Influence of Sports Engagement to the Development of Life Skills of Students

Influence of Sports Engagement to the Development of Life Skills of Students

Influence of Sports Engagement to the Development of Life Skills of Students

Mia Kris Zhel M. Pasagui1, Roque N. Langcoy II2

1Department of Education, Davao del Norte, Philippines

2UM Professional Schools, Davao del Norte, Philippines

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2023.7011036

Received: 01 November 2023; November: 10 November 2023; Accepted: 16 November 2023; Published: 02 December 2023

ABSTRACT

Although there are several life skills benefits resulting from participation in school or out-of-school sports activities, some students of Panabo District do not always experience the positive outcomes that other populations share. A review of the available research literature indicates that most problems observably occur in an environment, such as schools of today’s generation in our society is being exposed to a more liberated and democratic life which were labeled as more at-risk adolescents who do not possess the life skills, they need in becoming responsible members of society. The research has not come across deeply understanding the perception of young minds that sports are beneficial to the development of the whole being. Thus, the urgency is to conduct a study to explore how perceived life skills were developed through engaging in sports in favorable conditions. This thesis aims to contribute to the current understanding and practices within students’ development in life and the self itself and to better understand the state of the current literature relating to the development of life skills through the influence of sports engagement.

Keywords: sports engagement, life skills, students, development, Philippines

INTRODUCTION

Sports engagement influences the total development of all aspects of a person. However, the problem that stimulating for some students of Panabo District is that they do not have experience of the constructive results of sports engagement that other school institutions share. Most problems observably occur in an environment, suchlike school of today’s generation in our society is being exposed to a more liberated and democratic life which were labeled as at more at-risk adolescents who do not have features and carries life skills that need to become accountable human being in the society (Collingwood, 1997). Moreau et al. (2012) stated that some of these young people undergo trials, adjustment hardships, problem behavior, mental health issues, and academic difficulties. As such the increasing challenge of adolescence transforms into becoming more complex and harder to maneuver (Roth & Brooks-Gunn, 2003). As these skills can be challenging to evolve when they are left to stand and mature in their own, the result is that too extreme to young people display impaired behavior, anti-social, and/or risk-taking behaviors (e.g., drug-taking, risky sex behaviors, and criminal activities) that indicate poor personal improvements (Goudas, 2005).

 Life skills are essential as these are qualities that aid young people in encouraging mental well-being and competence as they face the reality of life, and that’s why life skills are important to develop. The psychological skills which life skills also facilitate on its development are required to deal with the natural conditions of such challenging life. It can be a demand and conditions of physical aspect (e.g, showing the right gesture and posture), cognitive aspect (like devising effective decisions), or in behavioral (like effective communication) (Danish & Donohue, 1995; Danish & Nellen, 1997). Children in school are believe to be confronted with problematic situation due to lacking life skills, evident of failure assessment results in school, engaging in deviant behavior such as alcoholism, drug abuse, and other juvenile delinquency, which is rampant in basic schools (Prajapati, Sharma and Sharma, (2017). On the study conducted by the School Education Gateway found out that of 547 respondents, 75% of them disagree to strongly disagree not to be taught life skills in schools, 85.7% coined that family members such as parents and siblings responsible on developing life skills, 47.2% declared that life skills should be part of the curriculum as a separate subject, 51.6% suggested that life skills be taught at every school level and 58% to include effectively handling issues and problems commonly encountered in daily life (Hun, 2021).

 For few, people engaging in sport, find enjoyment, pleasure, and relief from daily routines, problems, having a great influence in the growth of life skills as their general concept of being and self. Thru sports engagement, people can learn some skills that can convey to daily life. Suchlike, being goal oriented, can mange under pressure, can solve problems, meeting deadlines and can handle success and even failures in life, can work with a team and receive feedback (Papacharisis et al., 2005).

Researchers displayed an evidence that sports engagement has benefits in psychological facet to both children and adolescents that will teach them essential life skills Accordingly, it will help children improve and grow for better ways to help cope the ups and downs of life. When children play sport on a regular basis, it improves their overall emotional wellbeing. Studies also affirmed that there’s a connection between the self- worth and of sports playing in children. A team game helps children develop some of the social skills needed in life. Sports activities also teaches them to become cooperative, to be selfless, gives them a sense of belonging, and will learn to listen to others (Coledam, & Fearraiol, 2017).

The research has not come across deeply understanding the perception of the young minds that sports are beneficial to the development of the whole being. Thus, the urgency is to conduct a study to explore how perceived life skills were developed thru engaging sports in favorable conditions. This study is designed to impart to the actual apprehension and  preparation within student’s progress in life and the self itself, in like manner, to better realize the state of the current writing associating to the development of life skills thru the influence of sports engagement.

Specifically, an interest revolving around adolescence, the conceptualization of life skills, the cognition this field can profit from sports- based psychological skills and training literature; valuing sports for life skills development, and moreover, how sport is actually being used to encourage life skills. It will also aid the gaps in the current writings. And finally, the specific objectives of this study is to allow this to bring to us an understanding about the domain in sports that influence the development of life skills among senior high school students.   

METHOD

This chapter presents the research method used, the respondents, the instrumentation, the survey questionnaire, and the procedure of analysis.

