In this study, the effectiveness of onion and garlic skins for the removal of Cd(ii) from aqueous solution was investigated. The physical characterization, equilibrium and batch studies were undertaken to examine the kinetic and thermodynamic aspect of Cd(ii) adsorption by these biosorbents. The results showed that pH, surface area, specific gravity, specific gravity, ash content and moisture contents were 7.02 and 6.87, 1021.4m2/g and 874.2m2/g, 2.25% and 1.25%, 42.5% and 27% for onion and garlic respectively. The macro elements contained in onion and garlic skins were Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, and Fe. The FTIR analysis showed that the major functional groups on the biosorbent surface took part in the metal ion uptake process.The Langmuir isotherm model was found to be suitable for the adsorption of Cd(ii) for both biosorbents. The kinetic study of the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order. The thermodynamic process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. In general, onion and garlic skins exhibit effective sorption potentials for the removal of Cd(ii) from aqueous solution.
- Page(s): 01-09
- Date of Publication: 12 October 2018
- Evbuomwan, B.O Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
- Opute, C Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
. Devendra Yadav(2007):. Adsorptive Removal of Heavy Metals From Urban Storm Water Run-off . Antunes. W.M. Luna, S.A.(2003). An Evaluation of Copper biosorption by a Brown Sea weed under Optimized conditions. Electronic Journals of Biotechnology 6(3): 174-184. . EPA. Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria(1985) . Pirrone and Others (1996). Mercury Fate and Transport in the global atmosphere. . Mahvi, A.H. Naghipour, .D. Vaezi, .F and Nazmara, S (2005): Teawaste as an Adsorbent for Heavy Metal Removal from Industrial Wastewaters, Am. J. Appl. Sci., 2(1), 372-375. . Elinder und T, L., Friberg, C.G: Cadmium. environmental Health Criteria 134. 280 Seiten. 9 Abb., 20 Tab. World Health Organization. Geneva (1992). . ALPHA (1998): Standard Methods for Examination of water and Wastewater. 19th edition, American Public Health Association . Igbokwe, P.K, Nwabanne, J.T (2012): Comparative study of Lead (ii) removal from aqueous solution using different adsorbents, International joirnal of Engineering Research and Applications, 2, 1830-1838 . Langmuir, I. (1916). Adsorption. J. Americ. Chem. Soc. 38: 2221 . Aki, M.A and Ahlam, M.F (2012): Equilibrium, kinetic and Thermodynamics of Biosorption of Lead (II) Copper (II) and cadmium (II) Ions from aqueous Solutions onto Olive Leaves Powder. American Journal of Chemistry 2(4): 238-244 Dol: 10.5923/j.chemistry.20120204.09 . Chiou M.S, and Li, H.Y (2002):Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of reactive dye on cross- linked Chitosan beads. Journal of Hazardous materials, B93, 233-248 . Atuka, M.M, Evbuomwan, B.O(2014): Kinetics and thermodynamics studies of biosorption of Cadmium(ii) from aqueous solution onto garden grass(GAG). Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research, vol. 1 (1), 12-22 . Al-Dujaili, A.H Awwad, A.M and Salem, N.M (2012): Biosorption of Cadmium (II) onto loquat leaves (Eriobotya japonica) and their ash from aqueous solution, equilibrium kinetics, and thermodynamic studies International Journal of Industrial Chemistry 3:22.
