The primary education system in Bangladesh is one of the largest systems in the world. The country has taken a number of measures to improve primary education since its independence 1971. Bangladesh is committed to the rights of basic education for all children by the Article 17th of its constitution. Now a days Bangladesh has improved a lot in case of primary level enrolment, but many children are dropped out for various reason. To complete the full cycle of primary education (up to grade five), dropout should be reduced to zero level. Bangladesh Government also trying best to reach that goal by introducing many project such as Hard to Reach, Reaching Out of School Children ( ROSC) and also creating new division in Directorate of Primary education like Second Chance and Alternative Education (SCE) Division. All these efforts are giving good results but yet to go a long way.
- Page(s): 01-04
- Date of Publication: 15 January 2016
- Subir ChowdhuryAssistant Director, SCE Division
Directorate of Primary Education, Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh
- Jasmin Taslima Banu
. UNICEF Jan-2014, Global Initiative on out of school Children. . Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2012-13, BBS & UNICEF . Out of School Children In Bangladesh 2014, BBS, BIDS & UNICEF. . Child Equity Atlas, UNICEF. . Non-formal Education and Basic Education reform: A Conceptual Review, 2006, UNESCO. . Annual Primary School Census-2014, Bangladesh.
Subir Chowdhury, Jasmin Taslima Banu "Drop-out is a Threat to Complete the Cycle of Primary Education (up to Grade-V), Bangladesh Perspectives" International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation-(IJRSI) vol.3 issue 1A, pp.01-04 2016
Anacardic acid, a phenolic compound is found in cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) a by-product of cashew industry. It holds considerable promise because of its large availability in tropical areas, low cost, biodegradability and structural characteristics. A study was made of the application of diazotization-coupling spectrophotometric technique for the determination of anacardic acid, using sulfanilamide (SAA), sulfadoxine (SDX) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) the widely used sulfa drugs as coupling agents. The methods are based on the interaction of diazotized drugs with anacardic acid in alkaline medium to produce a orange red color product having maximum absorption at 480 nm. The color developed was stable for 4 h at 27oC. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range 1.6-12.8 μgml-1 for SAA and 1.0-14.4 μgml-1 for SDX and SMX at the wavelength of maximum absorption at 480 nm. The method was also successfully tried for the determination of anacardic acid in presence of various anions and cations, which did not interfere in the proposed methods..
- Page(s): 05-08
- Date of Publication: 15 January 2016
- Mohsina BegumDepartment of Chemistry Maharani’s College, Mysuru, India
- Isa Baba KokiDepartment of Chemistry Northwest University Kano, PMB, 3220 Kano, Nigeria
- Akheel Ahmed SyedDepartment of Studies in Chemistry, University of Mysore, Manasa Gangotri, Mysuru, India Icon Professor, University of Malaya, Malaysia
. Northey, E.H. (1948) “The Sulfonamides and Allied Compounds”, ACS Monogr. Ser American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1948. . Mandell, G.L. and Patri, W.A. (1996) “The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics”, Ed: A.G. Gilman, et al. 9th edition, New York, Macmillan. . Jewetz, E. (1995) “Basic and Clinical Pharmacology”, Ed: B.G. Katzung, 6th edn, Norwalk, CT, Appleton and Lange. . FDA Drug Bulletin, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Food and Drug Administration, Feb., 1980. . Tyman, J.H.P. (1979). Chem. Soc. Rev., 8, 499. . Tyman, J.H.P. (1996). “Synthetic and Natural Phenols”, Elsevier, Amsterdam. . Bhunia, H.P., Basak, A, Chaki, T.K. and Nando, G.B. (2000). Eur. Polym.J., 36, 1157. . Prabhakaran, K., Asha, N. and Pavithran, C. (2001). J Europ. Cer. Soc., 21, 2873. . Maffezzoli, A., Calo, E., Zurlo, S., Mele, G., Tarzia, A. and Stifani, D. (2004).Com. Sci. Tech., 64, 839. . Cashew Export Promotion Council, Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, Extraction and Uses – A Survey of World Patents up to 1976, Regional Research Laboratory, Hyderabad, India; Cashew Export Promotion council; Cochin, India, 1978. . Grazzini, R., Hesk, D., Heininger, E., Hildenbrandt, G., Reddy, C.C., Foster, D.C., Medferd, J, Craig, R. and Mumma, R.O. (1991). Bio¬chem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 176, 775. . Kubo, I., Hori, I.K. and Yokokawa, Y.(1994). J. Nat. Prod., 57, 545. . Shobha, S.V., Ramadoss, C.S. and Ravindranath, B. (1994). J. Nat. Prod. 57,1755. . Kubo, I., Ochi, M., Vieira, P.C. and Komatsu, S. (1993). J. Agric. Food Chem., 41, 1012. . Kubo, I., Muroi, H.,.Himejima, M., Yamigiwa, Y., Mera, H., Tokushima, K., Ohta, S. and Kamikawa, T.J. (1993). Agric. Food Chem., 41, 1016. . Kubo, I., Muroi, H. and Kubo, A. (1994). J. Nat. Prod., 57, 9. . Tyman, J.H.P., Jhonson, R.A., Muir, M. and Rokhgar, R. (1989). J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc., 68 ,553. . Schirmer, R.E. (1982). “Modern Methods of Pharmaceutical Analysis”, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL,p.83. . Norwitz, G. and Keliher, P.N. (1981). Anal. Chem., 53, 56. . Baiocchi, C., Gennaro, M.C., Campi, E., Mentasti, E. and Aruga, R. (1982). Anal. Lett., 15,1539. . March, J. (1992).“Advanced Organic Chemistry”, Wiley, New York, p.669.
Mohsina Begum, Isa Baba Koki and Akheel Ahmed Syed "Innovative Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Anacardic Acid" International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation-IJRSI vol.3 issue 1A, pp.05-08 2016
Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) is one of the most useful polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) with pharmaceutical and neutraceutical potential and important for the prevention & control of various human diseases and disorders such as cardiovascular disease, inflammation, allergy, cancer, immune response, diabetes, hypertension and renal disorders. DHA is also known as “brain food” as it is highly concentrated in the membranes of brain cells and retinal cells of eye. The most widely available source of DHA is cold water fishes such as tuna, sardine, salmon, cod and herring etc. However, the concentration of DHA in fish oil is available in a small quantity. DHA can be isolated from fish oil and concentrated in glyceride form by using different methodologies such as selective hydrolysis, selective esterification and transesterification by using different lipases. Although this paper focusses on synthesis of DHA rich glycerides from fish oil but an additional section has been incorporated including new developments in the field of PUFA synthesis, using different micro-organisms (fungi, algae and bacteria). In the present paper, the published research work on the above aspects has been reviewed & summarized.