Research Design

This study used the descriptive correlation design in which the researcher is primarily interested in describing levels of sports engagement towards the development of life skills and the development of life skills itself among the senior high school students, and in examining the relationship between the two variables. Moreover, to process data about the concern with correct and adequate presentation of it using statistical method.

Krathwohl, (2009) characterizes clear examination as a purposive interaction of social occasion, breaking down, arranging, and classifying information about winning condition, rehearses, convictions, cycles, patterns, and cause-impact connections and the making sufficient and exact coordination about such information with or without the guide of factual strategies. An elucidating kind of exploration includes the assortment of information to address questions concerning the current status of the subjects in the examination. It is intended to accumulate data or conditions existing at a time-frame. The focal point of the entire interaction is on the revelation of hypothesis on correlation or differentiation of the discoveries.

Research Locale

The study has shown in Figure 2 below Map of the Philippines highlighting Panabo City Davao Del Norte, which the said city dealt (4) four specific schools offering senior high schools from different barangays of a total sample of 908 students.

 Panabo City is a second rate class city having a place with the territory of Davao Del Norte. It is situated between the two clamoring urban areas of Tagum and Davao City. It is limited on the North-East and North-west by the Municipality of Carmen, on the South-West by Davao Gulf. Lining Davao City to its upper east, Panabo is important for Davao Metropolitan and being named as the “Banana Capital of the Philippines” because of various banana estates dissipated all through the city. The western piece of the city included slopes while the rest were level grounds. The city made a complete out of forty (40) barangays with three (3) colleges, six (6) universities, and twenty (20) secondary schools.

The study lasted for 10 months within the school year 2019-2020 as it is expected to complete within the standard period of the study. In this regard, the pre-trial preparation, or pre-study preparation as well as statistical analysis and reporting are considered. Also, considering the thorough corrections, encoding, paraphrasing, researching with the support of an authorized adviser, board, dean, and other involved person to make the study set by standard.  Moreover, a calibration of an instrument, and the data collection starting from commencement of data collection till the end is also considered.

Figure 2. Map of the Philippines Highlighting Panabo City in Davao Del Norte

Population and Sample of the Study

The population of a study refers to the total number of people in the form of a thorough headcount of all elements the findings of the study seeks to request (Sekoran, 2003). The study basically ensures the description of the level of student’s sports engagement and the development of life skills. The respondents were all Senior High School students of a total of 908 which currently enrolled in one (1) private school and three (3) public school sectors of Panabo City. For ethical consideration, in the conduct of this study, these are named School A, School B, School C, and School D.

Due to limited resources, there is almost always the need to sample respondents for any investigation (Saunder et al., 2007). It is not practical to use the whole population to conduct the survey since that process takes a lot of effort and consumes a lot of time. Therefore, random sampling from the general population was used. Sample of the study was picked part from the whole set of data out from the total population. In determining the sample size, Sloven Formula was used; n= N÷(1+Ne2).

Particularly, the respondents of the study were male and female athletes and non-athletes Senior High School students of Grade 11 and 12; able, not suffering from any disabilities or those students with special needs,  and willing to participate of the said study. Everyone is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that everyone has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the sampling process.

This examination features the different discernment among the four (4) fundamental populace gathering of Schools inside Panabo District. An endeavor was made to choose the example so as to be extensively agent measurements of Panabo District in general. The chose zone of two (2) private and two (2) government funded Schools of Panabo District was, thus, considered to have been proper to accomplish the targets of this examination.

School A has a total of 210 Senior High School Students enrolled for the school year 2019-2020, School B has a total of 115; School C of 436; and School D has 147. The total respondents of this study is 908 students. The sampling was done two weeks of survey and each school has a result of percentage distribution and a distinctive sample respondents. To specify, School A has a 66% of percentage distribution and has 138 as sample respondents; School B has 77% of percentage distribution and has 89 as sample respondents; and School C has resulted 48% of percentage distribution and has 209 as a sample respondents; and lastly School D which resulted a 73% of a percentage distribution and has 107 as a sample respondents. Where in a total of 278 sample respondents resulted and as the total number of the sampling who participated during the conduct of the study.

Distribution of Respondents
Name of School Population Sample Respondents
School A 210 138
School B 115 89
School C 436 209
School D 147 107
TOTAL 908 278

Research Instrument

The exploration instrument utilized is a downloaded and specialist modified made survey. A survey is picked as information assortment instrument. The survey remembered an assortment of inquiries for the builds of sports commitment and advancement of fundamental abilities. The draft of the survey was drawn out found on the researcher’s readings, studies, and expert writing from distributed theory applicable to the investigation .. There were forty-six (46) total questions in all. Four (4) questions for each indicator for independent variable which composing of four (4) indicators in all and five (5) questions for each indicator for dependent variables which composing of six (6) indicators in all.

An open-ended options were provided to accommodate to honest and free formatted views related to the topics or issues preference for the use of the structured questionnaire and is viewed on several assumptions such as; least expressive means of gathering data, avoidance of personal bias, and less pressure for immediate response. Then, the instrument will be validated by the few consultant and professors before it laid on the study. Also, the result will be interpreted to the given evaluation ranges of the nominal arithmetic means below.

Data Gathering Procedure

The initial step before to the testing appropriate is to make a solicitation letter. Upon, endorsement, the researcher gets the solicitation letter. In overseeing the survey, the researcher utilized the time designated for empty to dodge interruptions of class conversations. The respondents are liable to finish noting the data acquired which could help the specialist when deciphering results. At that point, the instrument will be approved by the couple of advisor and educators before it laid on the investigation.