Evbuomwan, B.O and Opute, C "The Effectiveness of Low Cost Adsorbents (Onion and Garlic Skins) In The Removal of Cd(II) from Aqueous Solution" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 10 October 2018, pp.01-09 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue10/01-09.pdf
Dissociative identity disorder previously known as multiple personality disorder is thought to be a complex psychological condition that is likely caused by many factors including severe trauma during early childhood usually extreme , repetitive physical , sexual, or emotional abuse. Our aim is to diagnosis the DID/MPD authentically by using the bio signals. The analyzed bio signal acquired from MPD patients is referred with normal bio values. A bio signal acquire from the LIE DETECTOR using p300 for authentically proving DID. Bio signal such as EEG, ECG are taken for DID diagnosis. Till now treatment for DID requires many stages of counselling and end of the treatment solely depend on behaviour changes. Though there may be similarity between DID patient and malinger patient, the differences are proved by our phenomena
- Page(s): 10-12
- Date of Publication: 12 October 2018
- Purnima. SAssistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering
Jerusalem College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
- Kalaiyarasi. KStudent, Department of Biomedical Engineering
Jerusalem College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
- Kirthika. SStudent, Department of Biomedical Engineering
Jerusalem College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
. Paul. Dell, John A.O Neil: Dissociation and the dissociative disorders. . Richard P. Kluft: Treatment of dissociation. . Philip M. Bromberg: Multiple self-states, the relational mind and dissociation, A Psychoanalytic perspective. . Otto F. Kernberg: Aggressively, Narcissism and Self-destructives in the Psychotherapeutic relationship. . Christopher p. cannon: The ECG a two-step approach to diagnosis. . Galen S. Wagner: Practical ECG. . Bruce sheele: practicing ECG. . Saroch Y. krakauer: Treating dissociative identity disorder. . R.S. Khandpur : Hand book of Biomedical Instrumentation . Leslie Cromwell, Fred J. weibell, Erich A. Pfeiffer. . Samaneh valipour, A.D. Shaligram, G.R. Kulkarni – Department of Electronic science, Pune University, Maharastra, India –“Detection of Alpha rhythm of EEG signal based on EEG LAB”. . Artha Ivontia Simbolon, Arjon Turnip – Technical Implementation Unit for Instrumentation Development – “An Experiment of Lie Detection based EEG-P300 classified by SVM Algorithm”
Purnima. S, Kalaiyarasi. K, Kirthika. S "Dissociative Identity Disorder" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 10 October 2018, pp.10-12 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue10/10-12.pdf
In substation if any fault occurs, the system voltage may rise beyond the certain level due to which the fuse holder may damage and it happens due to low quality of insulation or dielectric material. Nowadays ring main unitare their which consists of number of switchgear equipment one of them is fuse which is having fuse holder. The project deals with the increase in the sustainable capacity of fuse holder. And to check the capacity we analyse the results with the help of simulation which helps to reduce time of remanufacturing and retesting. And here different test are carried out on the fuse holder to check the performance the test are partial discharge test and high voltage test.
- Page(s): 13-14
- Date of Publication: 13 October 2018
- Gunjan S ChaudhariDept of Electrical Engineering, MET’S IOE, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
- Ashwini D JagtapDept of Electrical Engineering, MET’S IOE, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
- Pratiksha S DeoreDept of Electrical Engineering, MET’S IOE, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
- Poonam S MalgaveDept of Electrical Engineering, MET’S IOE, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
- Prof. Rahul J NikamDept of Electrical Engineering, MET’S IOE, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
. G. C. Crichton, P. W. Karlsson and A. Pedersen, “Partial Discharges in Ellipsoidal and Spherical Voids”, IEEE Trans. on Dielectric and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 335-342, April 1989. . R. J. Van Brunt, “Physics and Chemistry of partial discharges and corona”, IEEE Trans. on dielectric and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 761-784, October 1994. . M. G. Danikas, “Some New Relationships and a Scaling Law Regarding Partial Discharges in Spherical Cavities Enclosed in Solid Insulation”, Acta Electrotechnica Napocensis, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 5-9, 1998.
Gunjan S Chaudhari, Ashwini D Jagtap, Pratiksha S Deore, Poonam S Malgave, Prof. Rahul J Nikam "Review on to Increase Sustainable Capacity of Fuse Holder" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 10 October 2018, pp.13-14 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue10/13-14.pdf
Drilling speed of the top section (26” hole to a depth of 80m and 171/2” from a depth of 80m-400m) has been a challenge in the Menengai geothermal field with low rate of penetration as per intended target. This section is generally hard formation with frequent drilling fluids losses. Use of the standard roller cone bits on these sections causes a lot of vibrations on the rig leading to frequent breakdowns of the equipment (rotary table and top drive system) leading to downtime; hence, longer drilling periods and high maintenance cost. Loss of circulations while drilling the top section leads to cement plugs to heal the losses, use of more loss circulation material (LCM) and drilling mud. This increases the time taken to drill these sections due to wait on cement to cure and overall well costs. Introduction of the hammer bit on the conventional land rigs in the Menengai geothermal field was viewed as potential solutions to the challenges experienced with the standard roller cone bits. This study sought to compare the performance of two-bits across four wells in order to establish whether the hammer bit has any advantage over the roller cone. Results shows that the hammer bit had a high average rate of penetration (ROP) of 2.2019 meters per hour on the 26” hole and 171/2” hole section as compared to an average ROP of 0.376 meters per hour for the roller cone bit. The hammer bit presented other advantages including low/minimum vibrations transmitted to the rig equipment, less drilling fluids used and minimum downtime hence minimum maintenance costs. The study recommends that the hammer bit be adopted for drilling all wells’ top sections in Menengai geothermal field.
