In this paper, the influence of physicochemical property and composition of clay on resistance behavior of copper-cermet was studied and it is revealed that metal filler and conducting grains diffused through the pores of the clay (porosity of 49%) at temperature greater than 400 ºC and duration above 120 minutes. Good performance of cermet was noticed for compositions below 20%. The porosity of clay in addition to annealing were able to activate the diffusion of conducting grains in the cermet in the form of electrons and holes in motion while the temperature coefficient of resistance remains positive within the temperature range. Metal composition increment also reduces the peak resistance attained as the temperature increases.
- Page(s): 01-04
- Date of Publication: 04 October 2018
- Francis O. OmoniyiDepartment of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
- Abdul D. A. BubaDepartment of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
- Abubakar M. Ramalan Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
- Mufutau A. Salawu Physics/Electronics Unit, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Kwara State. Nigeria
. Asadi, A., Huat, B. K., and Mohamed, T. A. (2007). “Electrokinetic and Its Applications in Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering.” Proceedings of the World Engineering Congress WEC2007, Penang, Malaysia, pp 1-7.a . Liaki, C., Rogers, C. D. F., and Boardman D. I. (2008). “Physicochemical effects on uncontaminated kaolinite due to electro kinetic treatment using inert electrodes”. Journal of Environmental Sciences and Health Part A, Vol. 43, pp 810-822. . Hamed, J. T. and Bhadra, A. (1997). J. Hazard. Mater. 55(1-3) 279-294. . Asadi A. and Huat B. K. (2009). “Electrical Resistivity of Tropical Peat” EJGE. Vol. 14. Bund. P., pp 1-9. . Mcalister, S.P.; Inglis, A.D.; Kroeker, D.R. (1984). “Crossover between hopping and tunneling conduction in Au-SiO2 films”. J. Phys. C, 17, L751–L756. . Katumba G. and Olumekor L., (2000). “Effects of thickness and composition on the resistivity of Cu-MgF2 cermet thin film resistors”. Journal of Materials Science 35, 2557 – 2559. . Lai L., Zeng W., Fu X., Sun R., Du R. (2012). “Annealing effect on the electrical properties and microstructure of embedded Ni–Cr thin film resistor”. J. Alloys Compd., 538, 125–130. . Wang X. Y., Ma J. X., Li C. G., and Shao J. Q. (2014). “Structure and electrical properties of quaternary Cr–Si–Ni–W films prepared by ion beam sputter deposition”. J. Alloys Compd., 604, 12–19. . Li H., Ding Z., Fang J., Gao Y., Sun C. (2014). “Effects of annealing process on microstructure and electrical properties of cold-drawn thin layer copper cladding steel wire” J. Mater. Sci: Mater Electron 25:5107–5113 doi: 10.1007/s10854-014-2279-2 . Grunlan J. C.; Gerberich W. W., and Francis L. F. (2001). “Lowering the percolation threshold of conductive composites using particulate polymer microstructure”. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 80 (4), pp. 692– 705. doi:10.1002/1097-4628. . Babalola, O. A., and Akomolafe, T. (2003). “Electrical Resistivity of Copper-Clay Cermet Resistors”. Nig. Journal of Physics, pp 221-227. . Rashid K. M. and Alias M. F. A., (2014). “The Impact of Cu Doping Ratio on Electrical Properties for Thin ZnO Films Prepared by PLD”, IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE). . Abbasi M., Taheri A. K. and Salehi M. T. (2001). J. Alloys Compd. 319: 233–241. . Omoniyi F. O., Gora M. N. and Okorie O. (2017); “Annealing Sequence Effects on Copper-Clay Based Cermet Resistivity”. EPRA Int. Jour. of Res. and Dev. Vol. 2, Issue 12. ISSN 2455-7838, pp 38-43. . Wu Q. M., Wang D. Q., and Gao Y. (2012). “Effect of Processing Technique on Resistivity of Copper Clad Steel (CCS) Wire. Metal. Funct. Mater. 19, 10 – 14. . Ziman J. (1960). Electrons and Phonons, Oxford Univ. Press, London.