The result in influence of sports engagement were interpreted to the given evaluation ranges of the nominal arithmetic means below.           

Range Descriptive Equivalent                         Interpretation
4.20- 5.00 Very   High It means that the level of influence of sports engagement is always observed.
3.40- 4.19   High It means that the level of influence of sports engagement is often observed.
2.60- 3.39 Moderate It means that the level of influence of sports engagement is sometimes observed.
1.80- 2.59 Low It means that the level of influence of sports engagement is rarely observed.
1.0-1.79 Very Low It means that the level of influence of sports engagement is never observed.

The result in development of life skills of students were interpreted to the given evaluation ranges of the nominal arithmetic means below.      

Range Descriptive Equivalent                         Interpretation
4.20- 5.00 Very   High It implies that the level of  development of life skills is always observed.
3.40- 4.19   High It implies that the level of development of life skills is often observed.
2.60- 3.39 Moderate It implies that the level of development of life skills is sometimes observed.
1.80- 2.59 Low It implies that the level of development of life skills is rarely observed.
1.0-1.79 Very Low It means that the level of development of life skills is never observed.

Statistical Tools

This study uses the following statistical method;  the Mean as a parameter that measures the central location of the distribution, Pearson Correlation Coefficient  which measures the statistical relationships or association, between two continuous variables of sports engagement and development of life skills, and a   Regression Analysis that examine the relationship between sports engagement to the development of life skills of students in Panabo District.

Ethical Considerations

A human example will likewise have a sense moral ramifications. It is essential to build up trust with the examination members and this was accomplished by guaranteeing nameless and classification to all respondents, cautiously clarifying the exploration cycle and how the information where introduced; giving as much data on the task and it’s points and goals without affecting reacts. Members ought not be exposed to hurt in any manners at all, regard for the nobility of the members ought to be focused on, and further, any affiliations in any structures, wellsprings of subsidizing, just as any potential irreconcilable circumstances should be announced.

Voluntary and Participation. Research involving human as participant will have a sense of ethical implication. Since voluntary participatio n of respondents in the research is important, participants have rights to withdraw from the study at any stage if they wish to do so. The participation may be discontinued at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which the subject is otherwise entitled. They are be given a variety of instructions for ending his or her participation in the study to the following grounds: unwilling to keep on participating in the study, incompliance in signing the informed or assent consent, and dropping out in the school after signing the informed or assent consent.

Privacy and Confidentiality. It is important to establish trust with the research participants and this was achieved by ensuring anonymity and confidentiality to all respondents, carefully explaining the research process and how the data where presented; providing as much information on the project and it’s aims and objectives without influencing responds. Participants should not be subjected to harm in any ways whatsoever, respect for the dignity of the participants should be prioritized, and further, any affiliations in any forms, sources of funding, as well as any possible conflicts of interests must be declared.

Informed Consent Process. Additionally, a permission consent is confirmed in every school addressing to the principal before going further together with an assent and informed consent is also established for the minor and non-minor participants. The informed consent for the participants will be given before the conduct of the survey. The principle of informed consent involves researchers providing sufficient information and assurances about taking part to allow individuals to understand the implications of participation and to reach a fully informed, considered and freely given decision about whether or not to do so, without the exercise of any pressure or coercion.

Risks. The researcher ensures that participants who will take part in research will not be caused distress. They must be protected from physical and mental harm. This means the study will not give embarrassment, frighten them, offended or harm participants. Normally, the risk of harm must be no greater than in ordinary life, i.e. participants should not be exposed to risks greater than or additional to those encountered in their normal lifestyles. If vulnerable groups are to be used (elderly, disabled, children, etc.), they must receive special care. The study ensures the moral responsibility to protect the participants from harm. In such, under psychological investigation that the researcher used to remember the duty to respect the rights and dignity of research participants, by means of abiding certain moral principles and rules of conduct. Moral issues rarely yield a simple, unambiguous, right and wrong answer. It is therefore after the matter of judgement the research must be justifiable without any harm. The study will not cause psychological or physical discomfort to participant, maybe to suffer pain or perhaps even come to serious harm. It is worthwhile remembering, that if there is a conflict of interest between the participants and the researcher it is the interests of the subjects that should take priority.

Benefits. The results of the study will be of great benefits to the participants. The investigation will lead to discoveries that benefit the participants themselves or even have the potential to increase the sum of their happiness. The results will provide them with some at ease of feeling specially relating to the subject as knowledge on sports engagement towards the development of life skills. It will give them a realization on how important sports involvement is into molding life skills that is beneficial in the real battling life situation. At the end of the investigation, they would finally know as sports engagement will omit negative characters and behaviors of such, well in fact, lead to a better development of self and being.  Specifically, by understanding the needs of these people and benefits of quality learning, these be assured of a competitive advantage. With the researcher of this study is ought to desire a specific value that will make the people and the society learn and achieve the most desirable skills in the endeavor of sports.

Plagiarism. The study contains no hint or indication of unfruitful claims from a diffferent person’s work as one’s own possession. The study underwent a thorough check using the plagiarism detector like the Grammarly or the Turnutin software.

Fabrication. The study has no hint or indication of deliberate unfruitful statements of what has been done, without composing the data results or offers conclusions that are not precise.

