Volume II Issue VI

Publication for Volume-2 Issue-6, June 2018 is in-process ..

An Analysis of English Grammatical Errors in the Written Essays of the First Year English Students of Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti

George Adekunle Ojo – June 2018 Page No.: 01-05

This study investigates the grammatical errors in the written essays of the first year English students of Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti. These errors include misinformation, omission, punctuations, capitalization, concord, lexical, spelling, parts of speech, syntactic and articles.
Data were collected from 200 first year English students’ essays from the Faculties of Arts and Education out of which 50 of the essays were purposively selected for analysis; twenty-five of which each represent the two faculties (i.e Arts and Education). Frequency and percentage were used for data analysis. Findings in this study showed that the most frequent errors made by the students, out of the 393 errors in the data, were spelling 71 (18.07%), lexical 51 (12.89%), punctuations 49 (12.47%), capitalization 48 (12.21%) and parts of speech 46 (11.70%).

Page(s): 01-05                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2018

 George Adekunle Ojo
Department of English and Literary Studies, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

[1]. Batstone, R. (1994). Grammar. New York: Oxford University Press.
[2]. Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 1-47.
[3]. Corder, S.P. (1967). The significance of learners’ errors. In J.C. Richards (Ed.)
[4]. (1994). Error Analysis: Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition. (13thed.) London: Longman, pp. 19 – 27
[5]. Corder, S. P. (1974). Error Analysis. In J. P. B. Allen and S. Pit Corder (Eds.) Techniques in Applied Linguistics (The Edinburgh Course in Applied Linguistics: 3), London: Oxford University Press (Language and Language Learning), pp. 122-154.
[6]. Ellis, R. and Barkhuizen, G. (2005). Analysing Learner Language. China: Oxford University Press.
[7]. Hyland, K. (2002). Teaching and Researching Writing. London: Longman.
[8]. Kekere-Ekun, J., Udvebure, A. and Egele, A. (2010) An analysis of syntactic problem in the essays of selected senior secondary school students in Akoko-Edo L.G.A, Edo State in Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development, Vol. 15 (3) pp. 1-9
[9]. Kittiporn, N. (2013). Grammatical Error Analysis of the First Year English Major Students, Udon Thani Rajabhat University. A paper presented at the Asian Conference on Language Learning, Osaka, Japan, pp. 117 – 126
[10]. Maicusi, T. and Maicusi, P. (2000). The Error in the Second Language Acquisition. In María José Carrillo López, pp. 168-173.
[11]. Myles, J. (2002). Second Language Writing and Research: The Writing Process and Error Analysis in Student Texts. Teaching English as a Second Language English Journal, 6, 2.
[12]. Richards, J.C. & Sampson, G.P. (1974). The study of learner English. Reprinted in J.C.
[13]. Richards. (Ed.) (1994). Error Analysis. Perspectives on second language acquisition (13th ed.) London: Longman, pp. 3-18.
[14]. Skehan, P. (1996). A framework for the implementation of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics, 17, 38-62

George Adekunle Ojo “An Analysis of English Grammatical Errors in the Written Essays of the First Year English Students of Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.01-05 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/01-05.pdf

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The Legal and Institutional Framework for Taxation in Nigeria: Some Aspects of Law, Policy and Practice

Adesanya Tolulope & Oguntola Bukola – June 2018 Page No.: 06-10

The tax system in Nigerian is a tripartite foundation that comprises of the tax policy, tax legislation and tax administration. Tax policy forms the basis for tax laws while tax administration is the implementation of the tax laws. A major challenge in Nigeria has been the scope and usage of tax which ought to be clear to the government and citizens at all times. In this study, we begin by explaining the concept and benefit of taxation. Furthermore we discussed the role of government and the obligation of citizens towards taxation. Consequently, we developed a conceptual model and discussed the practical implication for Nigeria.

Page(s): 06-10                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2018

 Adesanya Tolulope
L.LB, BSc, M.A (Laws), B.Laws; Acis (PhD In view)
Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

 Oguntola Bukola
BSc, L.LB, Tax Consultant to the Oyo State Government, Nigeria

[1]. Abdulrazaq M.(2015) Revenue Law and Practice in Nigeria. 3rd Edition. Malthouse.p1
[2]. Adebisi, J. F., & Gbegi, D. O. (2013). Effect of tax avoidance and tax evasion on personal income tax administration in Nigeria. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(3), 125-134.
[3]. Afuberoh,D., & Emmsnuel, O.(2014) The impact of taxation on revenue generation in Nigeria: A study of Federal capital territory and selected states. International Journal of Public administration and Management Research. Vol 2(2) 22-47.
[4]. Agwu, M O & Emeti, C I(2014) Issues, Challenges and prospects of Small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) in Port-Harcourt City. Nigeria, European Journal of Sustainable Development Vol 3(1) p 101.
[5]. Anyanwu. J.C.(1997), Nigerian Public finance. Joanne Educational Publishers. Onitsha. P.18.
[6]. Ayua I A., (1996) The Nigerian Tax Law. Spectrum‘s Law Publishing p.22
[7]. Bassey O U., (2013) Companies Taxation in Nigeria. CIBN press, p2.
[8]. Berger , D.(2009). Taxes, institutions and local governance: evidence from a natural experiment in colonial Nigeria. Unpublished Manuscript.
[9]. Dike M .A., (2013). An overview of the Nigerian Tax System & taxes payable by Individuals & Corporate Bodies. P9
[10]. Jelilov,G., Abdulrahman, S.,& Isik, A.(2015) The Impact of Tax Reforms and Economic Growth in Nigeria. The Empirical Economic Letters. 1100-1115
[11]. Josephine A.A (2012) Problems of Personal Income Tax in Nigeria. Ababa press, p1
[12]. Micah, L. C., Ebere, C., & Umobong, A. A. (2012). Tax system in Nigeria–challenges and the way forward. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 3(5), 9-15.
[13]. National Tax Policy draft document
[14]. O’connor, J (2017) The Fiscal Crisis of the state. Routledge.
[15]. Odusola, A (2006) Tax policy reforms in Nigeria (No. 2006/03). Research paper, UNU-WIDER, United Nations Univeristy.
[16]. Ogundele .E.A. (1999) Element of Taxation. Libriserve press Limited, P9
[17]. Okauru. I.O. ( 2012).Federal Inland Revenue Service & Taxation Reform in Democratic Nigeria. Oxford: African Books Collective. P169
[18]. Okezie, S.A.(2003). Tax Administration in Nigeria: Accountability Fairness. The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria MCPE, Lagos. (pp.1-22).
[19]. Olokooba SM., Awodun, M., Akintoye, OD., & Adebowale H I (2018) Tax Offences :clogs in the wheel of progress and development of Nigeria as a Nation. NAU Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence 9(1) p.228
[20]. Oluba,M N (2008). Justifying Resistance to Tax Payment in Nigeria. Economic Reflection, 3(3) p4
[21]. Otusanya , O J., Arowomole, S A & Adeyeye, G B (2013). An examination of tax revenues: the case of Nigeria. International Journal of Economics and Accounting 4(1)
[22]. Otusanya, O J., (2011) The role of multinational companies in tax evasion and tax avoidance: the case of Nigeria. Critical Perspectives in Accounting. vol 22(3) p328
[23]. Taylor. M.,(2012) Is it a levy , or is it a tax, or both? Revenue Law Journal. vol 22 Issue 1 Bond University.
[24]. Tiley and Loutzenhiser.,(2012)Revenue Law. Hart Publishing. pp3-128.

