Volume II Issue IV

The Bridging Process: Filipino Teachers’ View on Mother Tongue

Genalyn P. Lualhati – April 2018 Page No.: 01-05

This paper recognized that teachers play the main element in the success of the new language policy, the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) in the Philippines. Their views as implementer on this approach are essential in the attainment of the MTB-MLE objectives. In this descriptive paper, the authors report a comprehensive account of the 35 teachers’ perception on the efficiency and effectiveness of MTB approach in teaching at Malvar Central School, Batangas, Philippines for the school year 2016-2017. Using adopted questionnaire, needed data were gathered and statistically treated. The study found out that the respondents moderately perceived mother tongue- based approach as effective and efficient in achieving learning goals. The implications of these findings are discussed within the theoretical and practical issues surrounding the use of mother tongue-based in the Philippines.

Page(s): 01-05                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 April 2018

 Genalyn P. Lualhati
Instructor III, College of Teacher Education, Batangas State University-JPLPC Campus, Malvar, Batangas, Philippines

[1]. Hudson, R. (2010). Linguistic theory. In Spolsky, B. &Hult, F.M. (Eds.), The handbook of educational linguistics. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
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[3]. UNESCO. (2012) Education in a Multilingual World, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. www.unesco.org/education.Acessed Dec. 23, 2011.
[4]. Lajato, Darwin B., &Magpantay, Melanie P. (2006). Teaching Strategies used by the Elementary Grade Teachers in Payapa Elementary School. Batangas State University – Jose P. Laurel Polytecnic College, Malvar, Batangas.
[5]. Maminta, Lucia G. (2012) The use of Mother Tongue-Based Language (MTB-MLE) in the Team-Assisted Individualized Remediation (TAIR) on the least learned competencies in Elementary Mathematics. Mindanao State University, IliganInstitute of Technology Iligan City.
[6]. Serquina, G.P. (2010). Attributes of Effective Reading Programs Among High-Performing, High Poverty Public Elementary School.Unpublished Dissertation.University of the Philippines, Quezon City.
[7]. AroraAlka, Martin, Michael O., Mullis Ina V.S. (2012). TIMMS 2011 International Results in Mathematics. TIMMS and PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education , Boston College , Chestnut Hill, MA, USA and International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), IEA Secretariat, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
[8]. Nolasco, R., Datar, F. &Azurin, A. (2010). Starting where the children are: A collection of essays on mother-tongue based multilingual education and language issues in the Philippines. Quezon City: 170+ Talaytayan MLE Inc.
[9]. Danganan, Rodel R. (2012). DepEd community to quality education through k-12.The Modern Teacher.Volume 61 No. 1.
[10]. Hoggang, Zenaida M. (2012). The importance of Mother Tongue.The Modern Teacher. Volume 61 No. 3
[11]. Nolasco, Ricardo. (2009). 21 reasons why Filipino children learn better while using their mother tongue: A primer on Mother Tongue-based Multilingual Education (MLE) and other issues on language and learning in the Philippines. Diliman: Guro Formation Forum.
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[16]. Tecson, RoumillaMarcelino D. (2010) Perceptions of the Administrator’s Teachers and PTA Officials on the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE). Central Mindanao Coleges, Kidapawan City.
[17]. Spolsky, B.and HUTT, F. (2010). The Handbook of Educational Linguistics. USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
[18]. Freeman, D. E., & Freeman, Y. S. (2000). Teaching reading in multilingual classrooms. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
[19]. Adanza, E. G.,Bermundo, P. J. U., &Rasonable, M. B. (2009). Methods of Research: A Primer. Manila, Philippines: Rex Book Store.
[20]. Ladic, Rechele M. (2012) The implementation of mother tongue-based multilingual education as medium of instruction for grade one in public elementary schools. Balanac Elementary School, Ligao City, DepEd Region V.
[21]. Huck, C. et al. 1987. Children’s Literature in the Elementary School. USA.
[22]. Ilagan, Eloisa C. (2011) The implementation of Mother tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) to mathematics and science and performance of Grade IV and V pupils in San Pablo Central School in the Lakeside District: Impact in Learning Outcomes. Laguna State Polytechnic University, San Pablo City Campus.
[23]. Aranao, Whilma M., Del Mundo Rowena, U., Recio, Maria Cristina M. (2006) Effects of medium of instruction in learning science concepts of grade V pupils at Malvar Central School. Batangas State University – Jose P. Laurel Polytecnic College, Malvar, Batangas.
[24]. Ababa-Balang Vivien. (2012). The effectiveness of Mother Tongue Based Curriculum on the proficiency level in mathematics of grade one pupils of San Antonio Elementary School, Iriga City South District, School Year 2012-2013. San Antonio Elementary School, Iriga City, DepEd Region V.
[25]. Barcelona, Sonia G. (2012). Mother tongue-based multilingual education in teaching mathematics among selected grade six students in Southville I Elementary School, District of Cabuyao, Division of Laguna. Graduate studies and applied research, research journal Volume 1.

Genalyn P. Lualhati “The Bridging Process: Filipino Teachers’ View on Mother Tongue” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.01-05 April 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/01-05.pdf

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Recalibrations of the Tribals’s Socio, Economic and Political Status in Tanjavur: An Explorative Study

V.Kumar – April 2018 Page No.: 06-11

Issues of tribal development, integration and autonomy have confronted the Indian society right from the British rule in India. Complexity of Indian tribal population made the task of integration and autonomy even difficult. Ethnic tribal sub nationalism posed serious challenges and hampered the progress of the communities over the time. Autonomy is desired so that development policies are evolved to suit the tribal culture and lifestyle. On the other hand leaving the tribal in their own state will deepen the developmental divide between the mainstream and the tribals even deeper. Post-independence the basic issue is that the integration is largely directed from above and not from below. Integration of tribes has neglected their own needs and desires.

Page(s): 06-11                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 April 2018

 V.Kumar
Research Scholar, Department of History, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India

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[26]. Parvaze, A.L. & Rather, A N. (2012). Internal-Migration of Chhattisgarh: Socio-Economic Aspect. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 4(3), 46-49.

V.Kumar “Recalibrations of the Tribals’s Socio, Economic and Political Status in Tanjavur: An Explorative Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.06-11 April 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/06-11.pdf

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Tribal Development Strategies in Tanjore District of Tamilnadu
S.Manimegalai – April 2018 – Page No.: 12-15

Integration has been on the terms of the mainstream society and it is also accused of benefitting the mainstream society only. The government monopoly over forests continued. The exploitation of forests accelerated as most of the mineral resources fall in forest and tribal areas. The policy of capital intensive industrialization adopted by the Indian government required mineral resources and power generation capacities that were concentrated in the tribal areas. Tribal lands were rapidly acquired for new mining and infrastructure projects. In the process tribals were displaced without any appropriate compensation or rehabilitation justified in the name of economic growth. These policies were often seen subjugating tribals and causing the degradation of the resources upon which they depended.