Falsification. This study has no hint or indication of deliberate falsification of the work to adapt to a theoretical model of expectation and has no shown of excessive assertions or overstatements.

Conflict of Interests. A conflict of interest arises when what is in a person’s best interest is not in the best interest of another person or organization to which that individual owes loyalty. For example, by taking a bribe to purchase a wonderful result of the conduct of investigation on the research. Moreover, a conflict of interest occurs if, within a decision-making context, an individual is subject to two coexisting interests that are in direct conflict with each other. Such a matter is of importance because under such circumstances the decision-making process can be disrupted or compromised in a manner that affects the integrity or the reliability of the outcomes. The researcher ensures the matter which are all above mentioned is emphasized to its fullest, reviewing other criteria of ethical considerations to keep reminded of what is ought to be under the conduct of investigation to omit misconceptions which lead to conflicts. The existence of such conflicts is an objective fact, not a state of mind, and does not in itself indicate any lapse or moral error. However, especially where a decision is being taken in a fiduciary context, it is important that the contending interests be clearly identified and the process for separating them is rigorously established. Furtherly, any affiliations in any forms, sources of funding, as well as any possible conflicts of interests must be declared.

Deceit. On the other hand, deception in the study occurs when participants agree to postpone full disclosure of the true purpose of the research or when the goals of the study are not conveyed in their totality to the participant. This view, has few, if any, ill effects or cause a potential harm. Such harm due to deliberating misinformation provided to participants about some essential component of the study’s procedure, deceptive study descriptions or instructions, false feedback, or the use of confederates, thus, these are all unjustifiable.  That’s why it is important to cite the matter and grounds and review what’s in the informed consent since it explains everything as what was stated above to the participants who will provide information about the survey.

Permission from Organization/Location. It is clearly stated in the research locale where will be the study to conduct. Likewise, in the permission letter headed to each School Principal of each school where the survey is being done is explicitly stated in the permission, the purpose, what is the study all about, and even citing its confidentiality about the participants. Informing them the process of what data to be taken and how is the data be gathered. Another, a review from informed consent letter. Of which the principle of informed consent involves researchers providing enough information and assurances about taking part to allow individuals to understand the implications of participation.

Authorship. Likewise, authorship confers credit and has important academic, social, and financial implications. It also implies responsibility and accountability for published work. Such, in this study will clearly credit as authors who will do the following recommendations who have made also a substantive intellectual contribution to the study, to the following four criteria: substantial contributions to the conceptions or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work, drafting or revising it critically for important intellectual content, final approval of the version to be published, and an agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.   However, contributors credited as authors must understand their role in taking responsibility and being accountable for what is published.

RESULTS

This chapter sets out the results of the questionnaire, initially assuming the descriptive statistics to establish the control variables and the basic characteristics of the sports engagement. This is followed by an analysis of the remaining variable: the development of life skills of students. Moreover, it followed by a critical discussion of the findings of the level of influence of sports engagement to the development of life skills of students of Panabo District. Also shown are standard deviation in all tables, in which results were interpreted and understood  to the given evaluation ranges of the nominal arithmetic means of a 5- point Likert Scale. This indicates that the ratings in the accomplished questionnaires are closed to the mean, indicating consistency of responses among respondents.

Level of Sports Engagement

Presenting the overall mean scores, and the specific mean scores with the corresponding standard deviation of all the items of sports engagement The overall mean of 4.09 for the sports engagement with a standard deviation of 0.891 is described as high indicating the level of sports engagement of students is much observed.

Specific mean scores and corresponding standard deviation of the 4 (four) items under the sports engagement in terms of confidence are reflected in Appendix F Table 1.1 are as follows: I am confident with my abilities got the highest mean of 4.06 and standard deviation of 0.981; I believe I can accomplish my goals in sport got the second highest mean of 3.99 and standard deviation of 1.044. On the other hand, I believe I have the skills/technique to be successful in any sport got the mean of 3.90 and standard deviation of 1.146 while I feel capable of success in any sport obtained the lowest mean of 3.86 and standard deviation of 1.064. All these specific means and the overall mean of 4.09 with standard deviation of 0.891 are described as High.

Table 1. Level of Sports Engagement

Indicators Mean SD Descriptive Equivalent
Confidence 3.95 0.973 High
Dedication 3.91 0.901 High
Vigor 4.20 0.822 High
Enthusiasm 4.30 0.931 Very High
             Overall 4.09 0.891 High

In dedication, as displayed in Appendix F – Table 1.2, the following are the mean scores and standard deviation of a four items under sports engagement’s indicator. First, I am dedicated to achieving my goals in sport got the highest mean of 4.05 and standard deviation of 1.062. Second, I want to work hard to achieve my goals in sport got a mean of 3.91 and standard deviation of 1.098. Iam determined to do my best in winning the game in sport, got the third rank with a mean of 3.90 and a standard deviation of 1.123. And lastly, who got the lowest mean of 3.77 and a standard deviation of 1.151 is I am devoted to any sport. These entire specific weighted means and the overall mean of 3.91 with standard deviation of 0.901are described as high.