- Page(s): 09-19
- Date of Publication: 15 January 2016
- S. P. ChaurasiaChemical Engineering Department,Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
- Kriti BhandariChemical Engineering Department,Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Rajasthan, IndiaDepartment of Chemical & Biological Engineering, 57 Campus Drive,
College of Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9, Canada
- Aditi SharmaChemical Engineering Department,Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Rajasthan, IndiaDepartment of Chemical & Biological Engineering, 57 Campus Drive,
College of Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9, Canada
- Ajay K. DalaiDepartment of Chemical & Biological Engineering, 57 Campus Drive,
College of Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9, Canada
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Shimada, Y., Sugihar, A., Nakano, H., Kuramoto, T., Nagao, T., Gemba, M., Tominaga, Y. (1997). Purification of docosahexenoic acid by selective esterification of fatty acids from tuna oil with Rhizopus delemar lipase, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 74, 97-101. . Haraldsson, G. G., Kristinsson, B. (1998). Separation of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Fish Oil by Kinetic Resolution Using Lipase, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 75, 1551–1556. . Halldorsson, A., Kristinsson, B., Caroline, G., Haraldsson, G. G. (2003). Separation of EPA and DHA in fish oil by lipase catalyzed esterification with glycerol, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 80, 915-921. . Bhandari, K., Chaurasia, S. P., Dalai, A. K. (2015). Lipase catalyzed esterification of Docosahexaenoic acid rich fatty acids with glycerol, Chem. Eng. Commun., 202, 920-926. . Cerdan, E. L. (1998). Synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched triglycerides by lipase-catalyzed esterification, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 75(10), 1329-1337. . Li, Z. Y., Ward, O. P. (1993). Lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol and n- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate in organic solvent, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 70, 745-748. . Haraldsson, G. G., Gudmundsson, B. O., Almarsson, O. (1995). The synthesis of homogeneous triglycerides of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid by lipase, Tetrahedron, 51(3), 941-952. . Medina, A. R., Cerdan, L. E., Gimenez, A. G., Paez, B. C., Gonzalez, M. J. I., Grima, E. M. (1999). Lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol and polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish and microalgae oils, J. Biotechnol., 70, 379-391. . Liu, S., Zhang, C., Hong, P., and Ji, H. (2007). Lipase catalysedacylglycerolsynthesis of glycerol and n-3 PUFA from tuna oil: optimization of process parameters, Food Chem., 103, 1009–1015. . Byun, H., Eom, T., Jung, W., Kim, S. (2007). Lipase catalyzed production of monoacylglycerols by the esterification of fish oil fatty acids with glycerol, Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng., 12, 491-496. . Nagao, T., Watanabe, Y., Maruyama, K., Momokawa, Y., Kishimoto, N., Shimada, Y. (2011). One-pot enzymatic synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid-rich triacylglycerols at the sn-1(3) position using by-product from selective hydrolysis of tuna fish oil, New Biotechnol., 28(1), 7-13. . Wang, W., Li, T., Ning, Z., Wang, Y., Yang, B., Ma, Y., Yang, X. (2012). A process for the synthesis of PUFA-enriched triglycerides from high-acid crude fish oil, J. Food Eng., 109, 366-371. . Millar, C., Austin, H., Posorske, L., Gonzlez, J. (1988). Characteristics of an immobilized lipase for the commerical synthesis of esters, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 65, 927-931. . Mukesh, D., Jadhav, S., Banerji, A. A., Thakar, K., Bervinakatti, H. S. (1997). Lipase catalyzed reactions-experiments and modeling studies, J. Chem. Tech. Biotechnol., 69, 179-186. . He, Y., Shahidi, F. (1997). Enzymatic esterification of ω-3 fatty acid concentrates from the Seal Blubber oil with glycerol, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 74(9), 1133-1136. . S. P. Senanayake, F. Shahidi, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 1999, 76(9), 1009-1015. . Irimescu, R., Furihata, K., Hata, K., Iwasaki, Y., Yamane, T. (2001). Two-step enzymatic synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid-rich symmetrically structured triacylglycerols via 2 monoacylglycerols, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 78, 743–748. . Lin, T J., Chen, S. W., Chang, A. C. (2006). Enrichment of n-3 PUFA contents on triglycerides of fish oil by lipase-catalyzed trans-esterification under supercritical conditions, Biochem. Eng. J., 29, 27-34. . Wongsakul, S., Prasertsan, P., Bornscheuer, U. T., H-Kittikun, A. (2003). Synthesis of 2-monoglycerides of alcoholysis of palm oil and tuna oil using immobilized lipases, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 105, 68-73. . Esteban, L., Munio, M., Robles, A., Hita, E., Jimenez, M. J., Gonzalez, P. A., Camacho, B., Molina, E. (2009). Synthesis of 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAG) by enzymatic alcoholysis of fish oils using different reactor types, Biochem. Eng. J., 44, 271-279. . Eom, T., Kong, C., Byun, H., Jung, W., Kim, S. (2010). Lipase catalytic synthesis of diacylglycerol from tuna oil and its anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice, Process Biochem., 45, 738-743. . Valverde, L. M., Moreno, P. A. G., Quevedo, A. R., Pena, E. H., Callejon, L. E., Cerdan, E. M., Garima, A. R. M. (2012). Concentration of DHA by Selective Alcoholysis Catalyzed by Lipases, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 89(9), 1633-45. . Certik, M., Shimizu, S. (1998). Progress in polyunsaturated fatty acid production by fungi, Recent res. developments in oil chem., 2, 89-103. . Leman, J. (1997). Oleaginous microorganisms: an assessment of the potential, Adv. Appl. Microbiol., 43, 195-243. . Radwan, S. S. (1991). Sources of C20-polyunsaturated fatty acids for biotechnological use, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 35, 421-430. . Unagul, P., Assantachai, C., Phadungruengluij, S., Suphantharika, M., Tanticharoen, M., Verduyn, C. (2007). Coconut water as a medium additive for the production of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n3) by Schizochytrium mangrovei Sk-02, Biores. Technol., 98, 281-287. . Chi, Z., Pyle, D., Wen, Z., Frear, C., Chen, S. (2007). A laboratory study of producing docosahexaenoic acid from biodiesel-waste glycerol by microalgal fermentation, Proc. Biochem., 42(11), 1537-1545. . Xue, Z., Sharpe, P. L., Hong, S., Yadav, N. S., Xie, Short, D. R., Damude, H. G., Rupert, R. A., Seip, J. E., Wang, J., Pollak, D. W., Bostick, M. W., Bosak, M. D., Macool, D. J., Hollerbach, D. H., Zhang, H., Arcilla, D. M., Bledsoe, S. A., Croker, K., McCord, E. F., Tyreus, B. D., Jackson, E. N., Zhu, Q. (2013). Production of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid by metabolic engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica, Nat. biotechnol., 31 (8), 734-741. . Blazeck, J., Hill, A., Liu, L., Knight, R., Miller, J., Pan, A., Otoupal, P., Alper, H. S. (2014). Harnessing Yarrowia lipolytica lipogenesis to create a platform for lipid and biofuel production, Nat. Commun., 5, 3131 doi: 10.1038/ncomms4131. . Gemperlein, K., Rachid, S., Garcia, R. O., Wenzel, S. C., Muller, R. (2014). Polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in myxobacteria: different PUFA synthases and their product diversity, Chem. Sci., 5, 1733-1741.