Journals & Research Papers

[25]. Adebisi, J. F., & Gbegi, D. O. (2013). Effect of tax avoidance and tax evasion on personal income tax administration in Nigeria. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(3)
[26]. Afuberoh,D., & Emmsnuel, O.(2014) The impact of taxation on revenue generation in Nigeria: A study of Federal capital territory and selected states. International Journal of Public administration and Management Research. Vol 2(2)
[27]. Agwu, M O & Emeti, C I(2014) Issues, Challenges and prospects of Small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) in Port-Harcourt City. Nigeria, European Journal of Sustainable Development Vol 3(1)
[28]. Berger , D.(2009). Taxes, institutions and local governance: evidence from a natural experiment in colonial Nigeria. Unpublished Manuscript.
[29]. Dike M .A., (2013). An overview of the Nigerian Tax System & taxes payable by Individuals & Corporate Bodies
[30]. Jelilov,G., Abdulrahman, S.,& Isik, A.(2015) The Impact of Tax Reforms and Economic Growth in Nigeria. The Empirical Economic Letters.
[31]. Micah, L. C., Ebere, C., & Umobong, A. A. (2012). Tax system in Nigeria–challenges and the way forward. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 3(5).
[32]. National Tax Policy draft document
[33]. O’connor, J (2017) The Fiscal Crisis of the state. Routledge.
[34]. Okauru. I.O. ( 2012).Federal Inland Revenue Service & Taxation Reform in Democratic Nigeria. Oxford: African Books Collective
[35]. Okezie, S.A.(2003). Tax Administration in Nigeria: Accountability Fairness. The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria MCPE, Lagos
[36]. Olokooba SM., Awodun, M., Akintoye, OD., & Adebowale H I (2018) Tax Offences :clogs in the wheel of progress and development of Nigeria as a Nation. NAU Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence 9(1)
[37]. Oluba,M N (2008). Justifying Resistance to Tax Payment in Nigeria. Economic Reflection, 3(3)
[38]. Otusanya , O J., Arowomole, S A & Adeyeye, G B (2013). An examination of tax revenues: the case of Nigeria. International Journal of Economics and Accounting 4(1)
[39]. Otusanya, O J., (2011) The role of multinational companies in tax evasion and tax avoidance: the case of Nigeria. Critical Perspectives in Accounting. vol 22(3)
[40]. Taylor. M.,(2012) Is it a levy , or is it a tax, or both? Revenue Law Journal. vol 22 Issue 1 Bond University.

Books

[41]. Abdulrazaq M.(2015) Revenue Law and Practice in Nigeria. 3rd Edition. Malthouse.
[42]. Anyanwu. J.C.(1997), Nigerian Public finance. Joanne Educational Publishers. Onitsha.
[43]. Ayua I A., (1996) The Nigerian Tax Law. Spectrum‘s Law Publishing
[44]. Bassey O U., (2013) Companies Taxation in Nigeria. CIBN press
[45]. Josephine A.A (2012) Problems of Personal Income Tax in Nigeria. Ababa press
[46]. Odusola, A (2006) Tax policy reforms in Nigeria (No. 2006/03). Research paper, UNU-WIDER, United Nations Univeristy.
[47]. Ogundele .E.A. (1999) Element of Taxation. Libriserve press Limited,
[48]. Tiley and Loutzenhiser.,(2012)Revenue Law. Hart Publishing.

Adesanya Tolulope & Oguntola Bukola “The Legal and Institutional Framework for Taxation in Nigeria: Some Aspects of Law, Policy and Practice” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.06-10 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/06-10.pdf

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A Desire for An Eventful Life of Jaya in Shashi Deshpande’s “That Long Silence”
M. Kavitha, Dr. Padmini Bernard Fenn – June 2018 – Page No.: 11-13

Love and marriage are interrelated concepts of human relations. Love has many forms and one of its forms is seen in the relations of husband and wife. This relation has been the major concern of feminists all over the world. The most stable, pious and natural form of love, and its expression in daily life changes with time and space, from a permanent fountain to occasional drops. Even in this expression, a woman has no equal share and these results in dissatisfaction, subjugation and suffocation, which is well brought to the fore by Shashi Deshpande in That Long Silence. A male partner not only changes a female’s identity from a girl to a woman, but dominates her whole life to such an extent that she accepts herself as a part of his identity. She accepts everything silently, not because she is afraid of changing the society, but she fears changing herself, her relation, and her forced identity. She becomes so suppressed from within, that hardly she feels the need to change her pre-decided roles and assume her new identity. The roles, she imbibed with the help of her darling mother. Many times she feels herself tied with invisible chains, invisible chains but harder and stronger than visible
Shashi Deshpande’s novel That Long Silence is the understanding of woman’s desire, silence and its suffocation. Jaya internalizes silence as the heritage of her culture. But it continuously sickens her soul. Throughout the novel she tries to calculate the gain and loss of being silent and eventually finds that she always hides her faults behind her relations and responsibilities. Her growing dissatisfaction comes to an end with the sermon of Lord Krishna who gives freedom to every individual to do as they desire. It is the tale of every woman living in a patriarchal setup. This paper tries to illuminate the impact of silence in Indian women’s life and Jaya’s overcoming of it. The study tries to understand what makes a woman to stay silent and what eventually forces her speak up.

Page(s): 11-13                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2018

 M. Kavitha
Assistant Professor in English, Sree Sakthi Engineering College, Karamadai, Tamil Nadu, India

 Dr. Padmini Bernard Fenn
Associate Professor in English, G.R.D. College of Science Commerce, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

[1]. Beavouir, Simon de. The Second Sex. Trans. H.M.Parshley. Plarmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1975. Print.2.
[2]. Deshpande, Shashi. That Long Silence. Noida: Penguin Books India, 1989. Print.
[3]. Haldar,Santwana. Shashi Deshpande’s That Long Silence, A Critical Study.New Delhi: Asia Book Club, 2005. Print.
[4]. Mundra, S. C., J. N. Mundra. A History of English Literature. Volume III. Meerut: Aastha Printers, 2009. Print.
[5]. Nair, Pramod K. “Feminism”. Literary Theory Today. New Delhi: Asia Book Club, 2006.Print
[6]. http://www.languageinindia.com/sep2013/kavitabreakingsilencefinal.
[7]. https://penguin.co.in/book/fiction/that-long-silence/
[8]. http://albertsliterature.blogspot.in/2012/02/problem-of-identity-in-sashi-deshpandes.html

M. Kavitha, Dr. Padmini Bernard Fenn “A Desire for An Eventful Life of Jaya in Shashi Deshpande’s “That Long Silence”” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.11-13 June 2018 URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/11-13.pdf

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Students Career Attitudes towards Entrepreneurship

H.M.W.M. Herath, T.G.A.H.C. Amarawansha – June 2018 Page No.: 14-18

Entrepreneurship plays a vital role in current business arena. Starting from the top government officials to the bottom level people, importance of these concept coming to the stage in various aspects. Even the degree programmes related to entrepreneurship offered by government and private universities develop students’ entrepreneurial attitudes. Although all these effort are done to enhance the entrepreneurship culture among University students, still they have confusing mind to start up an Entrepreneurial career in their life. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the problems associated with students’ entrepreneurial career and what are the factors that help to change their minds towards entrepreneurial career aspirations. In order to identify this problem, data was collected through the entrepreneurial graduates of Sri Lankan Universities. The size of the sample was 100 students. A structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. The questionnaire employed a 5-point Likert scale. According to findings, 89% of students have emphasized that they are not willing to take the risk associated with the new ventures. Majority of the students have explained that they are having negative attitudes towards Entrepreneurship due to lack of Practical awareness about business, Experiences received through Parents Business, Career aspirations of friends and relatives made them to rethink about starting up the Entrepreneurial career. In order to overcome these issues which are associated with Entrepreneurial mind-set of students, universities should address these issues in prominent manner.