Specific weighted means and corresponding standard deviation of the four items under the sports engagement in terms of vigor as shown in Appendix F- Table 1.3 are as follows; first I am feeling alive when I participate in any sport got the highest mean of 4.42 and with a standard deviation of 0.716. The second highest is I am feeling energetic when I play any sport which got a mean of 4.30 and a standard deviation of 0.691, while I am giving my full energy when I participate in any sport ranks third with a mean of 4.25 and a standard deviation of 0.915. Ranked as lowest is I am feeling mentally alert when I participate in any sport with a mean of 3.82 and a standard deviation of 0.646. All these specific means and the overall mean of 4.20 and standard deviation of 0.822 are described as very high.

Specific mean scored of four items under sports engagement of students in terms of enthusiasm is reflected in Appendix F- Table 1.4. As shown in the table,  the following items got the corresponding mean scores: First, I am feeling excited about sport got the highest mean score of 4.55 and standard deviation of 0.627.Second, I am being enthusiastic about sport got the mean of 4.50 with a standard deviation of 0.501. While the third, I am having fun playing any sport got the mean of 4.25 and a standard deviation of 0.920, and lastly the item that got the lowest mean of 3.91 and a standard deviation of 1.114 is I am enjoying any sport. These entire specific weighted means and the overall mean of 4.30 with standard deviation of 0.931 are described as very high.

This outcome affirms to the cases of Horoona Qurban, et.al (2018) that understudies who have more prominent games support will have undeniable degree of confidence. The subsequent significant level confidence will bring about advancing understudy inspiration, industriousness, in this way expanding their scholastic accomplishment.

Findings also showed that enthusiasm got the highest mean among the four sports engagement of students’ indicators. This implies that students are honed on dedication, involvement, and absorption of particular task they will get into. This result is consonance to the notions of Bowker (2006) that young who participated in sports benefit from more favourable self- perceptions including more positive body image, enhanced feelings of physical competence, and increased global self- esteem; a manifestation of being enthusiast.

In addition, Sport delight has significant persuasive outcomes and is fused into numerous hypotheses managing with athletes’ participation, persistence, and effort of exertion in their game. Discoveries show that the higher the happiness encountered, the more competitors choose to partake and continue in their game, the more they feel the longing to apply more noteworthy exertion and see that they really have exhausted more exertion, and the higher their energetic game responsibility. Eager game responsibility is a psychological state defined as competitors’ suffering assurance and want to keep taking an interest in their game. Examination centered on the sport commitment model, elaborated elsewhere in this reference book, shows that sport happiness is the most grounded and most steady indicator of obligation to (WordPress, 2020).

Results likewise correspond with the ideas of Guillén & Martínez-Alvarado (2014), appropriately, commitment in sports is related with being sincerely connected to the action or occasion. People can be viewed as sports lovers whether they play serious or sporting games, or in the event that they additionally do not play sports yet favor the game review insight. Any commitment makes an eagerness where an individual is devoted, included, and consumed in the errand. In addition, Cornwell and Roy (2001) had discovered that association with a specific game, excitement for sports as a rule, and generally openness to a game all have an immediate, positive impact on review and acknowledgment of patrons supporting the occasion. They further tracked down a person who is energetic about a game or an occasion is bound to have discussions with others in regards to the game.

Level of Development of Life Skills

Presenting the overall mean scores, and the specific mean scores with the corresponding standard deviation of all the items of development of life skills. The overall mean of 4.02 for the development of life skills with a standard deviation of 0.825 is described as high indicating the level of developing life skills of students is much observed.

Table 2. Level of the Development of Life Skills of Students

Indicators Mean SD Descriptive Equivalent       
Community and social development 4.19 0.885 High
Development of person and self 3.92 0.902 High
Self- management 3.98 0.898 High
Physical and sexual development 4.04 0.933 High
Career planning 3.95 0.992 High
Life and work orientation 4.04 0.897 High
            Overall 4.02 0.825 High

Specific mean scores and corresponding standard deviation of the 5 (five) items under the development of life skills in terms of community and social development are reflected in Appendix F- Table 2.1 are as follows: I am being patient with other road users like pedestrians and cyclists got the highest mean of 4.53 and standard deviation of 0.678. Second, I am being willing to help keep our school grounds neat, got the mean of 4.40 and standard deviation of 0. 747. The item that ranked third is I think I am being happy person with the mean of 4.25 and standard deviation of 0.747. The fourth rank got the mean of 3.99 and a standard deviation of 1.044 is item I am believing that life is important to other people and of mine. Lastly, which is in the lowest in rank is I am thinking that people will not discriminate me as a person who got the mean of 3.77 and standard deviation of 0.682. All these mean scores and the overall mean of 4.19 with a standard deviation of 0.885 are described as high.

Specific mean scores and corresponding standard deviation of the 5 (five) items under the development of life skills in terms of development of person and self are reflected in Appendix F- Table 2.2 are as follows: First, I am believing attending school is necessary, got the highest mean score of 4.05 and standard deviation of 0.991. Second, I am feeling like easy if I speak in front of other people like delivering a speech, with a mean of 4.02 and a standard deviation of 1.088. Third, I am allowing myself to influence by my friends, got the mean of 3.90 with standard deviation of 1.125. While the item that got the fourth rank is I like rules and regulations with the mean of 3.90 and standard deviation of 1.125. Lastly, the item that got the lowest rank is I am finding easy in making independent decisions with the mean of 3.72 and standard deviation of 1.195. All these mean scores and the overall mean of 3.92 with a standard deviation of 0.902 are described as high.