S. P. Chaurasia, Kriti Bhandari, Aditi Sharma, Ajay K. Dalai "A Review on Lipase Catalysed Synthesis of DHA Rich Glyceride from Fish Oils" International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation-IJRSI vol.3 issue 1A, pp.09-19 2016
Water is an indispensable asset in every field. It is used for domestic purposes, professional practice (growing crops and street washing), safety and recreation. With the advancement of civilisation, the utility of water has increased enormously and thus well-organized public water supply scheme is the need of the present scenario. Along with this, the selection of a proper water source, purification of water and assurance of consumable water quality are of utmost importance. Thus, maintenance and assessment of water quality are necessary in modern society. Though the organoleptic parameters (those which humans can see, touch, smell etc. through their sense organs) can be considered sufficient for assessment, water being a good solvent, adheres to more scientific and analytical techniques for its evaluation. Over the years, not only the surface streams have got reduced to a typical waste dump yard, but also the ground water depletion is there. Now a days the rivers are considered as the main sourse for the dumping of regular waste(home waste) as well as the industrial waste. So remedies should be taken in order to make the water bodies which are at least used for the use of water for regular basis. For this purpose river quality modelling were done time to time for the awareness for the water body to keep the water body waste free.
In this paper the details of the physico-chemical properties of the KUAKHAI river near Bhubaneswar city has been analysed and the trend of change of the properties along the stretch along the downstream of the input of the sewage(untreated) from the area PATIA. The effect is estimated by implementing the model for the BOD change due to various factors like environmental and human. As there is a village along the stretch so the possible effect is analysed and implemented in this paper using graphs and the future trend in the change of the BOD has been implemented using simple mathematical modelling. The modelling consists of modified version of the Streeter Phelps equation in which the equation is represented w.r.t. distance instead of time. A stretch of 1.8 km has been selected along the river from the starting point of the disposal of the sewage from PATIA area. The physico-chemical properties like pH, alkalinity,conductivity,total & suspended solids, DO,BOD has been implemented using graphs and mathematical models to study the trends and suitability of the model for future.
- Page(s): 20-25
- Date of Publication: 15 January 2016
- Deba Prakash SatapathyAssistant Professor
College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar
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. Dobbins, W. E. (1963). BOD and oxygen relationships in streams.. Paper presented at Water Resources Conference on ASCE, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, May 13-17.
. Dobbins, W. E. (1964). BOD and oxygen relationships in streams.. J. Saint. Engrg. Div., ASCE., Vol.90, SA3, PP. 53-78.
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. Guru (2012) Simulation of point and non point source of pollutant in Mahanadi river system lying in Odisha. MTech Thesis , NIT Rourkela.
. Jain, C. K. and Sharma, M. K. (2001), Distribution of Trace Metals in the Hindon river system, India., Journal of hydrology, vol. 253, pp. 81-90.
. Jain, C. K., Singhal, D. C. and Sharma, M. K. (2002), Survey and Characterization of Waste Effluents Polluting River Hindon., Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 22(7), pp. 792-799.
. Jha, R., Ojha, C. S. P. and Bhatia, K. K. S. (2001), Refinement of Predictive Reaeration Equations for a typical Indian River., Journal of Hydrological Process, Vol.15, pp. 1047-1060.
. Jha, R., Ojha, C. S. P. and Bhatia, K. K. S., (2003), Assessment of non-point source pollution in River Kali, India by different techniques., 2nd International Conference on Water Quality Management, CBIP, New Delhi.
. Jha, R., Ojha, C. S. P. and Bhatia, K. K. S., (2004), A supplementary approach for estimating reaeration rate coefficients., Journal of Hydrological Processes, Vol. 18, pp 65-79.
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. Mishra, Nidhi, Aggarwal, S. P., Dadhwal, V. K. (2008). Macroscale Hydrological Modelling and Impact of land cover change on streamflow of the Mahanadi River Basin.. Published allied Publishers, pp. 77-86.
. O. Connor, D. J. (1967), The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Dissolved oxygen in Streams., Journal of Water Resource Research, Vol. 3(1), pp.65-79.
. Singh, O, Kumar, V, and Rai, S. P. (2005). Water quality aspects of some wells, springs and rivers in parts of Udhampur district (J&K).. Journal of Environmental Science & Engg, vol-47, No.4, pp.326-335.
. Srivastava N, Harit G, Srivastava R., (2010), A study of physico-chemical characteristics of lakes around Jaipur, Inida, Journal of environmental biology, 30(5), pp 889-894.
. Tiwari, R. K., Rajak, G. P., Abhisek and Mondal, M. R. (2005). Water quality assessment of Ganga River in Bihar region, India.. Journal of Environmental Science & Engg., Vol-47, No.4, pp.326-335.
. Udayakumar, P., Abhilash, P., and Ouseph, P. P. (2009). Assessment of water quality using Principal component Analysis, a case study, of the Mangalore costal region.. Journal of Environmental Science & Engg., Vol-51, No.3, pp 179-183.
. Verma, S. R., Shukla, G. R. and Dalela, R. C. (1980), Studies on the pollution of Hindon River in relation to fish and Fisheries., Limnologica (Berlin), vol.12 pp. 33-75.
Deba Prakash Satapathy "Mathematical Modelling and Experimental Study of Water Quality Parameters of Kuakhai River Down Stream, Bhubaneswar" International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation-IJRSI vol.3 issue 1A, pp.20-25 2016
A series of benzothiazolopyrazolines were prepared and photolysed by UV radiation using benzophenone as photosensitizer. The photolysis of these pyrazoline derivatives gave the rearranged pyrazolines. The substrate and rearranged photoproducts were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal and antitubercular activity. The biological activity of pyrazolines and their photoproducts were compared. In some cases substrates were found to be more active against bacterial and fungal strain than their photoproducts and vice versa.
- Page(s): 26-32
- Date of Publication: 15 January 2016
- Veena PareekSchool of Studies in Chemistry & Biochemistry, Vikram University, Ujjain-MP, India
- Pradeep PaliwalSchool of Studies in Chemistry & Biochemistry, Vikram University, Ujjain-MP, India
- Archana KushwahaSchool of Studies in Chemistry & Biochemistry, Vikram University, Ujjain-MP, India
- S R JettiSchool of Studies in Chemistry & Biochemistry, Vikram University, Ujjain-MP, India
- Shubha JainSchool of Studies in Chemistry & Biochemistry, Vikram University, Ujjain-MP, India
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Veena Pareek, Pradeep Paliwal, Archana Kushwaha, S R Jetti, Shubha Jain, "Degradation of Reactive Black 5 Azo Dye Using Catalytic Ozonation with MgO" International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation-IJRSI vol.3 issue 1A, pp.26-32 2016
This paper is intended to provide a literature review of AGV based material handling system .Among the various factors influencing the design and operation performance of AGV in a manufacturing unit, literature review on four major factors are undertaken in this paper i.e. Throughput, Unit load, Flow path design and Fleet size. The study aims at revealing basic research methodologies/approaches followed, objective function and problem areas of the material handling system. The review study covers articles coming from major journals related with the topic. Findings reveal that AGV based material handling system is still an open area of research.
