the savannah region of Nigeria are seasonal.
Geographical Information System or Science (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyse, manage and present spatial or geographical data. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries, analyse spatial information, edit data in maps, and present the result of all these operations (Colin, 2004).
Spatial analysis is the study of location and shapes of geographic features and the relationship between them, it allows for evaluating suitability when making predictions and understanding how geographical features are located and distributed (Beale, 2012).