Specific mean scores and corresponding standard deviation of the 5 (five) items under the development of life skills in terms of self- management is reflected in Appendix F- Table 2.3 are as follows: I am believing it is helpful if school children do part-time work in order to earn pocket money, got the highest mean of 4.25 and standard deviation of 0.915. The item that got the second highest is I am being always punctual for appointments with the mean of 4.05 and standard deviation of 1.062, while item I am believing it is possible to plan money matters and keep to this plan got the 3rd rank with a mean of 3.93 and standard deviation of 1.098. The fourth in rank is I am believing to plan each days’ program/activity thoroughly with a mean of 3.90 and standard deviation of 1.123, and the last item that got the lowest rank is I am feeling my life order with a mean of 3.77 and standard deviation of 1.151. All these mean scores and the overall mean of 3.98 with a standard deviation of 0.89 are described as high.

Specific mean scores and corresponding standard deviation of the 5 (five) items under the development of life skills in terms of physical and sexual development is reflected in Appendix F- Table 2.4 are as follows: First, item that got the highest mean of 4.52 and standard deviation of 0.739 is I am believing it is unacceptable to smoke. Second highest is I am feeling happy about my body with the mean of 4.38 and standard deviation of 0.805. I am believing it is unacceptable to smoke is the item that got the 3rd highest rank with a mean of 4.17 and standard deviation of 0.978. The fourth  in rank is I am being always tidy with regards to personal appearance with the mean of 3.90 and standard deviation of 1.038. Lastly, the lowest in rank is item I am not being shy of members of the opposite sex with the mean of 3.24 and standard deviation of 0.977. All these mean scores and the overall mean of 4.04 with a standard deviation of 0.933 are described as high.

Specific mean scores and corresponding standard deviation of the 5 (five) items under the development of life skills in terms of career planning is reflected in Appendix F- Table 2.5 are as follows: I being barely find easy to solve problems got the highest mean of 4.05 and standard deviation of 0.991; I am being confident about my aptitudes, interests, and ideas about careers got the second highest with a mean of 4.00 and standard deviation of 1.088. The third in rank is I am needing more information about the world of work with a mean of 3.90 and standard deviation of 1.125. While the fourth highest got the mean of 3.89 and standard deviation of 1.148 is I am preferring working for a salary rather than having my own business, and the lowest one got the mean of 3.88 and standard deviation of 1.184 is I am feeling certain about the job I wish to do one day. All these mean scores and the overall mean of 3.95 with a standard deviation of 0.992 are described as high.

Specific mean scores and corresponding standard deviation of the 5 (five) items under the development of life skills in terms of life and work orientation is reflected in Appendix F- Table 2.6 are as follows: I am not being confused by ideologies such as capitalism, socialism, etc. got the highest mean of 4.50 and standard deviation of 0.684; second highest is I am being certain about which philosophy of life I follow that got the mean of 4.09 and standard deviation of 0.983; third highest is I am being certain about the value of my own culture holds got the mean of 3.90 and standard deviation of 1.162; I am feeling not ignorant about political affairs got the mean of 3.88 and standard deviation of 1.095 that ranked as fourth; and lastly that got the lowest rank is I am being  sometimes experience doubts about my beliefs with a mean of 3.85 and standard deviation of 0.708. All these mean scores and the overall mean of 4.04 with a standard deviation of 0.897 are described as high.

The level of the development of life skills of students of Panabo District is of undeniable level. This shows that surveys are profoundly evolved in their fundamental abilities regarding physical, social, mental, and even close to home part of development. This outcome is consistent to the perspectives on WHO (2015) that fundamental abilities will be capacities for versatile and positive conduct that empower people to manage the requests and difficulties of regular daily existence”. That a compelling and proper use of the abilities can impact the way one feels about oneself as well as other people and can upgrade one’s efficiency, adequacy, confidence and fearlessness. Specifically, fundamental abilities are a gathering of psycho-social capabilities and relational abilities that help individuals settle on educated choices, tackle issues, think basically and imaginatively, convey adequately, construct connection ships, sympathies with others, and adapt to and deal with their lives in a sound and profitable way.

Additionally, Gera (2015) and Puspakumarag (2013) clarified that fundamental abilities benefits the accompanying: aid advancement of adapting abilities that are fundamental segments for sound improvement in youth and youthfulness and required for making a fruitful change from adolescence to adulthood and making children successful not engaging in any deviant activities. This explicitly address the necessities of kids experiencing childhood in impediment conditions who may somehow need freedoms to build up these abilities.

Another, discoveries of the investigation noted by Roodbari, Sahdipoor, and Ghale (2013) showed that fundamental abilities preparing has a beneficial outcome and improves social turn of events, enthusiastic and social change, proposing an increment in similarity of kids and general well-being.

In addition, the outcome affirmed with the discoveries of Ramesh and Farshad C. (2004) demonstrated the adequacy of like abilities preparing in expanding mental and actual well being, supportive of social conduct and diminishing in conduct, social issues and reckless practices.

Further, Yadav P,Iqbal N (2009) confirmed that conferring fundamental abilities training to the understudies, can be useful as it explicitly addresses the requirements of kids, helps in propelling, giving functional, intellectual, enthusiastic, social and self-administration abilities for life changes. It showed positive after effects of conferring fundamental abilities training to understudies and getting the change young adult’ s mentality, thought and conduct by giving strong climate to them.