- Page(s): 33-36
- Date of Publication: 15 January 2016
- Prof. A.V. GaurAssociate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering Brahmadevdada Mane Institute of Technology, Solapur, Maharashtra, India
- Prof. Dr. M.S. PawarPrincipal and Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering Brahmadevdada Mane Institute of Technology, Solapur, Maharashtra, India
. Apple J. M., 1972, Material Handling Systems Design (New York: Wiley). . Agrawal, G.K. and Heragu, S.S. (2006) A survey of automated material handling systems in 300-mm semiconductor fabs.IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing, 19, 112–120. . Bartholdi, J.J. III. and Platzman L.K. (1989) Decentralized control of automated guided vehicles on a simple loop. IIE Transactions, 2,76–81 . Bozer, Y.A., Srinivasan, M.M. and Myeonsi, C. (1991) Tandem configurations for automated guided vehicle systems and the analysis of single vehicle loops. IIE Transactions, 23, 72–82. . Curry, G.L., Peters, B.A. and Lee, M. (2003) Queuing network model for a class of material-handling systems. International Journal of Production Research, 41, 3901–3920. . B. Mahadevan a & T. T. Narendran,1992, Determination of unit load sizes in an AGV- based material handling system for an FMS, International Journal of Production Research, 30,(4), 909-922 . D. Sinriech A & J. M. A. Tanchoco, 1992, An economic model for determining AGV fleet, International Journal of Production Research, 30(6), 1255-1268 . David Sinriech And J. M. A. Tanchoco, 1991, Intersection graph method for AGV flow path design, International Journal of Production Research, 29(9), 1725-1732 . Dima Nazzal a & Leon F. McGinnis , 2008,Throughput performance analysis for closed-loop vehicle-based material handling systems, IIE Transactions, 1097-1106 . EGBELU, P. J. and TANCHOCO, J. M. A., 1984, Characterization of automatic guided vehicle dispatching rules. International Journal of Production Research, 21, 359-374. . EGBELU, P. J. and TANCHOCO, J. M. A., 1986, Potentials for bi-directional guide path for automatic guided vehicle based systems. International Journal of Production Research,14, 1075-1098 . GASKINS, R. J., and TANCHOCO, 1. M. A., 1987, Flow path design for automated guided vehicle systems. International Journal of Production Research, 25 (5), 667-676 . F. Fred Choobineh, Ardavan Asef-Vaziri & Xiaolei Huang,2012, Fleet sizing of automated guided vehicles: a linear programming approach based on closed queuing networks, int. International Journal of Production Research, 50(12), 3222–3235 . J. M. A. Tanchoco F.A. & David Sinriech,1992,OSL—optimal single-loop guide paths for AGVS, International Journal of Production Research, 30(3), 665---681 . KASPI, M., and TANCHOCO, J. M. A., 2010, Optimal flow path design of unidirectional AGV systems. International Journal of Production Research, 28 (6), 1023-1030. . Mandyam M. Srinivasan A, Yavuz A. Bozer B & Myeonsig Cho, 1994, Trip-Based Material Handling Systems: Throughput Capacity Analysis, Volume 26, Number 1, IIE Transactions, 79-90 . Mahadevan A & T. T. Narendran, 1993, Estimation of number of AGVs for an FMS: an analytical Model, International Journal of Production Research,., 31(7), 1655-1670 . Montoya-Torres, J.R. (2006)A literature survey on the design approaches and operational issues of automated wafer-transport systems for wafer fabs. Production Planning and Control, 7, 648–663 . Moshe Kaspi A & J. M. A. Tanchoco, 1990, Optimal flow path design of unidirectional AGV systems, International Journal of Production Research,, 28(5), 927-941 . Meller, R.D. (1997) The multi-bay manufacturing facility layout problem. International Journal of Production Research,, 35, 1229–1237. . P. J. Egbelu, 1993, Economic design of unit load-based FMSs employing AGVs for transport, International Journal of Production Research, 31(12), 2753-2775 . R. J. Gaskins A & J. M. A. Tanchoco,1986, Flow path design for automated guided vehicle systems, International Journal of Production Research,25(5),667-676 . Robert J. Gaskins A , J. M. A. Tanchoco A & Fataneh Taghaboni,1989,Virtual flow paths for free-ranging automated guided vehicle systems International Journal of Production Research, 27( 1),91-100 . Robert Arifin & Pius J. Egbelu, 2000, Determination of vehicle requirements in automated guided vehicle systems, Production Planning and Control, 11(3), 258± 270 . Ting, J.H. and Tanchoco, J.M. (2001) Optimal bi-directional spine layout for overhead material handling systems. IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing, 14, 57–64. . 26) S. Rajotia, K. Shanker And J. L. Batra,1998, Determination of optimal AGV fleet size for an FMS, International Journal of Production Research, 36(5), 1177 - 1198 . Shen, Y.-C.and Kobza, J.E., 1998. A dispatching-rule-based algorithm for automated guided vehicle systems design. Production Planning and Control, 9 (1), 47–59 . William G. Goetz Jr. A & Pius J. Egbelu, 1990, Guide path design and location of load pick-up/drop-off points for an automated guided vehicle system, International Journal of Production Research, 28(4), 757-783
Prof. A.V. Gaur, Prof. Dr. M.S. Pawar "AGV Based Material Handling System: A Literature Review" International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation-IJRSI vol.3 issue 1A, pp.33-36 2016
Collection of large and complex data is termed as big data. Tons of data are collected in applications such as medical processing, whether reporting, digital libraries, etc. and these data should be managed. Also they contain large amount of varying data such as text, images, video, audio, etc. Data mining is the process extracting useful information or knowledge from a large amount of data. This is also called as Knowledge Discovery in databases (KDD). Various algorithms are used in data mining to apply association rule generation, classification, clustering, etc. These data mining techniques can also be used in big data to extract useful data. In this paper, the various types of big data and the various data mining techniques that can be used in big data are explained based on a literature survey conducted. The various challenges in big data and research for future are also discussed.
- Page(s): 37-40
- Date of Publication: 15 January 2016
- R.KirubakaranAssistant Professor, Department of Computer Science Kumaraguru College of Technology Coimbatore, India.
- A.Periya NayakiAssistant Professor, Department of Computer Science Kamaraj College of Engg.& Tech. Virudhunagar, India.
- C.Mano PrathibhanPG Graduate, Department of Computer Science Thiagarajar College of Engineering Madurai, India.
 Elisa Bertino; “Big Data – Opportunities and Challenges”, IEEE 37th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2013, pp. 479-480.
 Nikita Jain, Vishal Srivastava; “Data Mining Techniques: A Survey Paper”, International Journal of Research and Engineering in Technology, Volume 2, issue 11, 2013, pp. 116-119.
 Kalyani M Raval; "Data Mining Techniques”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Volume 2, Issue 10, 2012, pp. 439-442.
 Lei Xu, Chunxiao Jiang, Jian Wang, Jian Yuan, Yong Ren; “Information Security in Big Data: Privacy and Data Mining”, IEEE Access, Volume 2, 2014, pp. 1149-1176.
 Bharati M Ramageri; “Data Mining Techniques and Applications”, Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering, Volume 1, Number 4, pp. 301-305.
 Shu-Hsien Liao, Pei-Hui Chu, Pei-Yuan Hsiao; “Data Mining Techniques and Applications – A Decade Review from 2000 to 2011, ELSEVIER, Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 39, 2012, pp. 11303-11311.
 OlukunleA Iyanda; “Big Data and Current Cloud Computing issues and Challenges”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Volume 4, Issue 6, 2014, pp. 1192-1197.