- Page(s): 15-20
- Date of Publication: 16 October 2018
- Dominic MutaiGeothermal Development Company Limited, Kenya.
- Stephen M. NatoGeothermal Development Company Limited, Kenya.
. Antony, N.: Drilling Engineer, Drilling program and completion report for Menengai Well 10A, (2014). . Bates, R. J., and Jackson, J. A., ed. Dictionary of Geological Terms (3 Ed.). American Geological Institute. (1984), p. 299. ISBN 0-385-18101-9. . Daniel, M.: Drilling Engineer, Drilling program and completion report for Menengai Well MW-21, (2014). . Daniel, M.: Drilling Engineer, Drilling program and completion report for Menengai Well MW-1, (2014). . David, M.: Geology Well Report for Menengai Geothermal Project, Well MW-13, (2013) . David, O.: Geology Well Report for Menengai Geothermal Project, Well MW-10, (2013) . Finger, J.T. “Investigation of percussion drills for geothermal application,” Journal of Petroleum Technology (1989), p. 2128-320. . Hung, N., Hao, L., Gerbaud, L., Souchal, R., Urbabczyk, C., & Fouchard, C. “Penetration rate of rotary-percussive drilling,” Petrovietnam Journal, (2015), vol. 6, p. 14- 21. . Lyons, W. C. Air and Gas Drilling Manual: Applications for Oil and Gas Recovery Wells and Geothermal Fluids Recovery Wells. Gulf Professional Publishing; Houston, TX (2009). . Okuchaba, J.B. “Development of a model to calculate mechanical specific energy for air hammer drilling systems,” A Master’s Thesis submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University, Texas, TX (2008). . Omondi, C. “Borehole geology and hydothermal mineralization of wells MW-01 and MW-02, Menengai Geothermal Field, Central Kenya Rift Valley,” Paper presented at the Geothermal Training Programme, Reykjavik, Iceland (2011), no. 30, p. 737- 773. . R. D. Grace, J. L. Shursen, R. S. Carden, Drilling Practices. PetroSkills. (2012) . Sliwa, A., Wisniowski, R., Korzec, M., Gajdosz, A., & Sliwa, T. “Rotary- percussion drilling method- historical review and current possibilities of applications,” AGH Drilling, Oil, and Gas, (2015), vol. 32, no. 2, p. 313-324. . Stephen, N.: Drilling Engineer, Drilling program and completion report for Menengai Well MW-13, (2013). . White, D.B., Curry, D.A., & Gavignet, A.G. “Effects of nozzle configuration on roller cone bit performance, Paper presented at SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Dallas, TX (1988).
Dominic Mutai and Stephen M. Nato "Comparison between Use of Hammer Bits and Roller Cone Bits on Conventional Land Rigs, a Case Study of the Menengai Field" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 10 October 2018, pp.15-20 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue10/15-20.pdf
Safe movement of vehicle through the various roads is an issue of National concern. Every year the density of vehicles is increasing and so the flow of vehicles on the roads and previously designed road network may not be able to cope with it due to the increasing demand of traffic across the country. Assessment of traffic safety is generally based on the use of historical accidental data records, which are reactive in nature it is like waiting for the accidents to occur and then applying their countermeasures. With this background, systematic approach is made for most dangerous unsignalised intersections using VISSIM and SSAM softwares. The traffic data is collected through video cameras from which field PET values are measured and the same road network is given as input in VISSIM to calculate simulated PET values using SSAM software. These values were then compared for the assessment of traffic safety. The primary objective of this study is to assess the level of traffic safety at an uncontrolled intersection using micro simulation modeling under mixed traffic condition by devising a unique strategy of measuring proximal safety indicator, Post Encroachment Time (PET).