Page(s): 14-18                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2018

 H.M.W.M. Herath
Department of Management Sciences, Uva Wellassa University, Badulla, Sri Lanka

 T.G.A.H.C. Amarawansha
Department of Management Sciences, Uva Wellassa University, Badulla, Sri Lanka

[1]. Manisha, Sing R.K.(2016), Students attitudes towards Entrepreneurship, 4th International Conference on recent Innovations in Science Engineering and Management , New Delhi
[2]. Kuratko, D.F. & Hodgetts, R.M. (2004). Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process. Practice (Mason, OH; SouthWestern Publishers)
[3]. Kidane, A. and Harvey, B.H., (2009). Profile of entrepreneurs: Employing stepwise regression analysis to determine factors that impact success of entrepreneurs. Review of Business Research
[4]. Akponi, E.M., (2009). Entrepreneurship education (EE) for all students in higher education institutions (thesis) in Nigeria: a means to sustainable development. Journal of sustainable development in Africa
[5]. Knight, P. and Yorke, M., (2004). Learning, curriculum and employability in higher education. Psychology Press
[6]. Amit, R. and Zott, C., 2001. Value creation in e‐business. Strategic management journal, 22(6‐7)
[7]. Henderson, R. and Robertson, M., 1999. Who wants to be an entrepreneur? Young adult attitudes to entrepreneurship as a career. Education+ Training, 41(5),
[8]. Fayolle, A., Gailly, B. and Lassas-Clerc, N., 2006. Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education programmes: a new methodology. Journal of European industrial training, 30(9)
[9]. Aurora, T. and Todd, D., 2008. Attitudes of Higher Education students to new venture creation: a preliminary approach to the Portuguese case
[10]. Lena, L., & Wong, P. K. (2003). Attitude towards entrepreneurship education and new venture creation. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 11(4)
[11]. Alain, F., Benoit, G., & ClercNarjisse, L. (2006). Effect and Counter-effect of Entrepreneurship Education and Social Context on Student’s Intentions. Estudios de EconomíaAplicada, 24(2)
[12]. Dimitrova, M., Yovevab, I., & Kamenovac, D. (2012). University students’ attitudes and intentions towards entrepreneurial education. IUC Annual Book
[13]. Lee, S.M., Chang. D., & Lim, S. (2005). Impact of entrepreneurship education: a comparative study of the US and Korea. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal
[14]. Manuere, F., Danha, K., & Majoni, T. (2013). Entrepreneurship attitudes and knowledge : a survey of fourth year university students. Interdisciplinary journal of contemporary research in business, 4(9)

H.M.W.M. Herath, T.G.A.H.C. Amarawansha “Students Career Attitudes towards Entrepreneurship” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.14-18 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/14-18.pdf

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Assessment of Causative and Preventive Measures of Flood Menace in Urban Zaria L.G.A of Kaduna, State Nigeria

Mu’azu Audu Zanuwa, Lukman Abdulmumin and Jabir Abdulkadir – June 2018 Page No.: 19-24

Globally, flooding is one of the environmental problems that affect countries of the world, most especially developing countries. Flood has become more frequent and of increasing severity resulting to loss of life, injury, homelessness, damage to infrastructure and environment as well as impacting on other critical sectors such as education and agriculture in urban Zaria of Kaduna state, Nigeria. The study assessed the causative and preventive measures of flooding in Urban Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study adopted quantitative approach, purposive sampling techniques was used to select five communities (Hanwa, Magume, Tudun-jukun, Muchia and Gyallesu). Descriptive statistics and Likert Rating System were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that flooding is a yearly occurrence (76.6%). More so, 70.5% of the respondents reported that flooding occurred mostly in the rainy season in urban Zaria within august to September. The respondents identified heavy rainfall and blocking of drainage systems with waste as the major causes of flooding in the study area. Also33.3% of the respondents revealed that flooding caused extensive damage on infrastructures like roads, schools and houses in the communities impacting negatively on the delivery of services such as health and education in the study area. In line with the findings, the study recommends that flood zoning ordinances and land use control acts should be enacted by the state and local government. And flood forecasting should be well intensified with standard modern techniques for predicting the occurrence of flood to averting flooding in low lying areas of urban Zaria.

Page(s): 19-24                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2018

 Mu’azu Audu Zanuwa
Department of Geography Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria

 Lukman Abdulmumin
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria

 Jabir Abdulkadir
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria

[1]. Abdulhamid I.A. and Jaro, I.M. (2010).A study of Common Episodic Disaster Events in Zaria.Urban area, Nigeria.Reseach Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences.3(2).(Accessed on 27/11/2017 9:15pm).
[2]. Ayoade, J.O. (1988). Tropical Hydrology and Water Resources.MacMilan Publishers, Ibadan.
[3]. Babatolu, J.S. (1997).The June 24th 1995 Flood in Ondo Antecedent and Incident, Ife Research Publications in Geography,Vol.6, 125-136.
[4]. Ball, T., Werritty, A., Duck, R. W., Edwards, A., Booth, L. and Black, A. (2008). Coastal Flooding in Scotland: A Scoping Study. Report to SNIFFER, Edinburgh
[5]. Bundes ministeriumdes Innern (BMI) (2005) Schutz Kritischer Infrastructure Basisschntzkonzept. Empfehlungen fur Unternehmen. Berlin: BMI, available at http://www.bmi.bund.de/cln_012/nn_22688/Internet/Content/Common/atlagen/Broschueren/2005/Basiskonzept_kritische _Infrastrukturen, templateId=raw property=publication File.pdf/Basiskonzept_kritische_ Infrastrukturen/.
[6]. Daily Trust Newspaper (2007). September 2007: Kaduna metropolis ravaged by flood.
[7]. Dilley, M., Chen, R.S., Deichmann, U., Lerner-Lam, A.L., Arnold, M., (2005) Natural Disaster Hotspots: A Global Risk Analysis. The World Bank, US, 150 pp.
[8]. Geoscience Australia, (2013). What is the Flooding? Retrieved from http://www.ga.gov.au/hazard/flood/floodbasics/what.html

[9]. Hewit, K. (1979): Regions at Risk: A Geographical Introduction to Disasters. Essex, UK, Longman.
[10]. Jeb, D.N., Aggarwal, S.P. (2008). Flood Inundation Hazard Modeling of the River Kaduna Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 4 (12): 1822-1833.
[11]. Jha, A.K., Bloch, R. and Lamond, J. (2012): Cities and Flooding – A Guide to Integrated Urban Flood Risk Management for the 21st Century. The World Bank, Washington DC. Retrieved from http://www.gfdrr.org/gfdrr/urbanfloods.
[12]. Musah.B, Akai C.Y. (2014). Effects of flood disasters on livelihood coping mechanism in Tolon/Kumbumgu district of northern region of Ghana. Int. J. Agric. Pol. Res. 2(1):033-040.
[13]. Nigeria Emergency Management Agency NEMA (2013): Flood Disaster Report 2012, Daily Trust Newspaper, 11th May, 2012.
[14]. Nnachi SU, Philemon AC, Alemaka JH, Honey P, Musa IJ (2016). An Assessment of Flood Vulnerability in Kubanni River Channel of Zaria, Kaduna State. Int. Journal. Environ. Sci. Toxic. Res. Vol. 4(5): 81-95
[15]. Okorie, F.C., (2010). Great Ogberuru in its contemporary geography.Owerri: Cape Publishers
[16]. Ologunorisa, E. T. (2004). An assessment of flood vulnerability zones in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Studies,Vol.61,31-38.
[17]. Oriola, E. O. (2000). ‘Flooding and Flood Management.’ in H. I.Jimoh and I. P. Ifabiyi (Eds.) Contemporary Issues in Environmental Studies. Ilorin: Haytee Press &Publishing Coy. pp 100 – 109.
[18]. This Day Newspaper (2008). August 18th, 2015; Flood Hits Makurdi town again; Retrieved on 24th October, 2015.

Mu’azu Audu Zanuwa, Lukman Abdulmumin and Jabir Abdulkadir “Assessment of Causative and Preventive Measures of Flood Menace in Urban Zaria L.G.A of Kaduna, State Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.19-24 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/19-24.pdf

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State and Privacy

Armaan Natt – June 2018 Page No.: 25-32

With increased surveillance over the digital sphere, it has naturally led to concerns regarding individual privacy and autonomy. The set up of the modern state is such that it requires the extensive use of these methods in order to achieve its desired goals. There is a balance that needs to be maintained between national security and privacy and thus both these concepts operate by their very nature, in a give and take relationship often being traded off against each other. The digital trail has also resulted in a complex challenge for privacy since every move can now be stored and tracked, greatly hinging the anonymity and privacy of Internet users. The need for secrecy around intelligence agencies, whose primary task is to collect information through use of surveillance, has also led to various privacy advocates raising a multitude of concerns. In particular there has been a raging debate over the creation of a Big Brother State through the use of these methods. The following chapter deals with the nature of the modern day state, the interplay between intelligence gathering and privacy with regard to the digital trail and also the need for surveillance to achieve the goal of national security, while dispelling fears with regard to the Big Brother concern.