Page(s): 12-15                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 April 2018

 S.Manimegalai
Research Scholar, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India

[1]. Ahmad, M. S. (2004). Five Decades of Planning and Tribal Development: A study of Uttaranchal and Jharkhand Delhi. Indian Anthropologist, 34(1), 67-79.
[2]. Ali, A. (1992). Nutrition. (In) State of India’s Health. (Ed.). Alok Mukhopadhyay. Voluntary Health Association of India. New Delhi.
[3]. Amirthaveni, M., & Barikor, C.W. (2001). Nutritional Status of the Meghalayan Preschool Children. Indian J. Nutr. Diet. 39, 262-268.
[4]. Appu, P.S. (1975). Tenancy Reform in India. Economic and Political Weekly 10(3, 4 &5
[5]. Awais, M., Alam,T., & Asif, M. (2009). Socioeconomic empowerment of tribal women: An Indian perspective. International Journal of Rural Studies,16(1): 1.
[6]. Bairathi, S. (1992). Status of Education among Tribals,‘Tribal Culture, Economy and Health. Rawat publications, New Delhi.
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[8]. Bandopadhyay, D. (1986). Land Reforms in India: An Analysis. Economic and Political Weekly, 21(25 & 26).
[9]. Bapat, N.V. (1994). A few thoughts on Tribal Education. Vanyajathi Journal, pp.54-49.
[10]. Bapuji, M. (1993). Tribal Development Administration. Kanishka Publishing House, Delhi.
[11]. Barik, R. (2013). Challenges of Elementary Education among Primitive Tribal Groups: A Case of Bonda Hill. An e-journal of Folklore Foundation, Lokaratna, Vol. 5&6, Odisha.
[12]. Basu, S. (2000). Dimensions of Tribal Health in India. A Lecture Delivered at National Institute of Health, Health and Population, Perspectives and Issues, 23(2), 61-70.
[13]. Basu, S.K. (1990). Health Scenario and Health Problems of the Tribal Population in India. Paper presented at the seminar on” Continuity and Change in Tribal Society” at l IAS, Shimla, Jan. 14-18.
[14]. Benny, P.A. (1997).Tribes and Education. Shreyas News Bulletin, Wayand.
[15]. Bhowmick, K.L. (1982). Approaches to Tribal Welfare in Tribal Development in India: Problems and Prospects. Inter-India Publications, New Delhi.
[16]. Black, R.E., Morris, S.S., & Bryce, J. (2003). Where and why are 10 million children dying every year? Lancet, 361, 2226- 2234.
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S.Manimegalai “Tribal Development Strategies in Tanjore District of Tamilnadu” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.12-15 April 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/12-15.pdf

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Tamilnadu on the Eve of Dutch – A Study

V. Kumar – April 2018 Page No.: 16-17

The Tamil country known as Tamilaham was a geographical unit situated in the southern end of peninsular India.For its natural divisions the people divided their lands into five namely Kurunji, Marudham, Mullai, Neydal and Palai on the nature of the soil.1This land was the abode of different communities known from time immemorial. The time immemorial society was basically divided into four major divisions known as Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras.2 They migrated from place to place for some reasons. After that several new castes found a place in the social stratification of the Tamil areas including the Dutch settled areas with the arrival of Telugu and Kanarese people during the Vijayanagar days. Among them Reddiars, Cavarai Naidus, Baljas, Uppiliars, Senians and Telugu speaking Brahmins was occupied important place in their respective areas. The Dutch having come here originally as traders did not interfere in matters of customs and practices. They intermingled with the natives and allowed the natives to follow their own customs and practices so as to maintain good relation with them.

Page(s): 16-17                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 April 2018

 V. Kumar
Research Scholar, Department of History, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India

[1]. Tolkappiyam, Porulathikaram 5,11.
[2]. Ramanthan v.Hindu Civilization AndThe 21st century, Bombay,2004,p.331.
[3]. WashbrookD.A. Caste, Class and Dominance In Modern Tamilnadu, Delhi,1989,p.225.
[4]. K.S. Mathew, French In India And Indian Nationalism 1700 A.D., Pondicherry 2011, p. 275.
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[21]. M.S.PurnalingamPillai, Tamil India, Madras,1963,p.16.

V. Kumar “Tamilnadu on the Eve of Dutch – A Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.16-17 April 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/16-17.pdf

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The Short-Run and Long-Run Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Nigeria (1980 – 2014) Using ARDL (Bound Test) Approach

Olukayode, MAKU, Aduralere Opeyemi, OYELADE – April 2018 Page No.: 18-26

The study examined the short-run and long-run determinant of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Nigeria using ARDL (bound test) approach (1980 – 2014). The variables used are foreign direct investment (FDI), gross domestic product per capita (GDPPP), broad money supply (M2), trade (TRAD), inflation, consumer prices (INF), official exchange rate (EXCH), general government final consumption expenditure (GOVEEXP), school enrollment, secondary (EDU) and total electricity net consumption (ELECTCON). The data were sourced from the World Development Indicators (2015) between 1980 and 2014. The study implements ARDL model to investigate the existence of a long-run relation among the series and the dynamic model of the short-run effect. Apparently, the use of ARDL is of the submission that it can be applied irrespective of the order of integration of the variables (irrespective of whether regressors are purely [1(0)], purely [1(1)] or mutually co-integrated). The results of the study showed that there exist a long-run and short-run relationship among the variable and that the result of the long run ARDL model showed that in the long run, school enrollment (EDU), total electricity net consumption (ELECTCON), broad money (M2) and trade (TRAD) stimulate foreign direct investment (FDI) in Nigeria while the result of the short-run dynamic model shows that in the short-run, school enrollment (EDU), total electricity net consumption (ELECTCON), exchange rate (EXCH), inflation (INF) and trade (TRAD)are significant in determine foreign direct investment (FDI) in Nigeria. The study recommended that the government should invest more in infrastructure (like electricity, education, transportation, telecommunication, etc) so as to enhance the competitiveness of the environment of investment and ultimately increase FDI inflows. Also, the monetary authority should control money supply, exchange rate, inflation rate as well as GDP in other to encourage FDI in Nigeria.

Page(s): 18-26                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 April 2018

 Olukayode, MAKU
Department of Economics, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Aduralere Opeyemi, OYELADE
University of Ibadan, Nigeria

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Olukayode, MAKU, Aduralere Opeyemi, OYELADE “The Short-Run and Long-Run Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Nigeria (1980 – 2014) Using ARDL (Bound Test) Approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.18-26 April 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/18-26.pdf

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The Determinants of Import in Nigeria over the Period 1980 – 2015
Aduralere Opeyemi, OYELADE – April 2018 – Page No.: 27-35

Excessive importation of goods and services has serious implications for macroeconomic stability through imported inflation. It can also engender balance of payments disequilibrium and impinge on the credit rating of a country. Excessive importation can also lead to a drain on foreign exchange reserves and further worsen the balance of payments position. Therefore the study investigated the determinants of import in Nigeria over the period 1980 to 2015. The study employed expost facto research design. Secondary time series data were used for the study and these were sourced from World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS, 2013) Database and World Development Indicator (WDI, 2016).The data collected were analyzed using autoregressive distributed lag. The inferences were drown at 5% significance level. The result showed that domestic income and index of openness exert a long-run positive and significant impact on import of goods and services in Nigeria (β = 0.91022, t = 124.4775 and β = 1.7443, t = 11.7163 respectively) but domestic interest rate exerts a long-run negative and significant impact on import of goods and services in Nigeria (β = -0.08934, t = -1.9822). While import prices, domestic income and index of openness exert a short-run positive and significant impact on import of goods and services in Nigeria (β = 0.036972, t = 2.1542; β = 0.64899, t = 8.0852 and β = 1.0345, t = 6.6297 respectively). The value of the coefficient of the dummy variable is appropriately signed and statistically significant, meaning that SAP achieved its cardinal objectives of significant reduction in import of goods and services in Nigeria through exchange rate depreciation. The study concluded that trade openness in the short-run discourages import while openness in the long run encourages import. Most of the good imported are inelastic in nature during the period selected and they are normal goods. The study recommended that recalibration of the naira since devaluation or depreciation of the domestic currency which was the main ingredient of SAP did not work and this will improve the competitiveness of exports. It will also help to improve Nigeria’s trade balance with its trading partners by making imports of machineries and equipments less expensive.