R.Kirubakaran, A.Periya Nayaki, C.Mano Prathi "A Survey on Data Mining in Big Data" International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation-IJRSI vol.3 issue 1A, pp.37-40 2016
The concept of CSR is in existence since ancient times. The writings of ancient Indian epics have narrated CSR in various forms. Various studies over a period of time have given models for CSR approach. In India, Companies Act 2013, brought an end to the long run discussion on CSR practices by the corporates. The journey of CSR as a corporate responsibility has two broad perspectives, pre Companies Act 2013 and post Companies Act 2013. CSR policy is still in a nascent stage and hence faces number of challenges. The recent Union Budget 2015 clarified that any expenditure on the Swatch Bharat Abhiyan is to be claimed as deduction u/s 80 G and not under CSR. Thus, Indian law on CSR still awaits clarification on many areas wherein claiming deduction u/s 80, exemptions from tax and treating it as CSR all are in existence.
- Page(s): 41-46
- Date of Publication: 15 January 2016
- CA. Neha SaxenaSr. Lecturer H.L. Institute of Commerce, Ahmedabad University, Gujarat, India
. Arora, B., & Puranik, R. (2004). A review of corporate social responsibility in India. Development, 47(3), 93-100. . Sagar, P., & Singla, A. (2004). Trust and corporate social responsibility: Lessons from India. Journal of Communication Management, 8(3), 282-290. . Pachauri, R. K. (2004). The rationale for corporate social responsibility in India.The Financial Express, 22. . Idemudia, U. (2008). Conceptualising the CSR and development debate.Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 2008(29), 91-110. . A.K. Sharma Balvir Talwar, (2005),"Corporate social responsibility: modern vis-à-vis Vedic approach", Measuring Business Excellence, Vol. 9 Iss 1 pp. 35 - 45 . Dahlsrud, A. (2008). How corporate social responsibility is defined: an analysis of 37 definitions. Corporate social responsibility and environmental management, 15(1), 1. . Arevalo, J. A., & Aravind, D. (2011). Corporate social responsibility practices in India: approach, drivers, and barriers. Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, 11(4), 399-414. . Arora, R., & Richa, G. D. (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility–Issues and Challenges in India. International Journal of Research in Finance & Marketing,3(2). . Motwani, S. (2012). Communicating CSR is More Challenging than Paying CSR. International Journal of Research and Development-A Management Review, 1(1), 41-45. . Amaladoss, M. X., & Manohar, H. L. (2013). Communicating corporate social responsibility–A case of CSR communication in emerging economies.Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 20(2), 65-80. . Rajeev Prabhakar and Ms. Sonam Mishra, (2013). A Study of Corporate Social Responsibility in Indian Organization: An-Introspection, 21st International Business Research Conference 10 - 11 June, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada, ISBN: 978-1-922069-25-2 . Ahuja, V. (2014). CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: ISSUES & CHALLENGES IN INDIA. International Journal of Organizational Behaviour & Management Perspectives, 2(4), 657-660. . Kumar, N. (2014). Corporate Social Responsibility: An Analysis of Impact And Challenges In India. Abhinav-International Monthly Refereed Journal Of Research In Management & Technology (Online ISSN 2320-0073), 3(5), 97-104 . Saxena, N., & Pramod, S. (2014). Corporate Social Responsibility, Governance-Frauds-Ethics & Sustainability. Governance-Frauds-Ethics & Sustainability (February 12, 2014).Kashyap, A., & Kashyap, S. B. Corporate Social Responsibility—Issues and Challenges in India. . Paramasivan, C., & Savarimuthu, S. (2015). CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF RATNA STATUS PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKINGS IN INDIA. . Guidelines on Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability for Central Public Sector Enterprises (These shall come into effect on 1st April 2013) . CHANGING TRENDS IN BUSINESS-NGO RELATIONSHIPS IN INDIA, Evolving patterns and emerging opportunities to maximize the benefits of innovative collaboration. . Education for Values in Schools – A Framework DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION, NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING. . National Voluntary_Guideline_ 2011_12_jul2011.pdf. . www.mca.gov.in/SearchableActs/Section135.html . http://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/an-overview-of-csr-rules-under-companies-act-2013-114031000385_1.html . www.kpmg.com/in/en/services/tax/flashnews/mca-clarification-on-csr-under-the-companies-act-2013.pdf csr policy under companies act 2013.
CA. Neha Saxena "Corporate Social Responsibility: Issues & Challenges" International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation-IJRSI vol.3 issue 1A, pp.41-46 2016
Content based image retrieval is an effective approach to retrieve most similar images to the query from a large set of database.various contents are used as color ,tecture ,shape,sketch.In this work only color and texture are used with the extraction of HSV(Hue,Saturation and Value) and GLCM(Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix) features. Euclidean Distance is calculated between the query image and database images. The ranking system is applied over the retrieved relevant and irrelevant images.
- Page(s): 47-52
- Date of Publication: 15 January 2016
- Sonali MathurM Tech. Scholar, Department of CSE Technocrats Institute of Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
- Deepa ChaurseAssistant Professor, Department of CSE Technocrats Institute of Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
. M.Babu Rao, Dr. B.Prabhakara Rao, Dr. A.Govardhan,―Content based image retrieval using Dominant color and Texture features‖, International Journal of Computer science and information security, Vol.9 issue No: 2, pp:41 – 46, February 2011. . Meng Wang,Dacheng Tao ,Ke Lu, and Xindong Wu” Multimodal Graph-Based Reranking for Web Image Search”IEEE Transactionson Image Processing,vol.21,No. 11 november2012 4649 . Pranali Prakash Lokhande, P. A. Tijare “Feature Extraction Approach for Content Based Image Retrieval” International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012, ISSN: 2277 128X . Manimala Singhia and .Hemachandran, “Content Based Image Retrieval using Color and Texture” Signal & Image Processing : An International Journal (SIPIJ) Vol.3, No.1, February 2012 . Swapnalini Pattanaik Prof.D.G.Bhalke2, ”Beginners to Content Based Image Retrieval”,International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET) Volume 1 Issue2 pp 040-044 May 2012. . M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, and P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: The QBIC system,” IEEE Computer, vol. 28, no 9, pp.23-32, Sep. 1995. . A. Pentland, R. Picard, and S. Sclaroff , “Photobook: Content based manipulation of image databases,” International Journal of Computer Vision, vol.18, no 3, pp.233–254, June 1997. . A. Smeulders, “Content-Based Image Retrieval at the End of the Early Years,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1349-1380, May. 2000. . N. Otsu, “A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histogram”, IEEE Trans. on sysstem Man Cybernetics, vol. 9(I), pp. 62-66, 1979. . A. Baraldi, F. Parmiggiani, “An Investigation Of The Textural Characteristics Associated With GLCM Matrix Statistical Parameters”,IEEE Trans. on Geos. and Rem. Sens., vol. 33(2), pp. 293-304, 1995. . M. Wang, X. S. Hua, R. Hong, J. Tang, G. Qi, and Y. Song, “Unified video annotation via multigraph learning,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 733–746, May 2009. . R. Raguram and S. Lazebnik. “Computing iconic summaries of general visual concepts”, Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshop, 1-8,2008. . F. Schro, A. Criminisi, and A. Zisserman. Harvesting image databases from the web. In Computer Vision, 2007. ICCV 2007. IEEE 11th International Conference on, pages 1-8, Oct. 2007. . P. Mohanaiah, P. Sathyanarayana, L. GuruKumar, “Image