Page(s): 25-32                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2018

 Armaan Natt
Student (IV Year), Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law, Patiala, Punjab, India

[1]. ANDREAS ANTER, MAX WEBER’S THEORY OF THE MODERN STATE (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).
[2]. 2 JOHN RAWLS, POLTICAL LIBERALISM(Columbia University Press, 2d ed.1996).
[3]. (Mar.24, 2018, 10:05 AM)https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hobbes-moral/
[4]. Castells, M., The Information Age, Volumes 1-3: Economy, Society and Culture. Cambridge (Mass.); Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 1999.
[5]. MATTHEW GRIMELY, CITIZENSHIP, COMMUNITY, AND THE CHURCH OF ENGLAN: LIBERAL ANGLICAN THEORIES OF THE STATE BETWEEN THE WARS (Clarendon Press, 2004).
[6]. (Mar.24, 2018, 12:15 PM)https://medium.com/twenty-one-hundred/data-is-the-new-oil-a-ludicrous-proposition-1d91bba4f294
[7]. http://repository.umy.ac.id/bitstream/handle/123456789/15989/F.%20Chapter%20II.pdf?sequence=6&isAllowed=y
[8]. Mar.25, 2018, 08:05 AM) http://delong.typepad.com/marshall-citizenship-and-social-class.pdf
[9]. COLIN J. BENNETT, REGULATING PRIVACY: DATA PROTECTION AND PUBLIC POLICY IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES p.25 (1992).
[10]. J.THOMSON, THE RIGHT TO PIRACY in,PHILOSOPHICAL DIMENSIONS OF PRIVACY: AN ANTHOLOGY 272, 272 (Ferdinand David Schoeman ed., 1984).
[11]. JULIE C. INNESS, PRIVACY, INTIMACY, AND ISOLATIONp.56 (1992).
[12]. THOMAS I. EMERSON, THE SYSTEM OF FREEDOM OF EXPRESSIONpp.545, 549 (1970).’
[13]. (Mar.25, 2018, 09:25 AM) https://eet.pixel-online.org/files/etranslation/original/Mill,%20On%20Liberty.pdf
[14]. AMITAI ETZIONI, THE LIMITS OF PRIVACYp.196 (1999).
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[18]. Ibid.
[19]. Julie E Cohen, “What Privacy Is For”, Harvard Law Review (2013), Vol. 126, at page 1904.
[20]. (Mar.23, 2018, 11:05 AM) https://www.ted.com/talks/glenn_greenwald_why_privacy_matters
[21]. (Mar.22, 2018, 04:00 ) http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2510&context=infopapers
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[24]. Barack Obama – https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/18/us/politics/obamas-speech-on-nsa-phone-surveillance.html
[25]. John L. Hennessy, David A. Patterson, and Herbert S. Lin National Research Council, Information Technology for Counterterrorism: Immediate Actions and Future Possibilities,(The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C, 2003).
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[32]. (Mar.12, 2018, 10:45 AM)http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/article/what-it-takes-defense-nsa
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[35]. Edward Snowden – https://techcrunch.com/2014/10/11/edward-snowden-new-yorker-festival/
[36]. Report of the Group of Experts on Privacy” (16 October, 2012), Government of India, available at http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/genrep/rep_privacy.pdf. Taken from Writ Petition (Civil) No 494 of 2012, J.Puttaswamy v Union of India.
[37]. (http://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id=201520160SB178
[38]. (Mar.18, 2018, 10:42 AM) https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/is-state-surveillance-a-legitimate-defence-of-our-freedoms/article18368244/
[39]. (Mar.18, 2018, 11:50 AM) https://thewire.in/170689/right-to-privacy-data-protection/

Armaan Natt “State and Privacy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.25-32 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/25-32.pdf

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The History and Development of Arabic Calligraphy

Noura Bakhet Al-Otaibi and Dr Neelam Raina – June 2018 Page No.: 33-51

The relevance of Arabic calligraphy in the modern day arts and design field cannot be overemphasised. Apart from acting as a communication tool (in Arab speaking countries) and means of spiritual guidance and elevation in one of the world’s largest religious denominations (Islam), its application has spread to other various fields of arts and design. This growing trend triggered this study in which the history and development of the Arabic calligraphy from inception to the present day were duly discussed.
The study started by providing a concise definition of the Arabic calligraphy concept and then detailed how it has geographically evolved from 6th century AD to the present day. It also showed how the different types of Arabic calligraphy came into existence while describing the theories surrounding them. Finally, the roles of Arabic calligraphy in other fields of arts and design were reviewed and findings show that despite the religious sensitiveness attached to its usage in these fields, it is gradually becoming globally acceptable as a form of art with appreciable aesthetic values.

Page(s): 33-51                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 June 2018

 Noura Bakhet Al-Otaibi
Art and Design School, Faculty of Arts and Creative Industries, Middlesex University, The Burroughs, London NW4 4BT United Kingdom

 Dr Neelam Raina
Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Arts and Creative Industries, Middlesex University, The Burroughs, London NW4 4BT United Kingdom.

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Noura Bakhet Al-Otaibi and Dr Neelam Raina “The History and Development of Arabic Calligraphy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.33-51 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/33-51.pdf

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The Impact of Knowledge Management, Informational Technology, and HRM on Employee Performance: Evidence from Banking Sector

Dr. Muhammad Imran Hanif, Yousaf Rao, Muhammad Shahzad Hanif, Muhammad Kashif Nawaz – June 2018 Page No.: 52-56

Banking sector of Pakistan witnessing high growth since ever. Due to increase in the branch network the competition has increased. Now having competitive workforce is vital for the success. This topic is very important in all types of organizations specially in developing organizations. Many researchers have already research on this topic. After review the past researches of different researchers (that further explain with their names) and also get the current information about this topic we able to write a research about “The impact of K.M on HR practice. The sample that we include consists of banks (government & private) with the 80 employees. The result shows that there is strong positive effect on employee’s performance of knowledge management in HRM.

Page(s): 52-56                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 June 2018

 Dr. Muhammad Imran Hanif
Institute of Banking and Finance, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

 Yousaf Rao
MS Scholar, Institute of Banking and Finance, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

 Muhammad Shahzad Hanif
PhD Scholar, School of Business and Economics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China

 Muhammad Kashif Nawaz
Institute of Banking and Finance, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

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[18]. Zhang, M. J. (2007). An empirical assessment of the performance impacts of IS support for knowledge transfer. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 3(1), 66–68

Dr. Muhammad Imran Hanif, Yousaf Rao, Muhammad Shahzad Hanif, Muhammad Kashif Nawaz “The Impact of Knowledge Management, Informational Technology, and HRM on Employee Performance: Evidence from Banking Sector” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.52-56 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/52-56.pdf

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Factors Associated with Accidents Involving Commercial Motorcyclists in Migori Town, Kenya

James Ochieng Owino – June 2018 Page No.: 57-67

Transport services offered by commercial motorcyclists present a number of advantages to users. The advantages range from affordability to flexibility. However, commercial motorcyclists have continued to operate in fear of their lives. This is due to increasing number of cases of road accidents involving them and other road users. This study uses a descriptive survey research design targeting commercial motorcyclists registered with Migori town Motorists Sacco limited. One hundred and ninety fiveriders were randomly sampled while fivekey informants were purposively identified.Pretested structured questionnaires were administered to sampled riders to collect quantitative data and in- depth interviews to gather qualitative data. The likelihood of a rider with a riding license, not being involved in accident was 7.2 times higher than those who do not possess riding license. The likelihood of respondents in age group 31 to 42 years not being involved in accident was 7.5 times higher than those who are aged over 54 years. Rider in age group 43 to 54 years were 5.6 times likely not to be involved in accident compared to those aged over 54 years. The study recommends that both existing and potential commercial motorcyclists undergo rider formal training in driving schools as a way of reducing commercial motorcyclists’ accidents involvement.