Page(s): 27-35                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 April 2018

 Aduralere Opeyemi, OYELADE
Department of Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

[1]. Ogbonna, B. C. (2016). Estimating Aggregate Import-Demand Function for Nigeria Revisited. Journal of Business and Management, 18(3); 64 – 72.
[2]. Eme, I. H.; Alwell N. and Marius, I. (2013). Determinants of Nigeria’s Non-Oil Import Demand. South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, 1; 79-100.
[3]. Adewuyi, A. O. (2016). Determinants of import demand for non-renewable energy (petroleum) products: Empirical evidence from Nigeria. Energy Policy, 95; 73 – 93.
[4]. Nwogwugwu, U. C., Maduka, A. C. and Madichie, C. V., (2015). Price and Income Elasticities of Import Demand in Nigeria: Evidence from the BoundTesting Procedure. International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability, 3(4); 91 – 103.
[5]. Çakmak, U.; Gökçe A. and Çakmak, Ö. A.; (2016). The Key Determinants of the Import and Policy Recommendations for Turkish Economy. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 7(6); 96 – 103.
[6]. Nteegah, A.and Nelson, M., (2016). Analysis of Factors Influencing Import Demand in Nigeria. International Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences. 1(5); 33 – 42.
[7]. Zhao, X. and Wu, Y, (2007). Determinants of China’s energy imports: An empirical analysis. Energy Policy, 35; 4235 – 4246.
[8]. Zhang, H.; Zhao, Q.; Kuuluvainen, J. Wang, C. and Li, S.; (2015). Determinants of China’s lumber import: A bounds test for co-integration with monthly data. Journal of Forest Economics, 21; 269 – 282.
[9]. Ediger, V. S. and Berk, I.; (2011). Crude oil import policy of Turkey: Historical analysis of determinants and implications since 1968. Energy Policy, 39, 2132 – 2142.
[10]. Gouvêa, R. R. and Schettini, B. P.; (2015). Empirical estimates for the Brazilian total imports equation using quarterly national accounts data (1996 – 2010). EconomiA, xxx; xxx–xxx.
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[13]. CBN, (2012). Annual Statistical Bulletin.Central Bank of Nigeria.
[14]. Englama, A., N. C. Oputa, G. K. Sanni, M. U. Yakub, O. Adesanya, and Z. Sani, (2013). An Aggregate Import Demand Function for Nigeria: An Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach. Central Bank of Nigeria Economic and Financial Review Volume, 51(3); 1 -18

Aduralere Opeyemi, OYELADE “The Determinants of Import in Nigeria over the Period 1980 – 2015” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.27-35 April 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/27-35.pdf

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The Dynamic Relationship between Oil Revenue, Government Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria

Olukayode, MAKU, Aduralere Opeyemi, OYELADE – April 2018 Page No.: 36-46

This study investigated the dynamic relationship between oil revenue, government spending and economic growth in Nigeria over the period 1980 to 2014. Econometric techniques which included correlation analysis, unit root test, co-integration, Granger causality and error correction model were employed to determine the direction of causality and the magnitude of impacts. The estimated coefficient of the error correction term, ECM(-1) which is also the speed of adjustment to equilibrium, was negative and statistically significant as required by the Granger representation theorem. The speed of adjustment to equilibrium required 46 per cent within a year when the variables drifted away from their equilibrium values. Also, the ECM result revealed that capital expenditure (CEXP); recurrent expenditure (REXP); oil revenue (OREV) and gross capital formation (GCF) drove economic growth positively at 5 per cent level of significance, respectively. This implied that a hundred percentage point increase in capital expenditure (CEXP); recurrent expenditure (REXP); oil revenue (OREV) and gross capital formation (GCF) caused a rise in growth of about 44 per cent; 97 per cent; 85 per cent and 29 per cent, respectively. Broad money supply (M2) negatively affects economic growth and it is insignificant.

Page(s): 36-46                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 April 2018

 Olukayode, MAKU
Department of Economics, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Aduralere Opeyemi, OYELADE
University of Ibadan, Nigeria

[1]. Ahmad and Masen, (2015).Dynamic relationships between oil revenue, government spending and economic growth in Oman.International Journal of Business and Economic Development, 3, 93-112.
[2]. Al-Zeaud, (2014). The Causal Relationship between Government Revenue and Expenditure in Jordan.Global Journal of Management and Business Research: Economics and Commerce, 14, 4-12.
[3]. Aregbeyen and Kolawole (2015). Oil Revenue, Public Spending and Economic Growth Relationships in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, 8,113-123.
[4]. Aremo, Orisadare and Ekperiware (2012).Oil price shocks and fiscal policy management: Implications for Nigerian economic planning (1980-2009).International Journal of Development and Sustainability, 1(3), 1121-1139.
[5]. Chude and Chude, (2013). Impact of Government Expenditure on Economic Growth in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Management Review, 1(4), 64-71.
[6]. Dizaji, (2012). The effects of oil shocks on government expenditures and government revenues nexus in Iran (as a developing oil-export based economy).International institute of social science. No 540.
[7]. Emerenini and Okezie, (2014).Nigerians Total Government Expenditure: It’s Relationship with Economic Growth (1980-2012).Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(17), 67-76.
[8]. HamdiH., and Sbia R. (2013). Dynamic relationships between oil revenues, government spending and economic growth in an oil-dependent economy. Economic Modelling, 3(5), 118-125.
[9]. Ishola S.A, Olaleye S.O and Olajide A.R (2015). Government Expenditure, Oil Revenue and Economic Growth in Nigeria”.International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3, 180-202.
[10]. K. Ayinde, J. Kuranga and A.F Lukman, (2015).Modeling Nigerian Government Expenditure, Revenue and Economic Growth.Asian Economic and Financial Review, 5(6), 858-867.
[11]. Kablan S., Loening L., and Tanaka Y. (2014). Is Chad Affected by Dutch or Nigerian Disease?”Journal of Empirical Economics, 3(5), 278-295.
[12]. M. Ismaila and Imoughele L.E, (2015). Behavioral Pattern of Fiscal Policy Variables and Effects on Economic Growth: An Econometric Exposition on Nigeria.International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences,4 (1), 267-280.
[13]. Medee and Nenbee, (2011).Econometric Analysis of the Impact of Fiscal Policy Variables on Nigeria’s Economic Growth (1970 – 2009).International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment, 2 (1), 171-183.
[14]. Mehrara, Musai, and Karsalari, (2012).The Relationship between Revenue and Expenditure in Oil Exporting Countries.International Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences,2(6), 1-7.
[15]. Ogunlana O.F, (2015).Government Expenditure Efficacy and the Question of Growth: Evidence from Nigeria.European Scientific Journal, 11, 423-434.
[16]. Omisakin, O., Adeniyi, O. and Omojolaibi, A. (2009). A vector Error Correction Modeling of Energy Price Volatilty of a Dependent Economy: The case of Nigeria.Parkistan Journal of Social Sciences, 6, 207-213.
[17]. Oni, Aninkan and Akinsanya, (2014). Joint Effects of Capital and Recurrent Expenditures in Nigeria’s Economic Growth.European Journal of Globalization and Development Research, 9(1), 530-543.
[18]. Onoja J.E (2015). A Dynamic Analysis of the Effects of Changes in Government Spending on Output in Nigeria.International Journal of Art and Humanity,4(1), 140-147.
[19]. Umaru and Zubairu (2012). An Empirical Analysis of the Contribution of Agriculture and Petroleum Sector to the Growth and Development of the Nigerian Economy from 1960-2010.International J. Soc. Sci. & Education,2, 758-769.’