Texture Feature Extraction Using GLCM Approach”, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013 , ISSN 2250-3153 . Alaa Eleyan, Hasan DEM˙IREL,” Co-occurrence matrix and its statistical features as a new approach for face recognition”Turk J Elec Eng & Comp Sci, Vol.19, No.1, 2011. . Reshma Chaudhari, A.M. Patil , “Content Based Image Retrieval Using Color and Shape Features”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Vol. 1, Issue 5, November 2012, ISSN: 2278 – 8875 . G. Iyengar, H. J. Nock, and C. Neti, “Discriminative model fusion for semantic concept detection and annotation in video,” in Proc. ACM Multimedia, 2003, pp. 255–258. . C. G. Snoek, M. Worring, and A. W. Smeulders, “Early versus late fusion in semantic video analysis,” in Proc. ACM Multimedia, 2005, pp. 399–402. . J. Z. Wang, J. Li, G.Wiederhold, “SIMPLIcity: Semantics-Sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries”, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 23, No. 9, pp. 947–963, Sept. 2001. . A. W. M. Smeulders, M. Worring, S. Santini, A. Gupta, R. Jain.”Content-Based Image Retrieval: The End of the Early Years”, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 22, No. 12, pp. 1349–1380, Dec. 2000. . Faloutsos, R. Barber, M. Flickner, J. Hafner, W. Niblack,D. Petkovic, W. Equitz. Efficient and Effective Querying by Image Content. Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, Vol. 3, No. 3/4, pp. 231–262, July 1994. . S. Siggelkow. Feature Histograms for Content-Based Image Retrieval. Ph.D. thesis, University of Freiburg, Institute for Computer Science, Freiburg, Germany, 2002. . X. Tian, L. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Yang, X. Wu, and X. S. Hua, “Bayesian video search reranking,” in Proc. 16th ACM Int. Conf. Multimedia, 2008, pp. 131–140. . K. Jarvelin and J. Kekalainen, “Cumulated gain-based evaluation of IR techniques,” ACM Trans. Inf. Syst., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 422–446, 2002
Sonali Mathur, Deepa Chaurse "Rank Based Image Retrieval Technique using Hue Saturation and Value (HSV) and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) Features" International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation-IJRSI vol.3 issue 1A, pp.47-52 2016
The last two decades have witnessed large increase in the use of composite materials. Specific strength and specific modulus of composite materials is very high as compared to metallic counterparts. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are in comparison with metal and ceramic matrix composites the most widely used composites. This is caused by their good properties and relative easy processing. Depending upon the type of fibre used, the costs are low (glass fibre reinforced plastics, GFRPs) to moderate (carbon fibre reinforced plastics, CFRPs). Chief among the advantages of PMCs is their light weight coupled with high stiffness and strength along the direction of the reinforcement.
- Page(s): 53-55
- Date of Publication: 15 January 2016
- Ketan A AwalelluDepartment of Mechanical Engineering
Padmashree Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Engineering, Management and Research, Akurdi,
Savitribai Phule Pune University
. Bryan Harris, “Engineering composite materials”, The institute of materials, London, 1999, Pp: 5-182. . Sabu Thomas, Kuruvilla Joseph, Sant Kumar Malhotra, Koichi Goda and Meyyarappallil Sadasivan Sreekala, “Polymer Composites", Published 2012 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA . D. Pathania and D. Singh, “A review on electrical properties of fiber reinforced polymer composites”, International Journal of Theoretical & Applied Sciences 1(2): 34-37(2009) . Layth Mohammed, M. N. M. Ansari, Grace Pua, Mohammad Jawaid, and M. Saiful Islam, “A Review on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite and Its Applications”, International Journal of Polymer Science
Ketan A Awalellu "A Review on Properties and Applications of Polymer Matrix Composites" International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation-IJRSI vol.3 issue 1A, pp.53-55 2016
In a federal form of state structure, criminal legislative power is one of the powers that are supposed to be divided between the federal/central government and the states. This holds true especially for those federations that follow dual federal structure such as USA. In such a dual federation, the criminal legislative power is divided between the Federal Government and the states as designated federal crimes and state crimes. Ethiopia’s federal set up also resembles the US dual federalism in which case the criminal legislative power is expected to be divided between the Federal Government and the States. However, a quick look at the current criminal law and policy in Ethiopia reveals that the criminal legislative jurisdiction is highly centralized. This centralized criminal legislative power followed by Ethiopia has an adverse effect over the regional autonomy, and effective implementation of criminal laws among each regional State. This article discovers the extent of the criminal legislative jurisdiction of the States under the FDRE Constitution in juxtaposition with the guiding principles of the distribution of legislative powers and the experiences of other federations.
- Page(s): 56-74
- Date of Publication: 15 January 2016
- Abdi G. AmenuTrainer Oromia Justice Sector professionals Training and Research Institute, Ethiopia
. Black‟s Law Dictionary, eighth ed. P.911 . Id, p.856 . State v Federal criminal prosecutions, http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/resources/criminal defense/federal-crime/state-vs-federal-crimes.htm, Accessed on 02/08/2013 10:00 AM . As will be discussed in the subsequent sections, criminal legislative jurisdiction follows just other conventional distribution of powers between the federal government and the states. . The Constitution of India, Art.246, Seventh Schedule, List I-Union List (Para.93), List II-State List (para.64), List III-Concurrent List (Para.1&2) specifically deals with the fact the Federal Government shall have power to enact criminal laws on matters falling under its exclusive jurisdiction; the States have criminal legislative power over matters falling under their exclusive jurisdiction, and criminal and criminal procedure codes fall under the concurrent power between the two tiers of government respectively. . The Constitution of the Federation of Nigeria, 1960, Legislative List: Part I-Excusive List (Para.44), Part II-Concurrent List (Para.28) and Part III which deals with the interpretation stating that the “incidental and supplementary” clause includes issues dealing with offences. . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subsidiarity, accessed on 08/01/2014 at 4:10PM. Etymologically, the term subsidiarity is, more distantly, derived from the Latin verb subsidio (to aid or help), and the related noun subsidium (aid or assistance) Subsidiarity is an organizing principle of decentralization, stating that a matter ought to be handled by the smallest, lowest, or least centralized authority capable of addressing that matter effectively. . Ronald L. Watts, (2008), Comparing Federal Systems, 3rd ed. Queen‟s University Press, London, p.22 . Art.VI, Section 2 of the US Constitution declares the supremacy of both the Constitution and other laws made by the Congress over any other laws. . Art. I, section 8 (6) of the US Constitution. Section 8 (10) also goes on to state that the Congress shall define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences committed against the Law of Nations. Furthermore, Art.III, section 3 provides that the Congress shall have the power to declare the punishment of treason. . A prior determination of criminal jurisdiction as between the federal government and the states has two advantages: Avoidance or prevention of jurisdictional conflict and ease of access to justice on the side of justice seekers. . Namely, counterfeiting of money, piracies and felonies committed on the high seas and offences committed against the Law of Nations. . State crimes v Federal