Page(s): 57-67                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 June 2018

 James Ochieng Owino
Rongo University, Rongo, Kenya

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James Ochieng Owino “Factors Associated with Accidents Involving Commercial Motorcyclists in Migori Town, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.57-67 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/57-67.pdf

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Balancing Competing of Interest Regarding Patents and Copyrights in Sri Lanka; a Look at the Intellectual Property Act No 36 of 2003

K.A.A.N. Thilakarathna – June 2018 Page No.: 68-74

Considering the special nature of intellectual property as an intangible product of human intellect, Intellectual Property Act No 36 of 2003 has been imposed to handle the intellectual property rights in Sri Lanka Concurrent demands for protecting the rights of the inventors, while restricting them form keeping undue monopolies give rise to conflicting interests in the field. In achieving a balance between these two competing interests, the Act attempts to incorporate certain guidelines based on the standards set out by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in TRIPS (Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property). However, hardly any systematic analysis has been done to examine how these guidelines make the balance between competing interests in Sri Lankan context and thus the present paper aims to evaluate whether the measures taken under the Act are sufficient to achieve this desired balance relating to patents and copyrights. The article is written using a qualitative method by using the relevant sections of the Act which are evaluated through scholarly writings and decided case law. It can be seen that while at times the Act has complied with the minimum standards set out under the TRIPS regime and sometimes even going beyond the parameters and giving TRIP Splus protection, there are some areas such as Traditional Knowledge (TK) where the Act has been unable to provide a suitable amount of protection under patents or copyrights. The article therefore concludes on these shortcomings and suggest possible changes that could be implemented to overcome with these lacunas.

Page(s): 68-74                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 June 2018

 K.A.A.N. Thilakarathna
Attorney-at-Law
Department of Law, CINEC Campus, Malabe, Sri Lanka

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[10]. McClean, D., & Schubert, K. (2002). Dear images (1st ed.). London: Ridinghouse.
[11]. Moore, A. (2006). Intellectual property and information control (1st ed.). New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
[12]. Pound, R., &DeRosa, M. (1930). An introduction to the philosophy of law (4th ed.). USA: Transaction.
[13]. Quabeck, F. (1980). John Locke’s concept of natural law from the Essays on the law of nature to the Second treatise of government (1st ed.). Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.
[14]. WIPO. (1988). Background reading materials on intellectual material on intellectual property (1st ed.). Geneva.

K.A.A.N. Thilakarathna “Balancing Competing of Interest Regarding Patents and Copyrights in Sri Lanka; a Look at the Intellectual Property Act No 36 of 2003” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.68-74 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/68-74.pdf

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Critical Reflection as a Means in Teaching and Learning Critical Reading: Perceptions and Practices of EFL Teachers and Students

Yeshambel Tadele Alem – June 2018 Page No.: 75-83

Critical reading is an essential skill in interpreting, analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating written texts read. This critical skill of reading needs dynamic and plausible classroom strategies. Critical reflection was proposed as a strategy to facilitate critical reading among EFL teachers and students in reading classes. To this end, the main objective of the study was to assess how EFL teachers and students perceived in practicing critical reflection in enhancing students’ critical reading skills. To collect data via questionnaire and interview, random sampling method was used. P=0.005 sig (level of significance) which is less than 0.05 sig shows that the null hypothesis that EFL teachers and students perceived positively in practicing critical reflection in scaffolding teaching and learning critical reading was not supported; rather EFL teachers and students had less positive perceptions in practicing critical reflection in teaching and learning critical reading. The result of the study proved that EFL teachers had better perceptions than students on the practice of critical reflection to enhance students’ critical reading skills. In addition, the collected data from interview gave witness that EFL teachers and students practiced critical reflection in a less extent although it has paramount effects in enhancing students’ critical reading skills.

Page(s): 75-83                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 July 2018

 Yeshambel Tadele Alem
PhD Student in TEFL Program, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia

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[3]. Bartlett, Leo. 1990. Teacher development through reflective teaching. In J.C. Richards and D. Nunan (Eds), Second Language Teacher Education (pp. 2002-214). New York: Cambridge University Press.
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[11]. El-Maleh, A. (2006). The Effectiveness of a Proposed Literature Circles Program on Developing Critical Reading Secondary School Students Through Teaching Short story. Mansoura University Journal, 1(62), 1-20.
[12]. ERIC. (1988). Critical thinking skills and teacher education. ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education. Washington DC.
[13]. Freire, P. (1972). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Harmonds worth:Penguin.
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[15]. Fullan, M. (2003). The moral imperative of school leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press
[16]. Gardner, F, Fook, J and White, S (2006) ‘Developing effectiveness in conditions of uncertainty’. In Critical reflection in health and social care, Edited by: White, S, Fook, J and Gardner, F Maidenhead: Open University Press
[17]. Hudson, T. (2007). Teaching second language reading. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[18]. Kadir, A.N. (1014). The Importance of Teaching Critical Reading Skills. University Technology of Mara Pahang, Malasia.
[19]. Mezirow, J. (1990) Fostering Critcal Reflecton in Adulthood. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Theories of Group Process. London: John Wiley. pp 30-50
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[22]. Patankar, S. et.al,. (2016). Developing Critical Reading Skills for Active Citizenship through Constructivist: https://www.researchgate.net/ publication 306358597
[23]. Patton, M. Quinn. (2002). Qualitative interviewing. Qualitative research and evaluation methods, 3, 344-347.
[24]. Reflective Practice CD ROM. (2007). A “Critical” Reflective Framework: Information Sheet.
[25]. Richards, J. C. (1990). Towards Reflective Teaching. Department of English, city of Polytechnic of Hong Kong: http://www.ttt journal.co.uk
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[27]. Rolfe, G. (2014). Rethinking reflective education: What would Dewey have done? Nurse EducatonToday. Vol. 34. No. 8. pp 1179-1183.
[28]. Schön, D. (1987). Educatng the Reflectve Practtoner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Study and learning center (2007). What is critical reading? RMIT University www.rmit.edu.au/ studyandlearningcentre/
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[30]. The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. (2015). Critical Self Reflection. www. qaa. Ac. Uk: QAA Scotland
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[32]. McWilliam, E. (1994). In Broken Images: Feminist Tales for a Different Teacher Education. Columbia University: Teachers College Press.
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[35]. Yip, K (2006) Self-reflection in reflective practice: A note of caution. British Journal of Social Work, 36, pp 777-788.

Yeshambel Tadele Alem “Critical Reflection as a Means in Teaching and Learning Critical Reading: Perceptions and Practices of EFL Teachers and Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.75-83 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/75-83.pdf

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E-Governance and Public Policy Efficiency in Nigeria: An Appraisal of Treasury Single Account Policy

Yahaya Yakubu – June 2018 Page No.: 84-89

The Federal government in 2015 issued a directive for full implementation of a unified Treasury Single Account policy in a bid to unify government banking structure. Upon an objective appraisal the study posits TSA will aid in efficient and effective management of public fiscal resources, it will also serve as a mechanism for fraud detection and prevention in the public sector. Regrettably, the hurried manner in which the policy was implemented, without taking into account certain pre-conditions, has brought about certain unintended negative implications. Amongst which includes sharp economic contractions, retrenchment of workforce in the banking sector and the capacity of the state to execute the policy. Accordingly, the study posits the need for phasal implementation of policies with wide coverage range such as TSA. It also emphasizes the need for capacity building for relevant stakeholders and mass sensitization on the nature and working of the policy. Summarily, the study recommends the need for relentlessness in enforcing the policy beyond Ministries, Department and Agencies (MDAs).

Page(s): 84-89                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2018

 Yahaya Yakubu
Department of Political Science & Int’l Relations, Nile University of Nigeria