- Page(s): 26-31
- Date of Publication: 24 October 2018
- SowjanyaAssistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, G. Pulla Reddy Engineering College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India
- G. Praveen KumarStudent, Civil Engineering Department, G. Pulla Reddy Engineering College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India
. Pratik Raj and Dr. B.V.Khode, “Forecasting of Traffic Simulation Model Under Heterogeneous Traffic Condition”, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Vol. 03, Issue 04, pp 2739-2749, April 2016. . Anand Samir, Sanket Throat and Buddharatna Godboley, “Assessment of Traffic Safety Performance at Unsignalised T-intersection under Mixed Traffic Condition”, Vol. 04, Issue 04, pp 127-132, April 2015 . V. Deepak Killi and P. Vedagiri, “Proactive Evaluation of Traffic Safety at An Unsignalized Intersection Using Micro- Simulation”, Journal of Traffic and Logistics Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 2,pp 140-145, June 2014. . Arkatkar S et.al., (2012), “Methodology for simulating heterogeneous traffic on expressways in developing countries: A Case Study in India.” Transportation Research Board (2014). . Nicolas Saunier, Introduction to Surrogate Analysis in Non-Motorized Safety, June 2013. . Mohamed and Saunier , (2013)- Motion prediction methods for Surrogate Safety Analysis. Journal of Transportation Research Board. . Kanwal Yousaf, Arta Iftikhar, Ali Javed “Comparative Analysis of Automatic Vehicle Classification Techniques: A Survey”, I.J. image, Graphics and signal processing, 2012. . Sharma H. K., Swami M. (2011), “Speed-Flow Analysis for Interrupted Oversaturated Traffic Flow with Heterogeneous Structure for Urban Roads.” International Journal for Traffic and Transport Engineering, 2012, 2(2): 142- 152. . Hanki, D., and Patel A. K. (2012), “Urban Road Network Simulation using VISSIM.” National Conference and Workshop on Recent Advances in Traffic Engineering, SVNIT, Surat, India. . Sayed, T., Estimating the safety of unsignalized Intersections using Traffic Conflicts, Federal Highway Administration,2011. . Oswald R.K.et.al., “Traffic Flow Forecasting using approximate nearest neighbor non-parametric Regression Research Report”, center for Transportation studies at University of Virginia, USA, 2011. . Prajapati V. N., and Gundaliya P. J., (2010), “Simulation of heterogeneous traffic intersection using VISSIM.” | . Mathew T.V., and Radhakrishnan K. (2010). “Calibration of microsimulation models for non lane-based heterogeneous traffic at signalized intersections.” Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 2010.136:59-66. . S. Rokade, K. Singh, S.K. Katiyar, S.Gupta (2010), “Development of Accident Prediction Model”, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology. . Lili Pu and Rahul Joshi- SSAM user manual.
Sowjanya, G. Praveen Kumar "Accident Analysis using Microscopic Simulation and Surrogate Safety Assessment Model" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 10 October 2018, pp.26-31 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue10/26-31.pdf
For a long time, used oil has been reused or disposed in methods that contaminated the environment or not recycled to maintain its resource value. In Kenya, it is estimated that 200 million gallons annually are poorly disposed by pouring on the ground, taken to dumpsites or discharged down sewers and storm drains. One gallon of used oil can contaminate up to one million gallons of clean water. Used oil also end up in lakes, rivers and streams where they threaten the aquatic life. This is a case study undertaken at Menengai Geothermal Field to explore the handling, management and disposal of used oil. The study sought to identify the current uses and disposal methods of used oils and make recommendation that could help other entities to effectively manage used oil. Data was obtained from well costing/completion reports and company disposal records. Findings reveal that proper management of used oil not only prevents environmental degradation, but can also results in significant economic benefits. In Menengai case, used oil is transported to cement factories where it is used for heating. Used oil can be processed into fuel oil, re-refined into lubricants or used as raw materials for refining and petrochemical industries.