crimes, http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/resources/criminal-defense/criminal-offense/state-crimes-vs-federal-crimes, Accessed on 02/08/2013 at 10:10 AM . Ibid . State v Federal criminal prosecutions, http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/resources/criminal-defense/federal-crime/state-vs-federal-crimes.htm, Accessed on 02/08/2013 10:00 AM . Ibid . Federal crimes in the US, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_crimes, Accessed on 02/08/2013 at 10:05 AM . Criminal procedure, http://www.lawyershop.com/practice-areas/criminal-law/criminal-procedure, Accessed on 02/08/2013 10:00 AM . Ibid . Thus, Art.123 (1) of the Swiss Constitution provides that legislation in the field of criminal law and criminal procedure is a federal matter. . Basic Law of Germany, Art.74(1) &(2) . Art.50 of the German Basic Law provides that the Länder shall participate through the Bundesrat in the legislation and administration of the Federation and in matters concerning the European Union. . The Constitution of India, Art.246, Seventh Schedule, List I-Union List (Para.93), List II-State List (para.64), List III-Concurrent List (Para.1&2) specifically deals with the fact the Federal Government shall have power to enact criminal laws on matters falling under its exclusive jurisdiction; the States have criminal legislative power over matters falling under their exclusive jurisdiction, and criminal and criminal procedure codes fall under the concurrent power between the two tiers of government respectively. . The Constitution of the Federation of Nigeria, 1960, Legislative List: Part I-Excusive List (Para.44), Part II-Concurrent List (Para.28) and Part III which deals with the interpretation stating that the “incidental and supplementary” clause includes issues dealing with offences. . Art.91 of the Canadian Constitution provides for the exclusive powers of the Federal Government in general, and sub-Article 27 specifies the fact that the power of the enactment of criminal law and criminal procedure belongs to it in particular. One should not lose sight of the fact that the phrases “criminal law and criminal procedure law” refers to the criminal code and criminal procedure code respectively, hence falling within the Federal exclusive power. . Art.92 of the Canadian Constitution provides for the exclusive lists of the Provinces in general, and sub-Article 15 particularizes the criminal legislative jurisdiction of the Provinces in which case they are empowered to do so on matters or laws specifically listed under their jurisdiction. . Black‟s Law Dictionary, P.774 . Proclamation No.414/2004, the Criminal Code of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 9th of May, 2005, Addis Ababa . Id, Art.3 . Abera Degefa, (2013). Legal Pluralism in Multicultural Setting: Legal Appraisal of Ethiopia’s Monist Criminal Justice System. In Elias N. Stebek and Muradu Abdo (eds.), Law and Development, and Legal Pluralism in Ethiopia (p.141-155), Justice and Legal Systems Research Institute, Addis Ababa, p.154 . Id, p.146 . Id, p.147 . Ibid . Ibid . Ibid . Arts.37(1, 2), 38, 39,41-53 of the FDRE Draft Criminal Procedure Code also has such a view. . Solomon Nigussie, (2008). Fiscal Federalism in the Ethiopian Ethnic-based Federal System, Revised Edition, Wolf Legal Publishers, P.64-65, Assefa Fisseha, (2006). Theory versus Practice: In the Implementation of the Ethiopian Ethnic federalism. In David Turton (ed.), Ethnic Federalism: The Ethiopian Experience with Comparative Perspective, (p.131-159). Addis Ababa University Press, P. 145. . Assefa Fisseha, (2006). Theory versus Practice: In the Implementation of the Ethiopian Ethnic federalism. In David Turton (ed.), Ethnic Federalism: The Ethiopian Experience with Comparative Perspective, (p.131-159). Addis Ababa University Press, P. 145 . Donovan, Dolores A. and Getachew Assefa, Homicide in Ethiopia: Human Rights, Federalism, and Legal Pluralism, American Journal of Comparative Law, Summer 2003, p.22 . The Federal Government, with its legislative organ, the HPR, has enacted other criminal legislations which deal with crimes of different types over various matters. These criminal legislations are backed up by Art.3 of the Criminal Code which provides that regulations and special laws of a criminal nature, so far as they are complied with the general principles of the Code, are prescribed. Accordingly, Anti-Terrorism Proclamation, Offences against the Safety of Aviation Proclamation, the Anti-Corruption Proclamation, Federal Courts Advocates Licensing and Registration Proclamation, Election Proclamation, Forest Proclamation are some of the federal criminal legislations which contain penalty clauses. . Great deals of crimes, which are capable of characterizing the regional features, are incorporated in the FDRE Criminal Code. . The most surprising is the fact that all the regional state constitutions have opted silence on the criminal legislative power although it has been provided for by the FDRE Constitution. The constitutions of the regional states in Ethiopia have not expressly provided for the criminal legislative jurisdiction . Proclamation no.72/2003, the Oromia Forest proclamation, Art.15 criminalizes such acts as cutting tree from forest, taking forest resource product, preparation or utilization of forest product in any form, transporting the forest resource product, storing the forest resource product, destroying, erasing or falsifying the forest boundary mark, setting fire or damaging forest in any manner, and those prohibited acts mentioned in Arts. 13 and 14. On all these criminal acts, the Proclamation imposed the penalty which ranges from 5 years to 15 years without making any distinction between the acts with regard to severity or other circumstances. Leniency and severity of the acts have not been taken into consideration. . Proclamation no.542/2007, Federal Forest Proclamation, Art.20 provides for the penalty imposed on forest crimes in six categories, probably, based on the degree of the crime committed against forest. Accordingly, in category one, cutting trees, removing, processing or using in any manner shall be punishable with not less than one year and not exceeding five years imprisonment and with fine Birr 10,000 (art.20(1). In Category Two, it is stated that destroying, damaging or falsifying forest boundary marks shall be punishable with not less than 1 year and not exceeding 5 years rigorous imprisonment (art.20(2). Category three states that setting fire to forest or any manner shall be punishable with not less than 10 years and not exceeding 15 years rigorous imprisonment (art.20(3). In category four, it is provided that settling or expanding farmland in forest area without permit or undertaking the construction of any infrastructure in a forestland without having a necessary permit shall be punishable with not less than 2 years imprisonment and with fine Birr 20,000 (art.20(4). In category five, the law provides that assistance in any form of the acts so prohibited in the proclamation shall be punishable with 5 years imprisonment and fine with Birr 5000 (art.20(5). Category six, which cross refers those forest crimes which are not mentioned in the above categories and, hence are punishable with not less than 6 months and not exceeding 5 years imprisonment and with fine Birr 30,000 (art.20(6). . Arts. 51(5), 55(2)(a),&52(2)(a) of the FDRE Constitution provide that while the Federal Government enacts laws over the natural resources, the regional states administer same in accordance with the laws made by the former government. Furthermore, Art.18 of prco.542/2007 also requires the regional states to administer the forest in accordance with the proclamation under consideration. Thus, the corollary is that laws made by the regional states regarding the natural resources including forest law should conform to the federal laws on the area. . Towards the effectuation of healing the ills of the Oromia Forest Proclamation thus, the author proposes two options one of them to necessarily be executed: either expressly or impliedly cross referring to the Federal Forest Proclamation