Olukayode, MAKU, Aduralere Opeyemi, OYELADE “The Dynamic Relationship between Oil Revenue, Government Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.36-46 April 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/36-46.pdf

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Coastal Megacities: The Case of Lagos

IBEABUCHI Uwadiegwu, Egbu, A U and KALU Obialo A. – April 2018 Page No.: 47-58

This paper studies the risk and vulnerable of Lagos as a megacity in Nigeria due to flooding as result of rainfall being one of the major environmental problem of the coastal areas. Statistical, GIS and remote sensing techniques was adopted to map urban growth and seasonal simulation of flood water level changes using HEC-RAS simulation model and their impact on physical environment. The rainfall distribution and seasonal variations were studied. The result reveals that Flood incidents are higher in summer (JJA) and autumn (SON) than in autumn (SON) and lesser in winter (DJF) in Lagos. Vulnerability index was computed by selecting multiple indicators which represents each of the three major components (exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity) and the role of rainfall induced climate change was highlighted and stressed using statistical analysis-Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression techniques (using ArcGIS software). Flood Risk Index and factors was determined for Lagos which includes uncontrolled expansion of the built-up area, the lack of infrastructure and the failure not only to expand storm water drainage but also to maintain existing drainage systems. In bid to mitigate and adapt to flood control and management in Lagos optimal performance would be insightful to consider policies institutionalization and structural decentralization of operations along the governance framework identified.

Page(s): 47-58                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 April 2018

 IBEABUCHI Uwadiegwu

 Egbu, A U

 KALU Obialo A

[1]. Abegunde, .M. A. A (1987). Aspects of the Physical Environment of Lagos. In Adefuye, A., Babatunde, A and Osuntokun, J. (Eds). History of the People of Lagos State, First Edition, Lantern books, Literamed, Ikeja, Lagos.
[2]. Amaize, E. (2011). Flood displaces 50 Villagers in Delta State, in Vanguard: Towards a Better Life for the People. Lagos: Vanguard Media Limited (Monday, July, 4), Pp. 9.
[3]. Akanni, O. and Bilesanmi, L. (2011). Flood: Lagos residents forced to relocate …. Drowning teenager rescued in Vanguard: Towards a Better Life for the People. Lagos: Vanguard Media Limited. (Friday, July10), Pp. 20.
[4]. Diffenbaugh, N.S., F. Giorgi, L. Raymond, and X. Bi (2007). Indicators of 21st century Socioclimatic exposure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(51):20195, 2007.
[5]. Ibe, A.C. (1988). Coastline Erosion in Nigeria. Ibadan press, Ibadan Nigeria.
[6]. IPCC, (2012). Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L. Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S.K. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, 582 pp.
[7]. Islam, Md. M, Barman A, Kabir, Md. A, Kundu, G.K, Paul, B & S. Das (2016). Mapping Climate Change Vulnerability in the fisheries sector of Bangladesh using a composite index approach and GIS. Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh. Source: https://www.nps.gov/subjects/climatechange/vulnerabilityandadaptation.htm
[8]. Mabogunje, A.L., Filani, M.O., Udo, R.K., Okeye, T.O., Timusawni J., Woodford, (1978). Town Map. Adebekun, O., Omoighi, D.A, Offiong, O.A., Okebadejo, W.I.A.,Ofomata,G.E.K., Aina, J.O.,Onuogu, et al.: The National Atlas of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, First edition. Federal Ministry of Survey, Nigeria.
[9]. Masood, M and Takeuchi, K (2011). Flood hazard and risk assessment in Mid-western Part of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Natural Hazard, 61(2). March 2011. DOI: 10.1007/s11069=011-0060-x
[10]. MOE (Ministry Of Environment) (2012). Climate Change Policy 2012-2014, Lagos State Government, First Draft, March 2012.
[11]. Mordi, R. (2011). The Tsunami in the making. The Tell: Nigerian Independent Weekly. Lagos: Tell Communications Limited, No. 29 (July 25), Pp. 54 -63.
[12]. National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2012). 2006 Population Census, Official Gazette (FGP71/52007/2500 OL24), Legal note on the publications of the details of breakdown of the National and State Provisional total 2006 census. www.nigerianstat.gov.ng
[13]. Preston, B L, Smith, T.F, Brooke, Gorddard, R, Measham, T.G, Withycombe, G, Mcinnes, K, Abbs, D., Beveridge, B, & C. Morrison (2008). Mapping Climate Change Vulnerability in Sydney Coastal Councils Group. Systems Approach to Regional Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Metropolises, Prepared for the Sydney Coastal Councils Group.
[14]. Ranger, N., S. Hallegatte, S. Bhattacharya, M. Bachu, S. Priya, K. Dhore, F. Rafique, P. Mathur, N. Naville, F. Henriet, C. Herweijer, S. Pohit, and J. Corfee-Morlot (2011): An assessment of the potential impact of climate change on flood risk in Mumbai. Climatic Change, 104, 139-167.
[15]. Yang, T., Shao, Q., Hao, Z., Chen, X.,Zhang, Z., Xu, C., and L. Sun (2010). Regional Frequency Analysis and Spatio-Temporal Pattern Characterization of Rainfall Extremes in the Pearl River Basin, China. Journal of Hydrology, 380:386–405

IBEABUCHI Uwadiegwu, Egbu, A U and KALU Obialo A. “Coastal Megacities: The Case of Lagos” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.47-58 April 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/47-58.pdf

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Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 2018
Elsy Mathew – April 2018 – Page No.: 59-62

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is one of the most inspiring fairy tales in English literature that creates colorful pages in our imagination. Let’s get into the story.
Once upon a time, there was a king and a queen. The king was handsome and good. He loved his queen and his people. The queen was loving &beautiful, but delicate. They lived happily in their small kingdom. One morning the queen sat by the window, doing some embroidery work. It was winter time and snowing outside. Accidently she pricked her finger with the needle, and a drop of blood came out. She looked at the bright red blood and then at the pure white snow on the trees and the ground outside. A desire dawned in her mind, and she said to herself, I want to have a baby princess. She would be very beautiful. Her lips would be as red as this blood and she would be fair, as white as the snow outside. I would name her Snow White.

Page(s): 59-62                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 April 2018

 Elsy Mathew

References are not available.

Elsy Mathew “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 2018” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.59-62 April 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/59-62.pdf

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The Principle of Collective Bargaining in Nigeria and the International Labour Organization (ILO) Standards

Robinson Monday Olulu, UDEORAH, Sylvester Alor F. – April 2018 Page No.: 63-67

In workplace relations, there exists diverse interest with the employer on one hand driven by the quest for profits and control while the employees on the other hand drive by desire to increased wages, benefits, inclusion and expression which generally results in conflicts. However, employer, employees and their unions have, beyond the quest for and reception of fundamental freedoms and rights, also evolved ways of engagement with a view to resolving diverse issues of interest through voluntary negotiations. They are therefore unanimous that collective bargaining is a useful panacea in the workplace for industrial peace. Bargaining has therefore gone from the individual employer/employee relation to standard workplace concept in line with the emergence of fundamental freedoms and trade unionization. This paper looks at the concept of collective bargaining within the context of the international labour organization and the application, challenges and limitations of the same concept in Nigeria.

