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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VIII, Issue II, February 2023|ISSN 2454-6194

A brief summary of recent developments of cathode electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries

 Khang Huynh#, Md Wahidul Hasan*
#Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, United States
*Department of Mechanical Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, United States
Received: 10 January 2023; Accepted: 07 February 2023; Published: 03 March 2023

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract— Lithium-ion batteries have played an important role in large energy storage applications such as electric vehicles and portable devices due to their high energy density. Due to growing demands for better performance batteries with superior cycling stability and higher energy density, various investigations were performed on finding new cathode materials to satisfy those requirements. This review will first go over the current challenges of lithium-ion batteries and briefly outline some recent developments in carbon-based nanomaterials and low-Co Ni-based layered oxide cathodes. Research on various carbon materials coating such as single/multi-walled carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide will be presented. Furthermore, this review will summarize the advancements in low-Co layered oxide and their reported performances. Lastly, the perspectives of future advancements in cathode materials will be presented.

Keywords— lithium-ion batteries, carbon nanomaterials, high-Ni layered oxide, cathodes, specific capacity

I. Introduction

The high consumption in fossil fuels has not only quickly depleted this natural resource but also created multiple concerns for the environment. One of the most promising methods to solve the above-mentioned issues is electrochemical energy storage (EES) technique, which can reduce the disproportion between energy demand and energy production. Today, with the development in portable devices and their high demand in specific energy, many parameters are needed to be considered in the research of EES systems, namely longer cycle life, high power and energy density, and environmental friendliness [1–4]. Among several energy storage systems, rechargeable lithium-based batteries such as Li-ion (LIBs) received significant attention due to their safety and fast charging capacity. LIBs are known to have high energy density, low weight, long cycle and shelf life [5–7]. However, the excellent performance of lithium-ion batteries is highly dependent on the electrode materials, in which electrode materials with high electrical, ionic conductivity, and superior electrochemical performance are required.

Currently, different electrode materials are being implemented in LIBs, namely carbon-based materials, transition metal oxides (TMOs) and mixed transition metal oxide (MTMOs). Carbon-based materials such as graphene, graphene oxide, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are suitable materials for LIBs owing to their high conductivity, porosity, and chemical stability [8]. As for TMOs and MTMOs, their high theoretical capacity can greatly improve the performance of LIBs [9].
Since 2020, various novel nanostructured cathode materials have been developed and used as electrode material in lithium-based batteries. Specifically, about 1470 research articles were published, in which 944 of them are related to LIBs while the second most common lithium-based batteries (lithium-sulfur batteries – LSBs) are accounted for 311 articles (Fig. 1). For example, Sanchez electrophoretic coated LiFePO4/graphene oxide onto carbon fibers as cathode in lithium-ion batteries and achieved a high-capacity retention of 88.1% at 1 C over 300 cycles [10]. Molybdenum disulfide compound nanoflakes co-doped with nitrogen and carbon also shows potentials in LIBs, in which a high retention percentage of 90% was achieved after 3000 charge/discharge cycles [11]. With all the recent developments in lithium-ion batteries cathode material and the plethora of recent studies on LIBs, we consequently believe that a review article to go over the main research breakthroughs in lithium-ion batteries cathode materials is necessary.

This review will first summarize the working principle of LIBs, including their major drawbacks of using traditional cathodes. Subsequently, we will summarize the latest developments in various carbon materials and nanostructured TMOs and MTMOs and their performance in LIBs. Lastly, we summarize the current research developments in flexible electrode materials and its future potential challenges.