Significant Relationship between Sports Engagement and the Development of Life Skills of Students

Table 3 presents the significant relationship between the influence of sports engagement and the development of life skills of students. The four sports engagement indicators are as follows: confidence, dedication, vigor, and enthusiasm. Computations reveal the following R-values and their corresponding P-values: First, the r- value for confidence is 0.301 with p-value of 0.000 that indicates positive correlation. Second, the r- value for dedication is 0.386 with p- value of 0.000 that indicates positive correlation. Third, the r- value for vigor is 0.041 with p- value of 0.247 that indicates weak positive relationship. Whereas, the r- value for enthusiasm is 0.181 with p- value of 0.001 that denotes positive correlation.

Table 3. Significance on the Relationship between Influence of Sports Engagement and Development of Life Skills of Students

Independent Variable r-value r-squared P-value Decision
 Confidence 0.30 0.091 0.000 Ho is rejected
 Dedication Development 0.386 0.149 0.000 Ho is rejected
 Vigor of  Life Skills 0.041 0.002 0.247 Ho is not rejected
 Enthusiasm 0.182 0.026 0.001 Ho is rejected

*Significant at 0.5 level of significance

Since the domains Confidence, Dedication has probability value of 0.000 and Enthusiasm of 0.001 that is lower than 0.05 – degree of significance. Hence, there is a significant relationship that exists between confidence and development of life skills; dedication and development of life skills; and enthusiasm and development of life skills. On the other hand, the domain vigor has a probability value of 0.247 which indicates a weak positive relationship. Therefore the null hypothesis which declares that there is no significant relationship between influence of sports engagement and development of life skills is not rejected at low significance. Out of the four indicators of sports engagement only three have shown direct relationship with development of life skills.

Findings of this research also showed that there exist revelatory relations between sports engagement and development of life skills of students. This implies that the four sports engagement indicators namely: confidence, dedication, vigor, and enthusiasm have positive correlation to the development of life skills of students.

This outcome is likewise according to the recommendation of Gould and Carson (2008) that fundamental abilities help a youngster not just prevail in the game the person is playing, yet additionally help the individual once the person moves the abilities to non-sport settings wherein they are utilized effectively. This differentiation is significant on the grounds that for something to qualify as a fundamental ability, endeavors should be made to have the competency move to other life circumstances.

Besides, the outcomes match with the idea of ASI (2015), that sports programs like officially organized exercises that occur for a particular time-frame and in the presence, or under the guidance, of grown-ups, are accepted to furnish adolescents with settings for fundamental ability improvement . The American Sports Institute set up ASI hypothesis in 1992 on the reason that games become a guide for improving understudies in the study hall just as on the battleground. It includes the uplifting disposition and properties of taking an interest in sports and carries them into the homeroom. ASI sees games as an answer for helpless scholarly execution in school, and accepts sports offer the most ideal way for challenge, commitment, learning, and accomplishment

Regression Analysis on the Influence of Sports Engagement to the Development of Life Skills of Students

Illustrated in Table 4 is the regression analysis on the influence of the domains of sports engagement to the development of life skills of students. The table shows the F-ratio of 14.020 with P-value of 0.000 that is lower than 0.05 degree of significance. The results shows that two domains in sports engagement significantly influence the development of life skills of students, thus, Ho is rejected  while the other two domains indicates don’t have statistically significant influence, thus resulting Ho is not rejected.

The r- value of 0.413 indicates a moderate positive relationship between sports engagement and development of life skills of students. The coefficient determination or the r- squared is 0.170 connotes that only 17.0% of the variation in the level of sports engagement. The rest, 83% is the chance of variation that means the level of sports engagement attributed to other factors not included in the study.

The indicator confidence has a beta of 0.169 and p- value of 0.009 that is lower than 0.05 degree of significance. This means that confidence is a domain of sports engagement which has significant influence to the development of life skills of students.

Another indicator on sports engagement is dedication has a beta of 0.292 and a p- value of 0.000 that is lower than 0.05 degree of significance. This means that dedication is another domain of sports engagement which has significant influence to the development of life skills of students.

Moreover, the indicator of sports engagement in terms of vigor has a beta of -0.002 and a p- value of 0.978 that is higher than 0.05 degree of significance. This means that vigor of sports engagement is a domain that has no significant influence to the development of life skills of students. Furthermore, the negative results would mean a reverse relationship, hence, as the indicator vigor becomes greater the less it affect the development of life skills and vice versa.

Lastly, the indicator of sports engagement in terms of enthusiasm has a beta of 0.039 and a p- value of 0.584 that is higher than 0.05 degree of significance. This means that this also another domain of sports engagement which has no significant influence to the development of life skills of students.

Table 4. Regression Analysis on the Influence of Sports Engagement to the Development of Life Skills of Students

Independent Variable Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t- value p- value Decision
  B SE Beta      
Confidence 0.085 0.032 0.169 2.642 0.009 Ho is rejected
Dedication 0.106 0.027 0.292 3.987 0.000 Ho is rejected
Vigor – 0.002 0.063 – 0.002 – 0.028 0.978 Ho is not rejected
Enthusiasm 0.023 0.041 0.039 0.547 0.548 Ho is rejected

Dependent Variable: Development of Life Skills of Students

*p<0.05        r = 0.413           r2 = 0.170           F= 14.020             p- value = 0.000

The results on the regression analysis on the influence of the domains of sports engagement to the development of life skills of students reveals that there are domains in sports engagement that significantly influence the development of life skills of students. Using Simple Linear Regression, it was found out that confidence, dedication, and enthusiasm are the three domains of sports engagement that significantly influence the development of life skills of students.