Page(s): 63-67                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2018

 Robinson Monday Olulu
Ph.D, Department of Economics, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 UDEORAH, Sylvester Alor F.
Ph.D, Department of Economics, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

[1]. Chidi, O.C. (2008). Industrial democracy in Nigeria: A myth or reality? Nigerian Journal of Labour Law and Industrial Relations, 2(1).
[2]. Francis, A.C. et al. (2011). Collective bargaining dynamics in the Nigerian public and private sector. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 1(5).
[3]. Herzog, P. (1986). The legal nature of collective agreement. American Journal of Comparative Law, 34.
[4]. Ibietan, O. (2012). The legal framework of collective bargaining in the Nigerian public sector: A process approach. International Journal of Administration and Development Studies, 3(1).
[5]. Nwoke, F.C. (2000). Rethinking the enforceability of collective agreements in Nigeria. Modern Practice Journal of Finance and Investment Law, 4(4).
[6]. Okene, O.V.C. (2011). Labour law in Nigeria: The law of work. Claxton and Derrick Ltd.
[7]. Okene, O.V.C. International Labour Standards and the challenges of collective bargaining in Nigeria. Caribbean Law Review Journal.
[8]. Ovieghara, E.E. (2011). Labour law in Nigeria. Malthouse Press. Ltd.
[9]. Sargeant, M. (2003). Employment law (2nd Ed.). Edingburgh: Pearson Education Ltd

Robinson Monday Olulu, UDEORAH, Sylvester Alor F. “The Principle of Collective Bargaining in Nigeria and the International Labour Organization (ILO) Standards” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.63-67 April 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/63-67.pdf

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Local Content Policy and Entrepreneurs in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry: Determinants of Compliance and Implication for the Economy

VINCENT, Moses Owede, UDEORAH, Sylvester Alor F. – April 2018 Page No.: 68-78

The evolution of the local content policy in many countries of the world is considered a response to the call for patronage and engagement of local entrepreneurs and a possible resultant development of entrepreneurs in a particular country. The Nigerian government also deemed it necessary to design and sign into law the Nigerian Content Act which provides for the development of Nigerian content in the Nigerian oil and gas industry in the year 2010. This paper examined the determinants of compliance with the provision of the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry Content Development Bill by entrepreneurs who owns and manage marine vessel service companies in Nigeria. Secondary data collected from the Nigerian Content Regulatory body was used in this study. Using multinomial logit and probit regression econometric technique, owning a Nigerian built and flagged vessel was not a significant determinant of compliance but rather having and operating different categories of vessels proved to be the significant determinant of compliance to the Nigerian content act by vessel owners. It was therefore recommended that the government should give grants to vessel owners to enable them acquire all the categories of vessels and hence comply with the policy to the benefit of the nation.

Page(s): 68-78                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2018

 VINCENT, Moses Owede
Department of Economics, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 UDEORAH, Sylvester Alor F.
Department of Economics, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

[1]. Agência Nacional do Petróleo (2008). Brazil’s ANP approves revised local content rules, appeases shipbuilders-Oil. www.anp.gov.br/wwwanp/english/local-content.
[2]. AGRESTI, A. (1996). Categorical Data Analysis. Second Edition. University of Florida. Gainesville, Florida.
[3]. Aldrich, J.H. and Nelson, F.D. (1984). Linear Probability, Logit and Probit Model: Quantitative Application in the Social Science. Sera Miller McCun. Sage pub. Inc, University of Minnesota and Iola, London.
[4]. Altenburg, T (2011).Can Industrial Policy Work under Neopatrimonial Rule? UNU-WIDER Working Paper No. 2011/41
[5]. de Souza, R. (2013). Original View on Brazilian Local Content Regulatory Environment. Conference paper in: Offshore Technology Conference, 2013.
[6]. Esteves, A.M., Barclay, M. (2011). New Approaches to Evaluating the Performance of Corporate–Community Partnerships: A Case Study from the Minerals Sector. Journal of Business Ethics, 103(2), pp. 189–202.
[7]. Esteves,A.M., Coyne, B. and Moreno, A. (2013). Local Content Initiatives: Enhancing the Subnational Benefits of the Oil, Gas and Mining Sectors. Revenue Watch Institute (RWI) Briefing, July 2013, pp. 2–3,online: RWI.
[8]. Esteves, A.M. and Vanclay, F. (2012). Social development needs analysis as a tool for SIA to guide corporate-community investment: Applications in the mineral industry. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 29(2), pp.137-145.
[9]. Fessehaie, J. (2011).Leveraging the Services Sector for Inclusive Value Chains in Developing Countries. Issue paper published by International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD), Geneva. Online:
https://www.greengrowthknowledge.org.
[10]. Hosmer, D. W., & Lemeshow, S. (2000). Applied logistic regression (2nd ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
[11]. Kunanayagam, R. and Dietsche, E. (2014). Managing social risks in the extractive resources sector: how the sustainability agenda has evolved and the challenges ahead. Ethical Corporation, September 2014.
[12]. Long, J.S. (1997). Regression models for categorical and limited dependent variables. Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage.
[13]. Mirilli, M.O., de Castro, V., and Associados, M.A. (2013). Regulatory Challenges of Local Content Rules in Brazil. Conference paper in: Offshore Technology Conference, 2013.
[14]. Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) (2008). Oil And Gas Sector Reform Bill.
[15]. Nwapi, C. (2016). A Survey of the Literature on Local Content Policies in the Oil and Gas Industry in East Africa. The School of Public Policy Research Paper No. 9/16.
[16]. Obuaya, T. (2005). Local Content Implementation in Nigeria: A Road Map. Paper presented at the Nigerian Oil and Gas Conference, Abuja, Nigeria, 18-20 April.
[17]. Ugwushi, B.I.(2010). Local Content Policy and SMEs Sector Promotion: The Nigerian Oil Industry Experience. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(5),PP.3-13.
[18]. Porter, M. (1998). The microeconomic foundations of economic development [parts I and II]. In The global competitiveness report 1998 (pp. 38-63). Geneva: World Economic Forum.
[19]. Webber, C.M. and Labaste, P. (2010). Building Competitiveness in Africa’s Agriculture: A Guide to Value Chain Concepts and Application., The World Bank, Washington, DC.
[20]. Wright, R.E. (1995). Logistic Regression. In L. G. Grimm & P. R. Yarnold, (Eds.), Reading and Understanding Multivariate Statistics (Pp. 217-244). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

VINCENT, Moses Owede, UDEORAH, Sylvester Alor F. “Local Content Policy and Entrepreneurs in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry: Determinants of Compliance and Implication for the Economy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.68-78 April 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/68-78.pdf

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Animal Genotypes Election Design for Disease Resistance

Ward M. Ashraf, Abuargob M. Omry, Hdud M. Ismail, Elgusbi M. Tarek, Al Zlitne A. Rabia, Aswehli A. Abdelatef and Ruban Y. Sergey – April 2018 Page No.: 79-86

