A Prospective Observational Study on Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anemia in a Tertiary Care Hospital

International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume V, Issue XI, November 2018 | ISSN 2321–2705

A Prospective Observational Study on Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anemia in a Tertiary Care Hospital 

 Ch.Archana1, D.Siva Sankar1, D.Jyothi1, C.Bhargava Reddy1, G.Venugopal Gupta2

1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Santhiram College of Pharmacy, Nandyal, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India
2Department of General Medicine, Santhiram Medical College & General Hospital, Nandyal, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract:
Back ground- Anemia is a condition where hemoglobin levels in blood falls below the normal levels. RBC and their oxygen carrying capacity are insufficient to meet physiological needs. However for detecting anemia the WHO has recommended certain cutoff levels of hemoglobin for different ages below which the individual is consideration is anemic.
Objectives: To access the prevalence and risk factors of anemia in a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and methods: A Prospective observational study was conducted in Santhiram medical college and general hospital, Nandyal from July 2017 to December 2017, to study the prevalence of anemia and risk factors among population, where clinical data are collected by using case sheets to study anemic conditions were diagnosed based on complete blood picture (HB, MCV) levels, past medical history and dietary habits.
Study design: A total of 84 patients were evaluated for their anemia condition, out of which 69 patients showed positive results, to anemia. The prevalence and risk factors of anemia was summarized as count and percentage. A chi-square test was used to asses, the prevalence among different age groups-gender and risk factor identification based on diet, age group, past medical history.
Results: out of all the subjects 72.6% (n=61) are anemic, in this female subjects showed 78%,male subjects showed 28% and Risk factor assessment was done.
Discussion: In the current study we assessed the prevalence and risk factors of anemia in population presiding in Santhiram general hospital, Nandyal. In our study prevalence of anemia is alarmingly high. Microcytic type is highly observed. Female subjects are more prone to anemia compared to male subjects. Anemia condition is common in the age group of 55-65 years. Chronic kidney disorder is the major risk factor for causing anemia. This was compared to World Health Organization criteria.
Conclusion: Our study proves that prevalence of anemia is more in female with age group 55-65 years in that Microcytic anemia is commonly observed. Our study advises that, age, traditional eating habits, past medical history of the subjects are main reason for arising anemia. Providing health and nutrition education will be the key involvements to prevent and control this huge health problem.

Key words: Anemia, prevalence and risk factors.

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