that a translation or verbatim copy thereof is adopted for the implementation of the Federal proclamation as it is or the Proclamation be adjudged unconstitutional. . Proclamation no.130/2007, the proclamation of Oromia rural land administration,, Proclamation no.456/2005 the Federal Rural land Administration. . The full version of art.19 of the Federal counterpart reads as any person who violates this Proclamation or the regulations and directives issued for the implementation of this Proclamation shall be punishable under the applicable criminal law. Accordingly, the pertinent provisions of the FDRE Criminal Code shall mutatis mutandis be applicable on the crimes relating land matters. . Art. 17 of Proclamation no.456/2005 provides that each regional council shall enact rural land administration and Land use law, which consists of detailed provisions necessary to implement this Proclamation. . Read Art. 33 of the Regulation. Under Sub-art. 1, such acts as unlawful rural land acquisition, building a house or a fence, and tilling of land and an attempt thereof are punishable with one year up to 5 years imprisonment and fine Birr 2000 up to 6000. Under sub-art. 2, it is provided that any person (competent) or an authority who grants a false or fraudulent document evidencing rural land possession or alters or prepares same shall be punishable with 1 year up to 5 years rigorous imprisonment and fine Birr 3000-6000. Sub-art.3 provides that unlawful donation of rural land use or its attempt, acquisition of rural land use through fraudulent document (title deed) and its attempt, preparing or getting fraudulent title prepared on rural land use, receipt of illegal title deed on rural land use or an attempt to do so shall be punishable with 1 year up to 3 years imprisonment and fine Birr 1000-3000. Under sub-art.4, it is provided that sloppy tilling of rural land (irraangadee qotuu), demolition of a bay (daagaa diiguu), building a bay at improper place, making a sloppy floodway (karaa lolaa irraangadee baasuu), bringing or permitting one‟s herds or flocks to protected areas such as trees, water, and soil shall be punishable with not exceeding 3 months simple imprisonment and fine not exceeding Birr 1000. Sub-art.5 lists crimes related with the failure of the kebele administrator to discharge his/her duties. Accordingly, failure or refusal to receive any complaint in connection with rural land use, failure or refusal to select arbitrators after receipt of the complaint, failure or refusal to execute the arbitral award, failure to respond to relevant bodies within the required time shall be punishable with 1 month up to 3 months simple imprisonment and fine Birr 500-1000 (translation mine). At the time of writing this article, since the author could not get the English version of the Regulation, he translated the words or phrases from Afaan Oromo to English with a bit difficulty. In such cases, the author put the words/phrases in brackets as they stand in Afaan Oromo. The words or phrases might have their own technical meanings. For sure, it is! Thus, the author would like to leave it to the readers. . For instance, art.685 cum art.851 of the Criminal Code is similar with art.33 (4) of the Regulation. Even the provisions of the Code are wider in scope than the provisions of the Regulation on the area. Art.686 of the Code is similar with art.33 (1) of the Regulation. Art.33 (2) and (3)) of the Regulation are similar with arts.363-395 regarding falsification and fraudulency. Subject to the definition given to public office under relevant laws, art.33 (5) of the Regulation seems similar to art.416 of the Code regarding the discharge of one‟s duties. . Unless there is another technical meaning for the word „terrace‟, the author would mean it to be „daagaa or misooma sululaa’ in Afaan Oromo. It is a recently discovered agricultural development and advancement by the Oromia Regional Government, and whose operation needs popular mobilization and campaign. Utilizing infertile land for cultivation, prevention of land tearing, greening the bare land or areas are some of the purposes and advantages of the bay in the Region. . In this case, it is of paramount importance to take a lesson from the land leaseholding laws. On one hand, Regulation no.155/2013, the regulation issued by Oromia to administer urban land leaseholding, and Directive no.9/2013, the directive issued by the same Region to administer urban land leaseholding, both make a clear and express cross reference to proclamation no.721/2011, the Federal urban land lease holding proclamation. On the other hand, art.35 of proclamation no.721/2011 Federal), art.59 of Regulation no.155/2013 and art, 77 of Directive no 9/2013 (Oromia) are identical. In such situations, nonetheless, it is the stand of the author that the penalty clause is simply a translation from Amharic and/or English to Afaan Oromo, and not an indication of exercising a criminal legislative power in its originality. . Reread the above (footnote 9) the crimes together with the respective penalties imposed in the two laws with a comparative view. . Federal Income Tax proclamation No.286/2002 and Oromia Income Tax Proclamation no.74/2003, in both proclamations, see arts.94-103. . See art.23 of Proc.no160/2010, Oromia Coffee Quality proclamation, and art.15 of proc.no.602/2008, Coffee Quality Control and Marketing proclamation. . Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation, 2002, Art.123(1) . 58Black‟s Law Dictionary, p.1131 . Id, p.1132 . Yenenesh Bahiru, The Power to Legislate Criminal Procedure Code under the Federal Systems: Issues in Ethiopia, A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for LL.M of Public Law and Good Governance in the Institute of Federalism and Legal Studies, Ethiopian Civil Service University, Addis Ababa, June 2011, Unpublished, p.44 . What Is the Purpose of Criminal Procedure Law? www.ehow.com/facts_5825245_purpose-criminal-procedure-law_.html, Accessed on 21/10/2013 at 2:27 PM . What Is The Object And Purpose Of The code Of Criminal Procedure, 1898?, Munir Ahmad Mughal, www.academia.edu/1261803/What_is_the_Object_and_Purpose_of_the.., Accessed on 21/10/2013 at 2:31 PM . Sedler, A.Robert (1968). Ethiopian civil procedure, Haile Sellasie I University, Addis Ababa, p.1 . Proclamation No.185/1961, Criminal Procedure Code of the Empire of Ethiopia, Negarit Gazeta, 21st year, No.7, Addis Ababa, 2nd November, 1961, Art.4-10. Book I of the Code provides for criminal jurisdiction of courts (Art.4), persons to be tried (Art.5), public prosecution department and police together with their powers and duties (Art.8-10) . Art.50(8) of the FDRE Constitution . See the Draft Criminal Procedure Code of the FDRE. . Art.9 (1) of the Constitution states that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land. Any law, customary practice or a decision of an organ of state or a public official which contravenes this Constitution shall be of no effect. . Art.13 (1) of the Constitution provides that all Federal and State legislative, executive and judicial organs at all levels shall have the responsibility and duty to respect and enforce the provisions of this [Chapter Three]. . Yonas Birmeta,(2011). Bll of Rights in Sub-national Constitutions in Ethiopia. In Yonas Birmeta (ed.), Some Observations on Sub-national Constitutions in Ethiopia (p.22-59), Ethiopian Constitutional Law Series, Vol. IV, AAU School of Law, p.24 . It states that the HPR shall enact civil laws which the House of the Federation deems necessary to establish and sustain one economic community. In principle, civil law is the power of the States. . Art.50(8) of the FDRE Constitution provides that The Constitution has provided that the States shall respect the powers of the Federal Government and the Federal Government shall likewise respect the powers of the States. . Abera, Supra note at 30, p.148
Abdi G. Amenu "The Criminal Legislative Jurisdiction of Regional States under the FDRE Constitution: The Need for Exploring the Magnitude" International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation-IJRSI vol.3 issue 1A, pp.56-74 2016