Resistance – the body’s resistance to the action of physical, chemical and biological agents that cause a pathological condition. This concept is somewhat broader than immunity, although they are sometimes used as synonyms. Susceptibility is a predisposition of the body to the action of physical, chemical and biological factors that lead to a pathological condition. Stability and susceptibility in animals of one species, as a rule, is not absolute, but relative. It can be high, medium and low. In modern conditions, along with high productivity, it is required that animals have resistance to diseases and, above all, to such common ones as leukemia, mastitis, tuberculosis, infectious gastroenteritis, etc., which cause huge economic damage to farms. The genetic resistance of farm animals to diseases is caused by many genes and therefore the selection for resistance will be long and slow. It is necessary to operate with groups of animals (lines, families, related groups). In addition, it is not necessary to talk about absolute stability, despite the high cost of assessing animals. Diseases are a major constraint on the intensive production of animal. Selecting cattle most resistant to the development of infectious diseases will decrease costs of production and should therefore be included in the overall breeding objective. Such selection goals may include resistance to infection with a pathogen (absence of susceptibility), resistance to disease (no-development of disease), tolerance (capability of untreated individuals to maintain a reasonable level of productivity in the face of disease), and resilience (ability of affected individuals to require minimal treatment to maintain acceptable performance). Selection for single trait of milk yield for many years have led to genetic erosion of genes responsible for disease resistance, adaptability etc. Therefore, selection strategies to include these neglected traits in the selection objectives of dairy animals are need of the hour for sustainable dairy in the unpredictable climatic condition. Certainly, genetic selection will not solve all of our livestock disease problems. Therefore, management, nutrition, vaccination, culling, therapeutic treatment, stress reduction practices and other measures must accompany genetic approaches to reduce the impact of livestock disease on profitability and animal wellbeing.

Page(s): 79-86                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 May 2018

 Ward M. Ashraf
Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya

 Abuargob M. Omry
Department of Animal medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya

 Hdud M. Ismail
Department of Pathology and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya

 Elgusbi M. Tarek
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medical Technology, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya

 Al Zlitne A. Rabia
Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya

 Aswehli A. Abdelatef
Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya

 Ruban Y. Sergey
Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetic -NAAS, Kiev-Ukraine.

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Ward M. Ashraf, Abuargob M. Omry, Hdud M. Ismail, Elgusbi M. Tarek, Al Zlitne A. Rabia, Aswehli A. Abdelatef and Ruban Y. Sergey “Animal Genotypes Election Design for Disease Resistance” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.79-86 April 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/79-86.pdf

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Capital Market and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds Testing Approach
INIMINO, Edet Etim, BOSCO, Itoro Ekpenyong, ABUO, Michael Abang – April 2018 – Page No.: 87-96

The study examined capital market and economic growth in Nigeria from 1986 to 2016. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of capital market on economic growth in Nigeria. The data for the study were sourced from CBN statistical bulletin. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test and Autoregressive Distributed Lag model were used as the main analytical tools. The ADF unit test result revealed stationarity of the variables at order zero and one, which satisfied the requirement to employ the ARDL Bounds testing approach. The ARDL Bounds test revealed the existence of long run relationship among the variables. Moreover, the result revealed that market capitalization has positive and significant effects on economic growth both in the short and long run. Number of deals has a positive and significant effect on economic growth in the long run but negative and insignificant effect on economic growth in the short run. However, volume of transaction has a negative and significant effect on economic growth in both the long run and the short run. The result also revealed that interest rate has positive and insignificant effect on economic growth in the long run. While in the short run, it has a positive and significant effect on economic growth. Based on the above findings, the study concluded that capital market has impacted on economic growth in Nigeria and recommended among others that there should be improvement in the moribund market capitalization, by encouraging more foreign investors to participate in the market, maintain state of the art technology like automated trading and settlement practices, electronic fund clearance and eliminate physical transfer of shares. Also, regulatory authorities should restore confidence to the market by ensuring transparency and fair trading dealings and transactions in the market to enhance economic growth.

Page(s): 87-96                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 5 May 2018

 INIMINO, Edet Etim
Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Uyo, Nigeria

 BOSCO, Itoro Ekpenyong
Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 ABUO, Michael Abang
Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Uyo, Nigeria

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INIMINO, Edet Etim, BOSCO, Itoro Ekpenyong, ABUO, Michael Abang “Capital Market and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds Testing Approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.87-96 April 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/87-96.pdf

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Navigating the Cacophony of Human Rights Claims and Chain of Fraud in Nigeria: The Anti-Corruption Perspective

Mike Opeyemi OMILUSI – April 2018 Page No.: 97-112

Since the Buhari administration assumed power, it has earned the people’s confidence with its anti-corruption efforts. Making culprits to account for their past unlawful deeds, in a very aggressive manner ever witnessed in the nation’s political history, generates different reactions among Nigerians. However, some questions remain pertinent to this study: Are Nigerians really advocating persecution or prosecution in respect of the graft suspects? Do they want conviction without being convinced? Is their outburst propelled by emotions and revengeful anticipation of having suspected looters of the nation’s commonwealth behind bars? Can the war be successfully fought without resorting to impunity? After setting the context for this study concerning the trends in the uncovered chain of fraud, the interconnectedness between the anti-corruption war and the rule of law, this study draws from an on-going prosecution of corruption suspects, particularly those who served in the last administration, and their frequent complaints of violation of fundamental human rights viz-a-viz the activities of the anti-graft agencies. The cardinal objective of this study, therefore, is to interrogate the Buhari administration’s anti-corruption war within the context of the rule of law particularly, in relation to those standing trial on the one hand and anxiety for justice by Nigerians on the other hand.

Page(s): 97-112                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 May 2018

 Mike Opeyemi OMILUSI
Ph.D, Department of Political Science, Ekiti State University, Nigeria

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Mike Opeyemi OMILUSI “Navigating the Cacophony of Human Rights Claims and Chain of Fraud in Nigeria: The Anti-Corruption Perspective” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.97-112 April 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/97-112.pdf

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Taxation and Economic Growth in Nigeria

INIMINO, Edet Etim, ABUO, Michael Abang, BOSCO, Itoro Ekpenyong – April 2018 Page No.: 113-122

The paper examined the impact of tax revenue on economic growth in Nigeria from 1980 to 2015. The data used in the study were sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin. The study used data on real gross domestic product, petroleum profit tax, company income tax and customs and excise duties. The econometrics methods of Co-integration and ECM were employed as the major analytical techniques. The Co-integration result revealed the existence of a long-run relationship among the variables. The Parsimonious Error Correction result revealed that company income tax and customs and excise duties have positive and significant relationship with economic growth in Nigeria. However, petroleum profit tax impacted on economic growth in Nigeria but not significantly. Also, the coefficient of the parsimonious ECM has the appropriate sign (i.e., negative) and statistically significant. This implies that, the short run dynamics adjust to long run equilibrium relationship. The study therefore concluded that government should ensure that tax revenue together with revenue from other sources are efficiently used to make expenditures on education, housing, transportation, agriculture, health, power, road construction, national defense, among others that will help the various sectors of the economy to function very well thereby enhancing the growth and development of the country. To achieve this, government must avoid mismanagement, corruption and embezzlement. Government should also identify and eliminate all administrative loopholes for tax revenue to contribute significantly to economic growth of the country.