- Page(s): 32-35
- Date of Publication: 27 October 2018
- Collins ChangoleGeothermal Development Company Limited, Kenya
- Dominic MutaiGeothermal Development Company Limited, Kenya
. Abro, R., Chen, X., Harijan, K., Dhakan, Z., & Ammar, M. (2013). A comparative study of recycling of used engine oil using extraction by composite solvent, single solvent, and acid treatment methods. ISRN Chemical Engineering, 13. Article ID 952589. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/952589. . Chartziaras, N., Psomopoulos, C., & Themelis, N. (2015). Use of waste derived fuels in cement industry: A review. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 27(2), 178- 193. . EPA (2017). Managing used oil: Answers to frequent questions for businesses. Retrieved https://www.epa.gov/hw/managing-used-oil-answers-frequent-questions-businesses. . Kamau, M. (2016). Report warns on handling of crude oil waste. Standard Digital. Retrieved https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/business/article/2000226647/report-warns-on-handling-of-crude-oil-waste. . Muia, M. (2004). A study of used oil management: A case study of Nairobi City- Kenya (Unpublished thesis). University of Nairobi; Kenya. . Mutegi, M. (2016). KenolKobil to build Sh 1.5 billion lubricants plant in Mombasa. Business Daily. Retrieved https://www.businessdailyafrica.com/news/KenolKobil-to-build-Sh1-5bn-lubes-plant-in-Mombasa/539546-3338636-qsah66/index.html. . National Environment Management Authority (2014). Technical guidelines on handling, management and disposal of used oil/sludge in Kenya. Nairobi, KE: Government Printer. . Ogbeide, S. (2010). An investigation of the recycling of spent engine oil. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, 3(1), 32- 35. . Republic of Kenya (1999). Environment Management and Coordination Act, 1999. Nairobi, KE: Government Printer. . Republic of Kenya (2007). Kenya Vision 2030. Nairobi, KE: Government Printer. . Zitte, L., Waadu, A., & Okorodike, C. (2016). Used-oil generation and its disposal along East-West Road, Port Harcourt Nigeria. International Journal of Waste Resources, 6(1), 194- 199
Collins Changole, and Dominic Mutai "Management and Disposal of Used Oil - A Case Study of Menengai Geothermal Field" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 10 October 2018, pp.32-35 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue10/32-35.pdf
All of us know that motor is machine which produces rotary motion or it is an arrangement of coils and magnet that convert electric energy into mechanical energy. Ultrasonic motors are next generation motors. Ultrasonic motors use the piezoelectric effect in ultrasonic frequency range to provide its motive force resulting in a motor with usually high torque and power to weight characteristics, low speed. The stator of ultrasonic motor contains two driving feet, sixteen pieces of piezoelectric ceramic plates and three rings inner ring, middle ring, outer ring. The ultrasonic motor forms elliptical movements on the driving feet by the superposition of stretching and bending vibration of metal rings by using finite element method. The ultrasonic motor is analyzed and designed by adjusting structure parameters of two working modes were turn to be close.