This result confirms with the affirmation of Hilland et. al (2019), which demonstrated the positive effects on sport performance, positive thinking, change positive habits, goal setting, vigorous efforts, and motivation, by teaching and applying a life skills programs to sports science and physical education department major university students. Additionally, the researchers spotted a lot of principles that can get through sports engagement aside from dedication and confidence. Accordingly, it also dealt with the growth of athlete’s liveliness in playing the game.

Featuring the intellectual substance of Ringor (2020) and corresponding to the setting above announced that each game can be very gainful to a youngster’s prosperity. It can ingrain trust in kid and give them a solid feeling of character. Additionally, the things are not continually going to go with life’s way and realizing how to adapt to that is fundamental; having the option to push through and have this outlook can separate the youngster from the rest. Precluding to something and staying with it is another amazing capacity that will assist them with succeeding life. He likewise said that there will consistently be a moment that things get troublesome; nonetheless, having the option to stay with it when challenges are out of hand as opposed to

stopping is a very significant trademark to have.

At last, this finding is related with was crafted by Holt (2012) that various positive formative pointers have been related with sport investment, including developed confidence, passionate guideline, critical thinking, objective achievement, social abilities, and scholastic execution. Moreover, with sports investment sharpened the utilization of mental methods which permits a person to turn out to be more capable at a psychological expertise (e.g., controlling feelings, overseeing excitement, and creating certainty) and accomplish a more prominent limit with respect to self-guideline. Viable mental abilities advance the accomplishment of alluring characteristics like ideal passionate state, high hearty certainty, and suitable consideration center.

CONCLUSIONS

On the grounds of the after effects of the examination, the relevant ends drawn are as per the following: the level of influence of sports engagement is high as far as confidence, dedication, and vigor. This implies that sports engagement among students of the senior high schools in Panabo District are exceptionally noticed and hence uncovers that there are areas in sports engagement that altogether impact the development of life skills of students. Confidence, dedication, and enthusiasm are the domains in sports that significantly influence the development of life skills of students.

On the other hand, the level of the development of life skills of students is high as follows: community and social development, development of person and self, self- management, physical and sexual development, career planning, and life and work orientation. This shows that all measures on the development of life skills of students are of better than expected level. Consequently, there is a significant relationship between the influence of sports engagement and the development of life skills of students.

RECOMMENDATIONS

In this part, the recommendations derived from the findings of this study on the influence of sports engagement and the development of life skills of students . The examination discovered that the level of the influence of sports engagement got a general aftereffect of high. Among the four indicators, confidence got the lowest mean mainly in item number 2- I feel capable of success in any sport. As a result, the researcher therefore recommends: School heads will present and promote a non discrimination and inclusive in every sports  events at school or outside school setting that shows equal participation of all.

Be that as it may,  dedication got the lowest mean mainly in item number 3 “I am devoted to any sportwhich needs improvement. As the result, the researcher therefore recommends school heads may keep the direct of physical or sports action that lights a sound need for students and at any rate that animates their inclinations and become focused on the action .

On the other hand,  vigor has the lowest mean mainly in item number 4- I feel mentally alert when I participate in any sport. As a result, the researcher therefore recommends: School heads must survey the current status of active work and actual instruction in the school climate, especially during the lead of Physical Education classes and incorporate the significance of wearing action in their lives through a enthusiasm has the lowest mean mainly in item number 3- I enjoy in any sport. As a result, the researcher therefore recommends:

And for the last indicator, which is enthusiasm has the lowest mean  mainly in item number 3- I enjoy in any sport. As a result, the researcher therefore recommends: School heads moreover to look at the impacts of active work and actual instruction on the short and long haul physical, intellectual and neural structure, and psycho-social well being and improvement of students.

The enhancement of the sports engagement of the students will also aid in the full growth and improvement of themselves since these two variables showed significant relationship. Thus, in order to achieve the highest development of life skills among students, the researcher recommends: There can be strict implementation opted by DepEd and School Heads of prioritizing an active recreational activities, physical and sports activities in school and outside school such students will be the one to explore game playing, a composition of play, managing, and organizing the said sport events.

On the other hand, in terms of the development of life skills of students obtained high level, but the lowest mean fell under the development of person and self, which is the item on I find easy in making independent decisions. This then calls for an alteration initiatives by the school heads of senior high students such as managing and organizing a timely active recreational activities participated at school and in within their community aside from an annual sports fest events or intramural to enhance their selves in finding easier in making independent decisions.

Furthermore, since the test of significance using regression analysis shows the three (3) among the four (4) domains in the influence of sports engagement that is significantly influence the development of life skills of students, the researcher therefore recommends: School heads may increase the high level of the influence of sports engagement to a very high level and sustain the very high level of development of life skills of students by creating a plan as to how to implement certain strategies to achieve educational sports and other physical and recreational activities.

Finally, studies related to the variables under study or dealing with other problems and gaps, which were not covered in this study, can be conducted by other researchers. A similar study can be undertaken in a larger setting and wider scope to validate results and to formulate novel concepts on sports engagement and the development of life skills of students.

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