Page(s): 113-122                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 May 2018

 INIMINO, Edet Etim
Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Uyo, Nigeria

 ABUO, Michael Abang
Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Uyo, Nigeria

 BOSCO, Itoro Ekpenyong
Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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[11]. Ekine, N. T. (2011). Macro Economics: Dimension of Competitive Indicators and Policy Performance. Port Harcourt: Dominus Press.
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[21]. Saheed, Z. S., Abarshi, J. A., and Ejide, I. S. (2014). Impact of Petroleum Tax on Economic Growth in Nigeria (1970-2012). International Journal of Education and Research, 2(11), 297-308.
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INIMINO, Edet Etim, ABUO, Michael Abang, BOSCO, Itoro Ekpenyong “Taxation and Economic Growth in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.113-122 April 2018  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/113-122.pdf

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Need of Universal Design towards Information and Communication Technology for Differently Abled Persons
Jyotsna Tiwari, Anamika Ghosh, Ishant Raj, Shiv Kumar Singh – April 2018 – Page No.: 123-126

In this fast pace of time, Information and Communication Technologies have the potential for making significant improvements in the lives of people having different abilities, allowing them to enhance their integration with the environment, by enlarging the scope of activities available to them. This paper highlights the impact of ICT’s in the empowerment of differently abled through its application in their daily life, by making it easier and accessible.

Qualitative analysis was done on the basis of information obtained as secondary data through different research papers. Further, the barriers inhibiting any growth such as inaccessible buildings, lack of accessible transport, lower access to ICT’s awareness, inadequate standards and lower level of services were identified.

Different International Agencies are concerning on AT-Adaptive Technology, are used to maintain, increase or improve the functional capacities of individuals with disabilities. Examples of some AT to help PWDs in education include – Braille Duplicators and Writers, Multi-Sensory systems, etc.
The future scope of this study is to develop innovative solutions, build capacities, mobilize partners, design appropriate policy frameworks and tools, and to bring changes under UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

Page(s): 123-126                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 May 2018

 Jyotsna Tiwari
Students at Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, MNNIT Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

 Anamika Ghosh
Students at Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, MNNIT Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

 Ishant Raj
Students at Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, MNNIT Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

 Shiv Kumar Singh
Students at Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, MNNIT Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

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[5]. Anand G. Dhuri, Director Indian Subcontinent(Nov 2014), Scytl Secure Online Voting for PWD, UNESCO Conference on the Role of ICT for Persons with Disability, https://www.slideshare.net/AnandDhuri/unesco-conference-on-the-role-of-ict-for-persons-with-disabilitiesscytl-25112014-42392661
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[11]. A report published by UNESCO, namely ‘ICTs for Persons living with Disability’ https://en.unesco.org/partnerships/partnering/icts-persons-living-disabilities

Jyotsna Tiwari, Anamika Ghosh, Ishant Raj, Shiv Kumar Singh “Need of Universal Design towards Information and Communication Technology for Differently Abled Persons” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.123-126 April 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/123-126.pdf

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Critical Reading as a Means of Scaffolding Textile Productivity
Yeshambel Tadele Alem – April 2018 – Page No.: 127-132

Interaction between readers and written sources provides opportunities to have innovative ideas for productivity. In the process of interaction, critical reading permits readers to interpret, analyze, synthesize and evaluate the author’s argument to think beyond what are stated in the written sources. The design of the study was also mixed type: qualitative and quantitative. To collect data from instructors and trainees, questionnaire and interviews were conducted. In selecting samples from the subjects, random sampling method was employed. The finding of the study proved that critical reading is prominent to make instructors’ and trainees’ creative that can indirectly enhance the productivity of textile institute of Ethiopia. It is proved that critical reading provides opportunities for instructors and trainees to interpret, analyze, synthesize and evaluate the written sources of technology for further improvement of textile products in the institution. 0.005 sig (level of significance) showed that the null hypothesis was not supported. The data proved that instructors and trainees confirmed critical reading has tremendous indirect effects in scaffolding the productivity of textile institute of Ethiopia via innovative manpower. And, instructors had better understanding than trainees’ in viewing the importance of critical reading in creating innovative manpower that indirectly leads to textile productivity.

Page(s): 127-132                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 May 2018

 Yeshambel Tadele Alem
PhD Student in TEFL Program, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia

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Yeshambel Tadele Alem “Critical Reading as a Means of Scaffolding Textile Productivity” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.127-132 April 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/127-132.pdf

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Flexibility of the Language of Billboard Advertisements in Nigeria
Ojo George Adekunle – April 2018 – Page No.: 133-137

This study is on the pliability of language as it is being used in advertisement in Nigeria. The paper has explored what may be regarded as the style of English Language through manipulation to achieve its usage in advertisement. Data for the study were collected from five bill boards positioned at strategic places on highways in Nigeria. The analysis of the data showed generally that language of advertisement is not restricted to the novel sentences we use alone but evident in lexical formation. It also revealed that manufacturers invest more in advertisement as one of the best marketing strategies.

Page(s): 133-137                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 May 2018

 Ojo George Adekunle
Ph.D, Department of English and Literary Studies, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

[1]. Aaker, D. and Day, G. (1974). A dynamic model of relationships among advertising, consumer awareness, attitudes and behaviour. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 59, pp. 281-286
[2]. Adefemi, A. (2006). A stylistic analysis of billboard advertisements in Nigeria. An Unpublished B.A. Long Essay, University of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.
[3]. Akalugbo, B. N. (2001). History of Nigerian mass media. Ado-Ekiti: Comfort Ahabamaka Memorial Publishing.
[4]. Bamisaye, T.O. (Ed) (1997). Studies in language and linguistics: An introductory text. Lagos: Montein Press Ltd.
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[9]. Comanor, W. S. and Wilson, T. A. (1974). Advertising and market power. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
[10]. Crystal, D. (1991). Language A to Z. London: Longman
[11]. Crystal, D. and Davy, D. (1969). Investigating English style. London: Longman Group.
[12]. Daniyan, Akpan (2005). I have an idea. Lagos: Buzzbooks.
[13]. Elliot, B. B. (1962). A history of English advertising. London: Business Publications Ltd.
[14]. Eyre, C. (1974). Effective communication made simple. London: W.H. Allen
[15]. Fletcher, P. (1978). A child’s learning of English. Oxford: Blackwell.
[16]. Gumperz, J. J. (1982). Language and social identity. Cambridge: Cambridge
[17]. Ingram, D. (1965). First language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[18]. James, et al (2004). Introduction to communication for business and organization. Abuja: Spectrum Books Ltd.
[19]. Leech, G. N. (1966). English advertising. Hong Kong: Longman
[20]. Narayan, B. (1988). Advertising management. New Delhi: Corporation Publishers.
[21]. Osundare, Niyi (1981). Poems for Sale: Stylistic Features of Yoruba Ipolowo Poetry in African Notes, vol. 15, No 1&2
[22]. Sampson, H. (1930). History of advertising. London: Chatto and Windus.
[23]. Tellis, G. J. (1988). Advertising exposure, loyalty and brand purchase: A two-stage model. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 25, pp. 134-144
[24]. Vaughn, R. (1986). How advertising works: A planning model revisited in Journal of Advertising Research Vol. 26, pp. 57-66

Ojo George Adekunle “Flexibility of the Language of Billboard Advertisements in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.133-137 April 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/133-137.pdf

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Assessment of ECOWAS Interventions in Guinea Bissau, Burkina Faso and the Gambia
Charles Akale, Kingsley Chigozie Udegbunam, Julie Sanda – April 2018 – Page No.: 138-142

The increase in violent hostilities on the African continent since the 1990s can be attributed to the withdrawal of super power strategic interest in Africa following the end of the Cold War. The end of the Cold War dramatically changed the global strategic landscape. Although threat of big power and regional conflicts diminished, the security landscape became characterized by political fragmentation. In the Third World particularly West Africa has experienced many conflicts arising from a multiplicity of causes such as bad governance among others. The intensity and carnage that attended these conflicts, coupled with the inactions of the “big powers”, reinforced the need for an “African solution” to what was largely perceived as an “African problem”. Regional organizations such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) began to intervene in countries such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and Ivory Coast through its intervention force-ECOWAS Cease-Fire Monitoring Group (ECOMOG).
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Page(s): 138-142                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 May 2018