- Page(s): 36-38
- Date of Publication: 02 November 2018
- Shejole Jagruti RajendraElectrical, MET Institute of Engineering, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
- Dhatrak Aishwarya PandurangElectrical, MET Institute of Engineering, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
- Chavan Archana BapusahebElectrical, MET Institute of Engineering, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
- Sonawane GaurisanjayElectrical, MET Institute of Engineering, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
. Ueha S. Ultrasonic Motors Theory and Applications. pp.120, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993. . Zhao CS. Recent progress in ultrasonic motor techniques. Journal of Vibration, Measurement & Diagnosis. 23: 1-5, 2004. (in Chinese) . Xing ZP, He B, Xu K, Wang J, et al. A Miniature Cylindrical Piezoelectric Motor with an Asymmetric Vibrator. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonic Ferro electronics and Frequency Control. 60: 1498-1054, 2013. . Li X, Chen WS, Xie T, et al. Novel high torque bearing less two-sided rotary ultrasonic motor. Journal of Zhejiang University-Science A. 8: 786-792, 2007. . Jiang CR, Hu MQ, Jin L, et al. Finite element contact model of a hollow ring type traveling wave ultrasonic motor. Journal of Southeast University. 44: 99-103, 2014. . Peng TJ, Shi HY, Liang X, et al. Experimental investigation on sandwich structure ring-type ultrasonic motor. Ultrasonic. 56:303–307, 2015
Shejole Jagruti Rajendra, Dhatrak Aishwarya Pandurang, Chavan Archana Bapusaheb, Sonawane Gaurisanjay "Ultrasonic Motor with Ring Type Stator" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 10 October 2018, pp.36-38 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue10/36-38.pdf
Medicinal plants have been identified and used throughout human history to treat aliment and diseases. Plants have ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compound. Many of which are efficacious and contain substances that are potential drugs that require further examinations.Chemical compounds in plants mediate their effects on the human body by binding to receptor molecules present in the body; Also, many of the herbs and spices used by humans to season food yield useful medicinal compounds. Terminaliacatappa Linn (Indian almond) is a Combretaceae plant (tropical almond family), Usually a small to medium-sized tree 30–50 ft (9–15 m) high and 1 ft (0.3 m) in trunk diameter, but sometimes much larger in diameter and with slight buttresses, evergreen except in areas with a marked dry season. This study was designed to evaluate proximate content, elemental contentsas well as Gas-chromatography analysis of Terminaliacatappa leaf. One thousand grammes (1000g) of the powdered leaf of Terminaliacatappa was extracted with methanol using cold infusion (maceration) method. Fresh leaf of Terminaliacatappa was collected from Bolori ward Maiduguri Borno state and it was identified by Professor S. S. Sunusi of Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri. Eighty three point eight two grammes (83.82g) of the dark green in colour gummy in texture of methanol crude extract was obtained, which was further partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water to give n-hexane portion (1.638% W/W), dark green in colour, oily in texture, ethyl acetate portion (0.075% W/W), black in colour, gummy in texture, n-butanol portion (0.777% W/W), brown in colour, oily in texture and finally aqueous portion (2.997% W/W), dark brown in colour, powdered in texture. The concentration levels of macro-elements (Ca, Mg, Na, K) and micro-elements (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the anions (Cl-, NO3-, PO43-, and SO42-) were estimated using smart spectrophotometer. The leaf of Terminaliacatappa indicated the presence of calcium (19.68µg/ml), cadmium (0.12µg/ml), copper (6.84µg/ml), iron (10.67µg/ml), potassium (18.90µg/ml), magnesium (10.27µg/ml), manganese (1.27µg/ml), sodium (15.30µg/ml) nikkel (1.00µg/ml), zinc (4.17µg/ml), chloride (0.72µg/ml), nitrate (46.00µg/ml), phosphate (70.00µg/ml) and sulphate (227.33µg/ml). However, only phosphate and sulphate exceeded the permissible limit of world health organization (WHO) standard. The results of proximate content evaluation showed that moisture, was 7%, crude protein, 10.37%, fat, 1%, crude fibre, 21%, ash, 10% and carbohydrate, 51%. Purification of compound was done by using column and thin layer chromatography method. After pooling and recombination with different solvent system of the n-butanol extract, three compounds TCA, TCB and TCC were obtained with melting points TCA(286.00-287.00), TCB (278.00-279.00) and TCC (260.00-262.33). All the melting points were shape and uncorrected. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry of the compound TCA revealed the presence of fatty acid derivaties such as octadecanoic acid 4-hydroxybutyl ester, tetradecanoic acid 2-hydroxyl, pentanoic acid, 2,2 4-trimethyl-3-carboxy isopropyl, isobutyl ester, octadecanoic acid (2-phenyl 1-3-dioxolan -4-yl) methyl ester cis.
- Page(s): 39-46
- Date of Publication: 24 October 2018
- Tijjani M. ADepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
- Mohammed G. T.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
- U. D. AzumiDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
- F. I. AbdulrahmanDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
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Tijjani M. A, Mohammed G. T., U. D. Azumi, F. I. Abdulrahman "Bioactive Compound Analysis by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental as Well Proximate Composition of Leaf Terminaliacatappa" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 10 October 2018, pp.39-46 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue10/39-46.pdf