[1]. Adeolu, I. A.(2016). Understanding the Treasury Single Account System: Things you Should Know, Daily Trust Editorial, (2016:16).
[2]. Ahmed, A. I. (2016). Treasury Single Account as an Instrument of Financial Prudence and Management: Prospects and Challenges, Research Journal of Finance & Accounting, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 66-71.
[3]. Akhidime, A. E. (2012). Accounting & Financial Reporting in Nigeria’s Public Finance Management: An Empirical Evaluation, Journal of Accounting & Management Science Vol. 7, No. 6, pp. 33-44.
[4]. Central Bank of Nigeria. (2014). 235th Monetary Policy Committee, Abuja: Central Bank of Nigeria.
[5]. Central Bank of Nigeria. (2015). Revised Guidelines for Compliance with Treasury Single Account by Nigerian Banks, Abuja: Central Bank of Nigeria.
[6]. Central Bank of Nigeria. (2004). National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy, Abuja: Central Bank of Nigeria.
[7]. Daily Trust Editorial, September, 2015, pp-16.
[8]. Dror, Y. (1973). Public Policy Making Re-examined, Chandler: Scranton.
[9]. Economy newspaper, (2015, September 17). These are the Eight Advantages of Treasury Single Account (TSA).
[10]. Ekubiat, J. O and Ime, E. E. (2016). Adoption of Treasury Single Account by State Governments in Nigeria: Benefits, Challenges & Prospects, Journal of Fianance & Accounting, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 126-130.
[11]. Fatile, J. O and Adejuwon, K. D. (2017). Implications of Treasury Single Account on the Cost of Governance in Nigeria: Buhari Civilian Administration in Perspective, Journal of Advanced Studies in Economics and Public Sector Managements, Vol. 5, No. 2.
[12]. Fredrickson, H. G. (1997).The Spirit of Public Administration, San-Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers.
[13]. Haque, M. S. (2004).New Public Management: Origins, Dimensions and Critical Implications, Public Administration &Public Policy Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 13-27.
[14]. International Monetary Fund, (2010). Treasury Single
Account: Concept, Design & Implementation Issues, International Monetary Fund Publications.
[15]. International Monetary Fund. (2011). Working Paper, International Monetary Fund Publications.
[16]. Johnson, I. E. (2004). Public Sector Accounting and financial Control, Arabian Journal of business & Management Review, Vol. 1, No. 6.
[17]. Kanu, C. (2016). Impact of Treasury Single Account on Liquidity, ABC Journal of Advanced Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 43-52.
[18]. Oguntode, J. A and Alalaide, Y. S, Adekunle, Y. A and Adegie, F. F. (2016)Treasury Single Account and theNigerian Economy 1999-2015: An Assessment, Journal of Account & Financial Management, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 61-75.
[19]. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The E-government Imperative. (Online) at www.oecd.org/database/60/60/2502539.pdf , 2003.
[20]. Osborne, S. P. (2006). The New Public Governance, Public Administration Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 377-387.
[21]. Premium Times Editorial, August 14, 2016. At www.premiumtimes.com
[22]. Robert and Clark (1982). Power and Politics in the Third World. New York. Santa Barbara: John Wiley and Company.
[23]. Sahara Reporters, June 05, 2017. www.saharareporters.com
[24]. Tayo, M. (2015). Recent Innovations in Treasury Cash Management, Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Vol. 10, No. 12, pp. 46-62.
[25]. United Nations (2010) E-Government Survey, New York: United Nations Publication.
[26]. Verdegem, P and Verleye, G. (2009). User Centered E-government in Practice: A Comprehensive Model for Measuring User Satisfaction. Government Information ?Quarterly, Vol. 26, pp. 487-497.
[27]. Yusuf, M. B. (2016). Effects of Treasury Single Account on Public Finance Management in Nigeria, Journal of Finance & Accounting, Vol. 7, No. 6, pp. 164-170.

Yahaya Yakubu “E-Governance and Public Policy Efficiency in Nigeria: An Appraisal of Treasury Single Account Policy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.84-89 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/84-89.pdf

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An Empirical Analysis of Relationship between Higher Education and Economic Growth in India

M. Indira, Indru Kumar B M – June 2018 Page No.: 90-97

“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world” – Nelson Mandela

Higher Education plays a vital role in achieving sustainable and inclusive growth of any country. It is an important input in the process of economic growth through its contribution to human capital. Indian Constitution made free and compulsory education to children between the ages of 6 and 14 as a fundamental right. The vision of higher education in India is to realize the country’s human resources potential to its fullest extent with equity and inclusion. The higher education sector, in recent decades has witnessed a remarkable growth in its institutional capacity, enrolment, teacher-student ratio, funding, etc. The rapid expansion of the higher education system at the same time has brought several issues related to equity, efficiency, excellence and access to higher education. Government of India aimed at increasing Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in higher education to 21% during the Twelfth five year plan (2012-17).
Since the introduction of new economic policy in 1991 government of India has been encouraging private participation in higher education. According to the AISHE (2014-15) report, there are 757 universities, 38056 colleges and 11922 stand alone institutions and among them 267 universities are privately managed. There are 43 central universities, 14 open universities, 69 institutes of national importance, and 316 public universities. Out of the total higher education institutions 76% colleges are privately managed and among this 61% are private-unaided and 15% are private aided. Over last two decades, a growing Indian economy has led to increased demand for educated and skilled labour. To match the manpower needs of an accelerating economy, private institutions are encouraged to complement government education institutions.
In this scenario, an attempt is made in the present paper to analyze the relationship between the growth of higher education sector and economic development in India by using Granger’s Causality Technique. This analysis is based on the secondary data collected from various published sources.

Page(s): 90-97                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2018

 M. Indira
Professor, Department of Studies in Economics and Co-operation, Manasagangothri, University of Mysore, Mysuru, Karnataka, India

 Indru Kumar B M
Research scholar, DoS in Economics and Co-operation, Manasagangothri, University of Mysore, Mysuru, Karnataka, India

[1]. Barro J Robert (1991). Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 106, No. 2, pp. 407-443.
[2]. Jean-Luc De Meulemeester, & Rochat, Denis(1995)Elsevier in its journal Economics of Education Review.Volume 14 Issue (December).pp351-361.
[3]. Khorasgani, M. (2008) Higher education development and economic growth in Iran, Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, Volume 1(3): 162 – 174.
[4]. Mankiw, N., Romer, D., & Weil, D. (1992). A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107(2), 407-437. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2118477
[5]. National Education policy (1986), Department of Human Resource development, Government of India, New Delhi.
[6]. Obradović, Saša and Lojanica, Nemanja and Janković, Olivera, The Influence of Economic Growth on Regional Disparities: Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries (July 27, 2016). Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu – Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2016, pp. 161-186. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2803117
[7]. Pegkas Panagiotis (2014). The Link between Educational Levels and Economic Growth: A Neoclassical Approach for the Case of Greece International Journal of Applied Economics, 11(2), September 2014, 38-54
[8]. Prakash,Ved (2007), “ Treands in Growth and financing of Higher education in India”, Economic and political weekly,Vol,42, No.32.
[9]. Raihan Islam, (2014) “Education and Economic Growth in Bangladesh- An Econometric Study”, IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 19, Issue 2, Ver. V (Feb. 2014), PP 102-110 e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845.
[10]. Report on Analysis of Budget Expenditure on education 2008-09 to 2013-14, MHRD, Government of India, planning and Monitoring Unit, New Delhi, 2014.
[11]. Tarkeshwar Pandey (2016) ,“Higher Education Expenditure in India” Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR),Vol-2, Issue-5.
[12]. Tasleem Araf C (2016) “Trends, Growth and Changing Patterns of Public Expenditure on Education in India”, J Glob Econ 4: 226. doi: 10.4172/2375-4389.1000226.
[13]. Various AISHE reports of MHRD, Government of India.
[14]. Various Annual Reports of MHRD, Government of India.
[15]. Various Annual reports of UGC, Government of India.

M. Indira, Indru Kumar B M “An Empirical Analysis of Relationship between Higher Education and Economic Growth in India” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.90-97 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/90-97.pdf

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Macro Economic Variables Affecting Share Prices Volatility in India: A Study With Reference to NSE, India

Ganavi K K – June 2018 Page No.: 98-102

The current study investigates the variation of share price on three prominent macro-economic variables viz., GDP, Inflation rate and Interest rate in NSE, India from April 2013 to March 2018 (Financial Year) via monthly data of nifty 50 companies. The study involves a descriptive survey method and data collected was evaluated by means of the software statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 22) and Microsoft excel. The study accomplishes that share price volatility of NSE depends on GDP, inflation rate and interest rate. The three prominent independent (economical) variables studied elucidate nearly 97.9% be governed by share price volatility characterized by R2. This also means remnant 2.1% depends on the others factors also. The regression analysis signifies all predicator variable factors; share price volatility will be 15583.346. Keeping all the independent variables at zero, a unit rise in GDP causes a moderate rise of 0.367 in share price volatility; a unit enhancement in inflation rate causes a 0.992 rise in share price volatility; a unit increase in interest rate significantly leads to 0.088 upsurges in share price volatility among firms listed at the National stock exchange (NSE), India.