 Charles Akale
Research Fellow at the Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defense College, Abuja, Nigeria

 Kingsley Chigozie Udegbunam
Social Sciences Unit, School of General Studies, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Julie Sanda
Research Fellow at the Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Abuja, Nigeria

[1]. J G, Sanda Civilian Dimension of Peace Support Operations: Lecture presented to Participants of National Defence College Coures 22, on Mon 24 March 2014
[2]. ECOWAS Protocol Relating to the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution, Peacekeeping and Security, ECOWAS Executive Secretariat, Abuja, Nigeria, Dec 1999.
[3]. Ibid.
[4]. Ibid.
[5]. J.M Kabia. “Regional Approaches to Peacebuilding: The ECOWAS Peace and Security Architecture. Paper Presented at the BISA-Africa and International Studies. ESRC Seminar Seriea. Africa Agency in International Politics, Africa Agency in International Politics, African Agency in Peace, Conflict and intervention at the University of Birmingham, 7th April, 2011.
[6]. Ibid.
[7]. Ibid.
[8]. Ibid.
[9]. SO Odobo, C.W.K Udegbunam and C. Akale “Analysis of ECOWAS Institutional Framework for Conflict Management”, 2017 International Conference of the School of General Studies, University of Nigeria, NSUKKA, 8-10 May 2017 Conference Book of Proceedings.
[10]. Ibid.
[11]. Ibid
[12]. Ibid
[13]. Crisis Group Africa Report and Briefings, No 142, Guinea-Bissau in Need of State, 2 July 2008, No.61.
[14]. Ibid.
[15]. Crisis Group Africa Report, Guinea-Bissau: Beyond Rule of the Gun, 25 June 2009, No183.
[16]. Ibid
[17]. Crisis Group Africa Report, Beyond Compromises: Reform Prospect in Guinea-Bissau, 23 January 2012, No 190.
[18]. Press Release on the Visit to Burkina Faso of their Excellencies, President John Dramani Mahama of Ghana, Goodluck Ebele Jonathan of Nigeria and MackySall of Senegal, 5 November 2014.
[19]. Crisis Group Africa Report, Implementing Peace and Security Architecture (III): West Africa, No 234, 14 April 2016.
[20]. Ibid
[21]. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/01/18/gambia-crisis-everything-need-know-battle-remove-president-yahya/
[22]. https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2017-01-19-iss-today-gambia-test-of-ecowass-commitment-to-democracy/
[23]. Ibid
[24]. RA Akinjide The ECOWAS Intervention in the Liberian Imbrioglio: Legal Issues: West Africa, December 24-Janaury 6, 1998. p.304
[25]. Op cit, J G, Sanda

Charles Akale, Kingsley Chigozie Udegbunam, Julie Sanda “Assessment of ECOWAS Interventions in Guinea Bissau, Burkina Faso and the Gambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.138-142 April 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/138-142.pdf

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The Nexus between Financial Inclusion and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria
Michael Chukwunaekwu Nwafor, Aremu Israel Yomi – April 2018 – Page No.: 143-149

This research work focused on the relationship between financial inclusion and economic growth in Nigeria. Two hypotheses were formulated, corresponding data (spanning from 2001 to 2016) were obtained and tested using Two-staged Least Squares Regression Method. Findings revealed that financial inclusion have significant impact on economic groowth in Nigeria and that financial industry intermediation have not influenced financial inclusion within the period under review. It was recommended that Nigerian banks should develop financial products to reach the financially excluded regions of the country as this will increase GDP per capital of Nigeria and consequently economic growth.
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Page(s): 143-149                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 May 2018

 Michael Chukwunaekwu Nwafor
Department of Accounting and Finance, Godfrey Okoye University Enugu, Nigeria

 Aremu Israel Yomi
Department of Accountancy, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

[1]. Babajide, A. A., Adegboye, f. B., & Omankhanlem, A. E. (2015). Financial Inclusion and Economic Growth in Nigeria. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 629-637.
[2]. Dupas, P. D., Karlan, J. R., & Ubfal, D. (2016). Banking the Unbanked: Evidence from three Countries. NBER Working Paper No. 22463.
[3]. Encyclopaedia.com. (2016, 11 11). Retrieved from Free online dictionary: https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/human-capital-theory
[4]. Gretta, S. (2017). Financial Inclusion and Growth. The Business and Management Review.
[5]. Hariharan, G., & Marktanner, M. (2013). The growth potential from financial Inclusion. Retrieved from https://www.frbatlanta.org/documents/news/conferences/12intdev/12intdev_Hariharan.pdf
[6]. Harley, T. W., Adegoke, A. J., & Adegbola, D. (2017). Role of Financial Inclusion in Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction Role of Financial Inclusion in Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. Internal Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences (IJRESS), 265-271.
[7]. Babajide, A. A., Adegboye, f. B., & Omankhanlem, A. E. (2015). Financial Inclusion and Economic Growth in Nigeria. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 629-637.
[8]. Dupas, P. D., Karlan, J. R., & Ubfal, D. (2016). Banking the Unbanked: Evidence from three Countries. NBER Working Paper No. 22463.
[9]. Encyclopaedia.com. (2016). Retrieved from Free online dictionary: https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/human-capital-theory
[10]. Gretta, S. (2017). Financial Inclusion and Growth. The Business and Management Review.
[11]. Hariharan, G., & Marktanner, M. (2013). The growth potential from financial Inclusion. Retrieved fromhttps://www.frbatlanta.org/documents/news/conferences/12intdev/12intdev_Hariharan.pdf
[12]. Harley, T. W., Adegoke, A. J., & Adegbola, D. (2017). Role of Financial Inclusion in Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction Role of Financial Inclusion in Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. Internal Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences (IJRESS), 265-271.
[13]. Karlan, D., Ratan , A. L., & Zinman, J. (2014). Savings By and For the Poor: A Research Review and Agenda. Review of Income and Wealth, 36-78.
[14]. Lusardi, A., & Mitchell, O. S. (2014). The economic importance of financial literacy: Theory and evidence. Journal of Economic Literature, 5-44.
[15]. Okoye, L. U., Adetiloye, K. A., Erin, O., & Modebe, N. J. (2017). Financial Inclusion as a Strategy for enhanced Economic Growth and Development. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 1-12.
[16]. Olaniyi, E. (2015). The Effects of Economic and Financial Development on Financial Inclusion in Africa. Review of Economic and Development Studies, 17-25.
[17]. Onaolapo, A. R. (2015). Effects of Financial Inclusion on the Economic Growth of Nigeria (1982-2012). International Journal of Business and Management Review, 11-28.
[18]. Schmeid, A. J. (2013). Financial Inclusion and Poverty: The Case of Peru. London: University of Greenwich.
[19]. Sharma, D. (2015). Nexus Between Financial Inclusion And Economic Growth: Evidence From The Emerging Indian Economy. Journal of Financial Economic Policy.
[20]. Wahiba, N. F., & Weriemmi, M. E. (2014). The Relationship between Economic Growth and Income Inequality. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 135-143

Michael Chukwunaekwu Nwafor, Aremu Israel Yomi “The Nexus between Financial Inclusion and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 4, pp.143-149 April 2018 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-4/143-149.pdf

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