Francis O. Omoniyi, Abdul D. A. Buba, Abubakar M. Ramalan, Mufutau A. Salawu "Influence of Physicochemical Property and Composition on Cermet Resistivity" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 9 September 2018, pp.01-04 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue9/01-04.pdf
At the cosmic level, the physical analogy of Information consciousness idea is best corroborated by an excellent depiction of Penrose diagram (named after mathematical physicist Roger Penrose)which is conformably equivalent to the actual metric in space-time. This conformal factor is chosen such that the entire infinite space-time is transformed into a diagram of finite size where every point corresponds to a 2-dimensional sphere. Consciousness does not speak the language of mathematics, but it is true that one can endeavour to model it comprehensively in the language of mathematics. Descartes was also, as was so often the case, well ahead of his time by describing continuity and dimensionality, the factors that define his view of space as an actual vector space accessible to mathematical and physical analysis.We can also use mathematics to abstract, idealise and describe these phenomenon in order to make some predictions that would be very different otherwise. Drawing parallel to the law of conservation, the information force-field of consciousness that is believed to exist and pervade in every region of creation including our universe, is believed to be inhabited by information as its fundamental constituent. It evolves and continuously interact with other fields and matter particles and engage in the exchange of mass-energy with them. This process is also consistent with the existing postulates of physical mass-energy phenomenon explained by laws such as Higgs boson field and the emergent phenomenon of gravity. Mathematically, Information consciousness can be described as a function of transformation of Potential information consciousness into kinetic consciousness i.e. f (C¬0+C1) which can further be assumed to be a divergence operator explaining how much the consciousness field gradient tends to spread radially outward or converge inward; a kind of behaviour observed under the Gauss’ law of electric field lines charging or spreading out from charges in every direction.
- Page(s): 05-13
- Date of Publication: 04 October 2018
- Prof. Sanjay BhushanDepartment of Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed to be University), Dayalbagh, AGRA 282 005 (UP), INDIA
. GiulioTononi (2004), Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness . James, William (1909), Pluralistic Universe, from (1988) William James: Writings 1902¬1910. New York: Library of America. . Leonard Susskind, James Lindesay, “An Introduction to Black Holes, Information and The String Theory Revolution,” 2005. . Rafael Sorkin, " Geometry from order: causal sets " in: Einstein Online Vol. 02 (2006), 1007 . blog.stephenwolfram.com . https://www.quora.com . https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penrose_diagram
Prof. Sanjay Bhushan "Information Consciousness within the Realm of Creation and its Mathematical Interpretation" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 9 September 2018, pp.05-13 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue9/05-13.pdf
The project is designed to develop a device to increase the life of incandescent lamps. Incandescent lamps have a property of very low resistance in cold condition. Due to which lamp draws high current when switched is ON, this results in fast failure of lamps.Random switching of lamps may occur at any instant of the voltage/current waveform. Suppose it switches at the peak value supply voltage. When such switching of the load (Incandescent Lamp) occurs and as the lamp is having low resistance in cold condition, then the current further shoots up leading to premature failure of the lamp.The proposed project provides a solution by connecting a TRIAC in circuit such that the controlling the firing angle of the TRIAC by detecting the zero cross point of the waveform of supply voltage and after to switched ON the load. The project contains comparator here is ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) which is given as reference interrupt to the microcontroller. A push button is used as a switch which is used to switch ON the load(Lamp) at zero voltage so the lamp draws current gradually from zero to full value.
- Page(s): 14-15
- Date of Publication: 04 October 2018
- Pratik JejurkarB.E. Student, Department of Electrical Engineering, MET Bhujbal Knowledge City, Adgaon, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
- Sapana Lokhande B.E. Student, Department of Electrical Engineering, MET Bhujbal Knowledge City, Adgaon, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
- Aditya MateB.E. Student, Department of Electrical Engineering, MET Bhujbal Knowledge City, Adgaon, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
- Dr. D. P. KadamHead of Department, Department of Electrical Engineering, MET Bhujbal Knowledge City, Adgaon, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
. A review of Zero Voltage Switching and its importance to Voltage Regulation by Steven keeping Contributed by Electronic products (2014-08-05). . Implementation of Arduino based AC Zero Voltage Switching for Electrical Equipment. International Journal of Engineering Research in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IJEREEE). Vol 4, Issue 2, February 2018. . MaHuasheng, Zhao Liang, Zhang Bo, Zheng Jianchao.:‘AC/AC Buck Converter Instantaneous Value Control Modeling, System Analyzing and Designing’, Proc. of the IEEE Electrical Machines and Systems Conference, Nanjing, Sept 2005, 2, pp. 1391 – 1395. . Rosas-Caro, J.C., Mancilla-David, F., Ramirez-Arredondo, J.M., Bakir, A.M.: ‘Two-switch three-phase ac-link dynamic voltage restorer’, IET J. Power Electronics, 2012, 5, (9) , pp. 1754-1763. . Jothibasu, S., Mishra, M.K., ‘An Improved Direct AC–AC Converter for Voltage Sag Mitigation’, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2015, 62, (1), pp. 21- 29.
Pratik Jejurkar, Sapana Lokhande, Aditya Mate, Dr. D. P. Kadam "Zero Voltage Switching to Extend the Life of Equipment" International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science -IJRIAS vol.3 issue 9 September 2018, pp.14-15 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/Vol.3&Issue9/14-15.pdf