Page(s): 98-102                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2018

 Ganavi K K
Assistant Professor, Alva’s College Center for PG studies, Moodbidri, Karnataka, India

[1].  Das et.al . (2007). Factors Affecting market price of sensex shares. ICFAI journal applied finance, vol. 13, 1-6.
[2]. Dissanayake et.al. (2017). The impact of internal factors on share price: Reference to hotel industry in Colombo stock exchange. Business and Management Research Journal , Vol. 7, 33 – 37.
[3]. Adebis et.al. (2015). Equity share price determinants: a survey of literature. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 5, 1-7
[4]. chao et.al. (2016). Impacts of macroeconomic factors on the performance of stock market in Malaysia,. Malaysia: Universiti Tunku Abdul Raham.
[5]. Chen, Nai-Fu, . (2012). Economic Forces. chicago journals, Vol. 59, No. 3 (Jul., 1986), pp. 383-403.
[6]. Corradi, v. e. (2013). Macroeconomic determinants of stock volatility and volatality premiums. journalss of monetory ecconomics.
[7]. Downs. (1991). An alternative approach to fundamental analysis: The asset side of the equation. . Journal of Portfolio Management, 17, 6-17.
[8]. Flannery, m. J. (2002). Macro economic factosr do influence aggregate stock return . the reveiw of financial studies , 15, 751- 782.
[9]. Gay. (2008). Effect Of Macroeconomic Variables On Stock Market Returns For Four Emerging Economies: Brazil, Russia, India, And China;. International Business & Economics Research Journal , 7,1-8.
[10]. Gill et.al. (2012). Determinants of Equity Share Prices: Evidence from American Firms. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, , 90, 176- 191.
[11]. Gompers et.al. (2003). Corporate Governance and Equity Prices. Journal of Economics, 118, 107-155.
[12]. Jayaraj. (2013). The Factor Model for Determining the Individual Investment behavior in India. . IOSR Journal of Economics and Finance , 1, 21-32.
[13]. Khositkulporn. (2013). The Factors Affecting Stock Market Volatility and Contagion: Thailand and South-East Asia Evidence. Melbourne : School of Business Victoria University.
[14]. Kumar. (2013). The Effect of Macroeconomic Factors on Indian Stock Market Performance: A Factor Analysis Approach . IOSR Journal of Economics and Finance ,, 3, 14-21.
[15]. Malhotra et.al. (2013). Determinants of Stock Prices: Empirical Evidence from NSE 100 Companies . IRACST- International Journal of Research in Management & Technology , 3,1-9
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[18]. Naik. (2013). Does Stock Market Respond to Economic Fundamentals? Time Series Analysis from Indian Data. Journal of Applied Economic and Business Research, 3, 34-50.
[19]. Narayan. (2015). The Determinants of Stock Prices: New Evideance from the Indian Banking Sector. Emerging Markets Finance & Trade , 50, 5–15.
[20]. Ouma. (2014). the impact of macroeconomic variables on stock market returns in kenya. International Journal of Business and Commerce ,3, 1-8
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[22]. Rappaport. (1986). The affordable dividend approach to equity valuation. Financial Analysts Journal,, 42, 52-58.
[23]. Rouband et.al. (2016). On The determinants of stock market dynamics in emerging countries: the role of economic policy uncertainty in China and India. Research gate, 36, 1-10
[24]. Salam et.al. (2015). Factors Affecting the Stock Price Movement: A Case Study on Dhaka Stock Exchange. IISTE, Vol.5, No.16.
[25]. Sanjeet. (2011). Determinants of equity share prices in India. Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce,, 2(4), 51-60.
[26]. Sarma. (2004.). Stock Market Seasonality in an Emerging Market. VIKALPA , VOLUME 29 • NO 3 .
[27]. Shankar et.al. (2015). Mispricing in single stock futures:. chennai: NSE.
[28]. Sharif et.al. (2014). Analysis of Factors Affecting Share Prices: The Case of Bahrain Stock Exchange . International Journal of Economics and Finance, Vol. 7, No. 3.
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Ganavi K K “Macro Economic Variables Affecting Share Prices Volatility in India: A Study With Reference to NSE, India” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.98-102 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/98-102.pdf

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Comparative Study of Female Characters of Heer Waris Shah and Shakespeare’s Drama Othello

Rahila Umbreen, Dr. Nabila Rehman – June 2018 Page No.: 103-104

Females face many problems and obstacles in every field of life. She is exploited. She faced male dominating society in all over world; even she cannot select her life partner with her own choice. In “ Heer” Waris shah also presented Heer as a sincere and true in her love with Ranjah. In Shakespeare’s drama Othello heroin of the play face male dominating societies. Although both female characters belongs to different societies but both faced tragic end.

Page(s): 103-104                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 July 2018

 Rahila Umbreen
Department of Pakistani Languages, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad-44310, Pakistan

 Dr. Nabila Rehman
Department of Punjabi, Oriental College Punjab University Lahore, Pakistan

[1]. Weales, Gerald. 1965-66.“Tennessee Williams.” In American Literature, Vol, 37. Quoted by Harbinder Kaur (1986) in “Williams’ a Streetcar Named Desire: A Feminist Perspective.” In Punjab Journal of English Studies. Amritsar: GNDU.
[2]. Ali Abbas Jalalpuri, Makamat-e-Waris, Lahore: Rohtass Books (second edition), 1989, Page-35
[3]. Jeevan Deol, Sex, Social Critique and the Female Figure in Premodern Punjabi Poetry: Varis Shah’s ‘Hir’ Cambridge Journals, Jan, 2009 Page-142.
[4]. Beauvior, Simone de. The Second Sex. Trans. And ed. By H.M. Parshley. London: David Campbell. 1993, Page-447
[5]. Surinder Kaur, Heer Ranjha: A Feminist Perspective, Modern Research studies: An International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, June 2015, Page-203
[6]. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (2010), Act-1, Scene 2, Lines 181-189, Page-480
[7]. Surinder Kaur, Heer Ranjha: A Feminist Perspective, Modern Research Studies: An International Journal of Humanities and social Sciences, June 2015, Page-198

Rahila Umbreen, Dr. Nabila Rehman “Comparative Study of Female Characters of Heer Waris Shah and Shakespeare’s Drama Othello” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.103-104 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/103-104.pdf

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Assessment in the 21st Century Classroom: The Need for Teacher Autonomy

Dr Ravikumar Varatharaj – June 2018 Page No.: 105-109

This study is aimed at finding the teachers awareness of autonomy and its relationship towards teacher’s assessment practices. Teachers, like most professionals need a fair amount of autonomy in their work. Nevertheless, question arises in the teacher’s awareness of autonomy and its implication on their practices especially in assessment. The transformation of assessment in the turn of the century in Malaysian Education System, namely School Based Assessment (SBA) has brought great challenges and responsibilities among the teacher’s. This is due to the role of the teacher as implementers of government policy. This qualitative study is carried out among ten primary school teachers in Perak, Malaysia. An in-depth semi-structured interview, observation and document analysis was carried out to get a better view and understanding of the teacher’s view of autonomy and assessment practices and its impact on their work and student performance. The findings recorded teacher’s view of autonomy and assessment practices as moderate. This shows that the teachers have room for inculcating their autonomy and assessment practices in their working environment while contributing significantly for student betterment.

Page(s): 105-109                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 July 2018

 Dr Ravikumar Varatharaj
Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Ipoh
31150 Hulu Kinta, Perak, Malaysia

[1]. Adi Badiozaman Tuah (2007). National Education Assessment System: A proposal towards a more holistic education assessment system in Malaysia Proceedings of International Forum On Educational Assessment System: Looking Ahead, 20-23 April 2007, Petaling Jaya.
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[8]. Barfield, A., Ashwell, T., Carroll, M., Collins, K., Cowie, N., Critchley, M.,& Robertson, M. C. (2001). Exploring and Defining Teacher Autonomy: A Collaborative Discussion. Proceedings of the College and University Educators’ 2001 Conference, Shizuoka, Japan.
[9]. Black, P. (1998). Formative Assessment: Raising Standards Inside The Classroom. School Science Review, 80(291), 39-46.
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[13]. Gallo, A.M.,Sheehy, D.,Patton, K.,&Griffin, L. (2006).Assessment Benefits and Barriers: What Are You Committed To?. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 7(8).46-50.
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[17]. Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia (2011). Surat Siaran Lembaga Peperiksaan Bil 3 Tahun 2011: Pemakluman Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah (PBS) Di Sekolah Rendah Dan Menengah Rendah. Putrajaya: KPM
[18]. Pearson, L. C.;& Moomaw, W. (2005). The Relationship between Teacher Autonomy and Stress, Work Satisfaction, Empowerment, and Professionalism. [Report- Research]. Educational Research Quarterly, 29(1), 38-54.
[19]. Pearson, L. C.;& Moomaw, W. (2006). Continuing Validation of the Teaching Autonomy Scale. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(1), 44-51.
[20]. Scott, Cynthia.L (2015); The futures of learning 3: What kind of pedagogies for the 21st century?, Education Research and Foresight, Working Paper, UNESCO.
[21]. Stiggins, R. (2002). Assessment Crisis : The Absence of Assessment For Learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(10), 758-765.
[22]. Stiggins, R. (2007). Assessment through the student’s eyes, Educational Leadership: Educating the Whole Child, 64(8), 22-26.
[23]. Yong, H. T., &Lim, C. S. (2008). Implementing school based assessment- the MATA framework.Proceedings of the Seminar Inovasi Pedagogi, 28 Ogos 2008, IPBL, Sarawak

Dr Ravikumar Varatharaj “Assessment in the 21st Century Classroom: The Need for Teacher Autonomy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.105-109 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/105-109.pdf

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Influence of Parenting Styles on Academic Performance of Senior High Schools in Ghana

Rabbi Darko – June 2018 Page No.: 110-117

The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between parenting styles on the academic performance of secondary school students in the Effutu Municipality specifically Winneba. The design was a cross-sectional survey conducted among students in the two Senior High Schools. A total of two hundred and sixty (260) students were drawn from two Secondary Schools in Winneba through a multi-stage random sampling procedure. Baumrind (1991) instrument of parenting style was used to measure the perception of students about their parent’s style of parenting. The results of the study suggested that parenting styles have significant influence on the academic performance of students. Also, the study revealed that authoritative and authoritarian style of parenting has significant positive relationship with the academic performance of students as against permissive style of parenting which correlated negatively. The results imply that the academic performance of students could be enhanced when parents adopt either the authoritative or authoritarian style of parenting. It is therefore recommended that parents adopt a blend of the authoritarian and authoritative style of parenting in order to improve academic performance and development of their children.

Page(s): 110-117                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 July 2018

 Rabbi Darko
Department of Interdisciplinary Studies, College of Technology Education, Kumasi
University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

[1]. Assarian, F., Biqam, H., &Asqarnejad, A. (2006).An epidemiological study of obsessive-compulsive disorder among high school students and its relationship with religious attitudes.Archives of Iranian Medicine, 9(2), 104–107.
[2]. Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use.Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.
[3]. Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaires. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57,110-119
[4]. Chao, R. K. (2001). Extending research on the consequences of parenting style for Chinese Americans and European Americans. Child Development, 72, 1832-1843. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00381, on October 3, 2015.
[5]. Chin-Ling H. (1998). Relating Parenting Styles and Children Temperament to Behavioural Adjustment and Academic Achievement of Taiwanese Children.CT: Yale.
[6]. Cohen, D. A., & Rice, J. (1997). Parenting styles, adolescent substance use, and academic achievement. Journal of Drug Education, 27(2), 199-211.
[7]. Dawson, M. (1996). Parenting style, education specific parenting practices and adolescent achievement and achievement related factors. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A. Humanities and Social Sciences, 57, (7-A), 2852
[8]. Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P. L., Leidermann, P. H., Roberts, D. F., &Fraleigh, M. J. (1987).The Relation of Parenting Style to Adolescent School Performance.Child Development, 58, 1244-1257.
[9]. Garson J. W. (2000). Review of Modal logic for Philosophers. Cambridge University Press. P. 471
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[11]. Nyarko, K. (2008). Parental Involvement: A sine qua non in adolescents’ educational achievement. Retrieved from: http://edoc.ub.unimuenchen.de/view/subjects/fak11.html, on December, 2015.
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[15]. motivation to scholastic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol 70(6), 950-959.
[16]. Steinberg, L., Susie, L., Sanford, D., & Darling, N. (1992).”Impact of Parenting Practices on Adolescent Achievement: Authoritative Parenting School.

Rabbi Darko “Influence of Parenting Styles on Academic Performance of Senior High Schools in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.110-117 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/110-117.pdf

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International Politics of African Underdevelopment

Jibrin Ubale Yahaya – June 2018 Page No.: 118-121

The aim of this paper is to give a critical discussion of contemporary global political economy by focusing the effect of reproduction of the global financial institutions, policies, and relations associated with neo-liberalism within the dynamics of global capitalist crisis. The paper has three dimensions, firstly, is the situation of global crisis and neo -liberalism has effect on the economy of underdeveloped countries as well as argue that crises have been functional product of capitalist system. Secondarily, the papers will overview level of response to the economic crisis of underdeveloped countries by international financial institutions (IFIS) with support efforts of regional organizations and civil societies groups. This paper will give playing ground for the new perspectives, either pro or anti neoliberal forces, but the paper will provides an opportunity to re-articulate the reflection given by the so called underdeveloped countries to heavily submit their economic development plan and strategy from global or developed countries owned financial institutions that only leads to exploited and manipulate the underdeveloped countries economy to a bear economic dumping ground. This paper thirdly, also understand that corruption in Africa leads to the continent’s underdevelopment is based on the assumption that funds that could be used to develop the continent are stolen by African leaders and stashed in foreign banks living their citizens in abject poverty.

Page(s): 118-121                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 July 2018

 Jibrin Ubale Yahaya
Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

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Jibrin Ubale Yahaya “International Politics of African Underdevelopment” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.118-121 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/118-121.pdf

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Corporate Board Attributes and Financial Performance of Listed Building Materials Companies in Nigeria

SABO Usman – June 2018 Page No.: 122-126

The study examines the impact of corporate board attributes and financial performance of listed building materials companies in Nigeria. The population of the study is made up of 12 listed building materials companies in Nigeria out of which 9 companies are selected to form the sample. The multivariate regression is used in analyzing the data. The findings of the study reveal that board size and board composition have negative and insignificant impact on financial performance. The study recommends that the number of directors in the board of these companies should not be more than twelve (12). It is also, recommended that the listed building materials companies in Nigeria should endeavor to increase the number of executive directors in the boards. These recommendations could be implemented by issuing an improved code of corporate governance by the central bank of Nigeria and Nigeria security and exchange commission.

Page(s): 122-126                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 July 2018

 SABO Usman

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SABO Usman “Corporate Board Attributes and Financial Performance of Listed Building Materials Companies in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.122-126 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/122-126.pdf

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Accessibility to Job Locations in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Southern Nigeria

Inah E. Okon., Tonye T.I.T Ojoko – June 2018 Page No.: 127-137

The aim of this paper was to examine the level of accessibility to job locations for the urban poor in Nyangasang and Anantigha areas of Calabar Metropolis. Travel diary was used in combination of the questionnaire with a success rate of 89.8 percent (449) for the transport data and socio-economic data from respondents. There were selected using the stratified sampling technique. Kernel density analysis in a GIS environment was employed to estimate the number of jobs located per 1000 m2. SPSS provided the tool for analysis of statistical data leading to test of formulated study hypothesis. The study confirmed that there was significant relationship between transport mode to job locations and available transport options for residents in the study area, F(1, 431) = 18.181, p < .005. Different levels of accessibility were undertaken using travel options to predict the number of jobs that can be located per 1000 m2. Interesting results were obtained to show the different level of influence each transport variable has on accessibility to jobs in the study area. It is clear from the analysis that the current transport scenarios determine the location of jobs in the study area, yet the current public transport realities do not benefit the poor, neither is the current internal urban spatial structure. To improve the benefit of urban transport for the urban poor, more attention needs to be paid on redesign of roads and other complimentary infrastructures to enhance sustainable public transport system that is efficient, available, and affordable.

Page(s): 127-137                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 July 2018

 Inah E. Okon.
Department of Geography & Environmental Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

 Tonye T.I.T Ojoko
Department of Geography & Environmental Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

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Inah E. Okon., Tonye T.I.T Ojoko “Accessibility to Job Locations in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Southern Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.2 issue 6, pp.127-137 June 2018  URL: http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-2-issue-6/127-137.pdf

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